Localization and Interculturality
  • ISSN 2032-6904
  • E-ISSN: 2032-6912
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


Second or foreign language learners study or are taught various language skill areas, one of which is speaking. In order to speak in the target language, learners must gain some proficiency in the target language’s vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation so that their verbal utterances are meaningful to listeners. However, although pronunciation may be said to be the most fundamental of these three components, it is by far the one that receives the least amount of attention in second or foreign language learning situations. Insufficient attention placed on the pronunciation component can lead to detrimental effects on learners, potentially negatively impacting them in their attempts at bridging the interculturality gap between their first language and the language being learned. The present article will make a call for increased inclusion of pronunciation instruction and training in second and foreign language teaching and learning by relating pronunciation’s importance in verbal communicative acts and by addressing the issue of pronunciation localization. In addition, the article will present a discussion explaining why those involved in such language teaching and learning tend to overlook the pronunciation component in second and foreign language teaching and learning situations.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Acton, William
    1997 “Seven Suggestions of Highly Successful Pronunciation Teaching.” The Language Teacher21 (2). www.jalt.org.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bohlken, Robert , and Lori Macias
    1992 “What a Nonnative Speaker of English Needs to Learn Through Listening.” Annual Meeting of the International Listening Association , Seattle, WA, March 5–7, 1992.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bresnahan, Mary Jiang , and Min Sun Kim
    1993 “Factors of Receptivity and Resistance Toward International Teaching Assistants.” Journal of Asian Pacific Communication4: 1–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bresnahan, Mary Jiang , Rie Ohashi , Rieko Nebashi , Wen Ying Liu , and Sachiyo Morinaga Shearman
    2002 “Attitudinal and Effective Response Toward Accented English.” Language & Communication22: 171–85. doi: 10.1016/S0271‑5309(01)00025‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5309(01)00025-8 [Google Scholar]
  5. Brown, Adam
    1992Approaches to Pronunciation Teaching. Malaysia: Macmillan Publishers Limited.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Carlson, Holly K. , and Monica A. McHenry
    2006 “Effect of Accent and Dialect on Employability.” Journal of Employment Counseling43 (2): 70–83. doi: 10.1002/j.2161‑1920.2006.tb00008.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1920.2006.tb00008.x [Google Scholar]
  7. Celce-Murcia, Marianne
    1987 “Teaching Pronunciation as Communication.” InCurrent Perspectives on Pronunciation: Practices Anchored in Theory, edited by Joan Morley , 1–12. Washington, D.C.: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Celce-Murcia, Marianne , Donna M. Brinton , and Janet M. Goodwin
    1996Teaching Pronunciation: A Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Coates, John
    1986Pronunciation and Personality. Bochum: AKS-Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Counselman, David
    2010 “Improving Pronunciation Instruction in the Second Language Classroom.” Doctoral dissertation. The Pennsylvania State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dansereau, Diane
    1995 “Phonetics in the Beginning and Intermediate Oral Proficiency-Oriented French Classroom.” The French Review68 (4): 638–651.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Darcy, Isabelle , Doreen Ewert , and Ryan Lidster
    2012 “Bringing Pronunciation Instruction Back into the Classroom: An ESL Teachers’ Pronunciation ‘Toolbox’.” Proceedings from The 3rd Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference , September 16-17, 2011: 93–108. Ames, IA.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Derwing, Tracey M
    2003 “What Do ESL Students Say about Their Accents?”The Canadian Modern Language Review59 (4): 547–566. doi: dx.doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.59.4.547
    https://doi.org/dx.doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.59.4.547 [Google Scholar]
  14. Derwing, Tracey M. , and Murray J. Munro
