Localization and Interculturality
  • ISSN 2032-6904
  • E-ISSN: 2032-6912
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


This paper introduces the concept of ‘cultural dimension’ as developed in intercultural communication, into the field of intercultural narrative studies. Since cultural dimensions describe and explain social human behavior, the question emerges whether they can also help to study narratorial behavior. If so, cultural dimensions may assist scholars to study the cultural localization of global values in narratives. When conceiving of narrative as the representation of characters acting in situations, one may distinguish two levels of narrative behavior: the level of character behavior, i.e. the represented, and the level of a narrator behaving narratively, i.e. the representation. This paper focuses on the level of the narrative agency. Borrowing some classical concepts from narratology (real authors, implied authors, narrator, narratee, implied audience and real audiences), it examines how narratorial behavior may display cultural, i.e. localized values at various levels. By way of conclusion, this essay suggests how the concept of ‘cultural dimension’ could assist a study of cross-cultural audience empathy.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Bearden, William O. , Bruce R. Money , and Jennifer L. Nevins
    2006 ‘Multidimensional versus Unidimensional Measures in Assessing National Culture Values: The Hofstede VSM 94 Example’. Journal of Business Research59: 195–203. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2005.04.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2005.04.008 [Google Scholar]
  2. Booth, Wayne
    1991The Rhetoric of Fiction. 2nd Edition. London: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bordwell, David
    1985Narration in the Fiction Film. London, New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 2008Poetics of Cinema. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bordwell, David , Kristin Thompson , and Janet Staiger
    1985The Classical Hollywood Cinema. Film Style and Mode of Production to 1960. London: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780203358818
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203358818 [Google Scholar]
  6. Carroll, Noël
    2001 ‘On the Narrative Connection’. InNew Perspectives on Narrative Perspective, 21–41. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 2011. ‘On Some Affective Relations between Audiences and the Characters in Popular Fictions’. InEmpathy. Philosophical and Psychological Perspectives, 162–84. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539956.003.0012
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539956.003.0012 [Google Scholar]
  8. Cattrysse, Patrick
    . forthcoming. ‘Cultural Dimensions and an Intercultural Study of Screenwriting’. InTranscultural Screenwriting: Telling Stories for a Global World. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 2010 ‘The Protagonist’s Dramatic Goals, Wants and Needs’. Journal of Screenwriting1 (1): 83–97. doi: 10.1386/josc.1.1.83/1
    https://doi.org/10.1386/josc.1.1.83/1 [Google Scholar]
  10. Chatman, Seymour
    1980 ‘What Novels Can Do That Films Can’t (And Vice Versa)’. Critical Inquiry7 (1): 121–40. doi: 10.1086/448091
    https://doi.org/10.1086/448091 [Google Scholar]
  11. de Waal, Frans
    2009The Age of Empathy. Nature’s Lessons for a Kinder Society. New York: Harmony Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Genette, Gérard
    1972Figures III. Collection Poétique. Paris: Editions du Seuil.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Grodal, Torben
    2009Embodied Visions. Evolution, Emotion, Culture, and Film. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195371314.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195371314.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  14. Hall, Edward T
    1966The Hidden Dimension. New York: Anchor Books Editions.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 1976Beyond Culture. New York: Anchor Books Editions.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hall, Stuart
    1980 ‘Encoding/Decoding’. InCulture, Media, Language, 128–39. London: Hutchinson.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hofstede, Geert
    1980Culture’s Consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 2001Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations across Nations (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hofstede, Geert , and Gert Jan Hofstede
    2005Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. Revised and Expanded 2nd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Keen, Suzanne
    2007Empathy and the Novel. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195175769.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195175769.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  21. Kitcher, Philip
    2011The Ethical Project. Cambridge MA; London: Harvard University Press. doi: 10.4159/harvard.9780674063075
    https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674063075 [Google Scholar]
  22. Kluckhohn, Florence , and Frederick Strodtbeck
    1961Variations in Value Orientations. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Liu, Shuang , Zala Volčič , and Cindy Gallois
    2015Introducing Intercultural Communication. Global Cultures and Contexts. 2nd Edition. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Minkov, Michael , and Geert Hofstede
    2014 ‘Clustering of 316 European Regions on Measures of Values: Do Europe’s Countries Have National Cultures?’ Cross-Cultural Research48 (2): 144–76. doi: 10.1177/1069397113510866
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1069397113510866 [Google Scholar]
  25. Morton, Adam
    2011 ‘Empathy for the Devil’. InEmpathy. Philosophical and Psychological Perspectives, 318–30. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539956.003.0019
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539956.003.0019 [Google Scholar]
  26. Nünning, Ansgar F
    2005 ‘Reconceptualizing Unreliable Narration: Synthesizing Cognitive and Rhetorical Approaches’. InA Companion to Narrative Theory, 89–107. London: Blackwell Publishing. doi: 10.1002/9780470996935.ch6
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470996935.ch6 [Google Scholar]
  27. Parsons, Talcott
    1951The Social System. New York: Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Phelan, James
    2005Living to Tell about It: A Rhetoric of Ethics and Character Narration. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rimmon-Kenan, Shlomith
    1983Narrative Fiction: Contemporary Poetics. New Accents. London, New York: Methuen Publishing Ltd. doi: 10.4324/9780203426111
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203426111 [Google Scholar]
  30. Rotter, Julian B
    1966 ‘Generalized Expectations for Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement’. Psychological Monograph609: 1–28. doi: 10.1037/h0092976
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0092976 [Google Scholar]
  31. Schwartz, Sholom
    1994 ‘Beyond Individualism/collectivism: New Cultural Dimensions of Values’. InIndividualism and Collectivism: Theory, Method, and Applications, 85–119. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Smith, Brandon
    (2015) A Moral Code for the Post-Collapse World, available online:alt-market.com/articles/2513-a-moral-code-for-the-post-collapse-world; visited on06-01-2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Trompenaars, Fons , and Charles Hampden-Turner
    1998Riding the Waves of Culture. Understanding Cultural Diversity in Global Business. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Verstraten, Peter
    2008Handboek Filmnarrotologie. 2nd edition. Nijmegen: Vantilt.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Wimsatt, William K. , and Monroe C. Beardsley
    1946 ‘The Intentional Fallacy’. Sewanee Review54: 468–88.
    [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): cross-cultural audience empathy; cultural dimension; localized values
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error