    1997 “Accent, Intelligibility, and Comprehensibility: Evidence from Four L1s.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition19 (1): 1–16. doi: 10.1017/S0272263197001010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263197001010 [Google Scholar]
  15. 2009 “Putting Accent in Its Place: Rethinking Obstacles to Communication.” Language Teaching42 (4): 476–490. doi: 10.1017/S026144480800551X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480800551X [Google Scholar]
  16. 2013 “The Development of L2 Oral Language Skills in Two L1 Groups: A 7-Year Study.” Language Learning63 (2): 163–185. doi: 10.1111/lang.12000
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12000 [Google Scholar]
  17. Derwing, Tracey M. , Murray J. Munro , and Grace Wiebe
    1998 “Evidence in Favor of a Broad Framework for Pronunciation Instruction.” Language Learning48 (3): 393–410. doi: 10.1111/0023‑8333.00047
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00047 [Google Scholar]
  18. Eskenazi, Maxine
    1999 “Using Automatic Speech Processing for Foreign Language Pronunciation Tutoring: Some Issues and a Prototype.” Language Learning & Technology2 (2): 62–76.online.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Grim, Frédérique
    2016 “How Pronunciation is Taught: The Case of French Textbooks.” Manuscript in preparation.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Grim, Frédérique , and Jessica L. Sturm
    2016 “Where Does Pronunciation Stand in the 21st Century Foreign Language Classroom? Educators’ and Learners’ Views.” Proceedings from The 7th Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference , October 15-16, 2015: 51–65. Ames, IA.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ingram, John C.L. , and See-Gyoon Park
    1998 “Language, Context, and Speaker Effects in the Identification and Discrimination of English /r/ and /l/ By Japanese and Korean Listeners.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America103 (2): 1161–1174. doi: 10.1121/1.421225
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.421225 [Google Scholar]
  22. Jenkins, Jennifer
    1998 “Which Pronunciation Norms and Models for English as an International Language?” ELT Journal52 (2): 119–126. doi: 10.1093/elt/52.2.119
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/52.2.119 [Google Scholar]
  23. Kashiwagi, Atsuko
    , and Michael K. Snyder 2003 “The Effect of Form-Focused Instruction on Pronunciation.” JALT2003 at Shizuoka: Keeping Current in Language Education, Shizuoka, Japan, November 21-24, 2003: 262–271. Tokyo, Japan.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kendrick, Helen
    1997 “Keep Them Talking! A Project for Improving Students’ L2 Pronunciation.” System25 (4): 545–560. doi: 10.1016/S0346‑251X(97)00043‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(97)00043-2 [Google Scholar]
  25. Kenworthy, Joanne
    1987Teaching English Pronunciation. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kusey, Crystal Lyn
    2010 “Motivational Teaching Strategies for Pronunciation.” MA thesis. The University of Texas at Austin.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ladegaard, Hans J. , and Itesh Sachdev
    2006 “‘I Like the Americans…but I Certainly Don’t Aim for an American Accent’: Language Attitudes, Vitality and Foreign Language Learning in Denmark.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development27 (2): 91–108. doi: 10.1080/01434630608668542
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630608668542 [Google Scholar]
  28. Levis, John M. , and Linda Grant
    2003 “Integrating Pronunciation Into ESL/EFL Classrooms.” TESOL Journal12 (2): 13–19. doi: 10.1002/j.1949‑3533.2003.tb00125.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1949-3533.2003.tb00125.x [Google Scholar]
  29. Lin, Hsiang-Pao , Chuen-Yn Fan , and Chi-Fen Chen
    1995 “Teaching Pronunciation in the Learner-Centered Classroom.” TEFL Conference , Taichung, Taiwan, May 20, 1995, 1–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lord, Gillian
    2005 “(How) Can We Teach Foreign Language Pronunciation? On the Effects of a Spanish Phonetics Course.” Hispania88 (3): 257–267. doi: 10.2307/20063159
    https://doi.org/10.2307/20063159 [Google Scholar]
  31. 2008 “Podcasting Communities and Second Language Pronunciation”. Foreign Language Annals41 (2): 364–379. doi: 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2008.tb03297.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2008.tb03297.x [Google Scholar]
  32. Macdonald, Shem
    2002 “Pronunciation: Views and Practices of Reluctant Teachers.” Prospect17 (3): 3–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Macdonald, Doris , George Yule , and Maggie Powers
    1994 “Attempts to Improve English L2 Pronunciation: The Variable Effects of Different Types of Instruction.” Language Learning44 (1): 75–100. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1994.tb01449.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1994.tb01449.x [Google Scholar]
  34. Major, Roy C. , Susan F. Fitzmaurice , Ferenc Bunta , and Chandricka Balasubramanian
    2002 “The Effects of Nonnative Accents on Listening Comprehension: Implications for ESL Assessment.” TESOL Quarterly36 (2): 173–190. doi: 10.2307/3588329
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588329 [Google Scholar]
  35. Major, Roy C. , Susan M. Fitzmaurice , Ferenc Bunta , and Chandricka Balasubramanian
    2005 “Testing the Effects of Regional, Ethnic, and International Dialects of English on Listening Comprehension.” Language Learning55 (1): 37–69. doi: 10.1111/j.0023‑8333.2005.00289.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0023-8333.2005.00289.x [Google Scholar]
  36. Makarova, Veronica
    1996 “Teaching English Pronunciation to Large Groups of Students: Some Suggestions.” National Japanese Conference for English Language Education , Sendai, Japan, August 1996.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 1997 “Fun Games and Activities for Pronunciation and Phonetics Classes At Universities.” Annual Meeting of the Japan Association for Language Teaching , Hamamatsu, Japan, October 9-12, 1997: 1–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Makarova, Veronika
    2000 “Trends in Pronunciation Teaching in Japan.” On JALT2000: Towards the New Millennium, Shizuoka, Japan , November 2-5, 2000: 245–250. Tokyo, Japan.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Matsuura, Hiroko , Reiko Chiba , and Miho Fujieda
    1999 “Intelligibility and Comprehensibility of American and Irish Englishes in Japan.” World Englishes18 (1): 49–62. doi: 10.1111/1467‑971X.00121
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00121 [Google Scholar]
  40. McCarthy, Michael , Jeanne McCarten , and Helen Sandiford
    2014 “Touchtone 3” (Second ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. McCrocklin, Shannon , and Stephanie Link
    2014 “What is Identity? ELL and Bilinguals’ Views on the Role of Accent.” Proceedings from The 5th Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference , September 19-21, 2013: 137–144. Ames, IA.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Morley, Joan
    1991 “The Pronunciation Component in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. TESOL Quarterly25 (3): 481–520. doi: 10.2307/3586981
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586981 [Google Scholar]
  43. Munro, Murray J. , Tracey M. Derwing , and Susan L. Morton
    2006 “The Mutual Intelligibility of L2 Speech.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition28 (1): 111–131. doi: 10.1017/s0272263106060049
    https://doi.org/10.1017/s0272263106060049 [Google Scholar]
  44. Pedoya, Elisabeth
    1984 “Pedagogy of Pronunciation and the Communicative Approach: Where are We in It?” Tranel6: 201–214.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Roccamo, Ashley
    2014 “Effective Pronunciation Instruction in Basic Language Classrooms: A Modular Approach.” Proceedings from the 5th Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference , September 19-21, 2013: 183–189. Ames, IA.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Rubrecht, Brian G
    2009 “Assessing Native Pronunciation Raters From Different English Variety Backgrounds.” Asian Conference on Education , Osaka, Japan, October 24-25, 2009: 662–668.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 2010 “Do Pronunciation Preferences Have the Power to Motivate? Examining Non-English Major Japanese University Students’ Perceptions of English Accents.” InReadings in Language Studies, Volume 2: Language and Power, edited by John L. Watzke , Paul C. Miller , and Miguel Mantero : 405–423. Grandville, MI: International Society for Language Studies, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 2012 “Perceptions of Japanese EFL Learners’ /r/ and /l/ Pronunciation: Comparing Native Speakers’ Ratings of Word-Level Utterances.” Asian Conference on Education , Osaka, Japan, October 24-28, 2012: 54–65.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Saalfeld, Anita
    2011 “Acquisition of L2 Phonology in Advanced Learners: Does Instruction Make a Difference?” Proceedings from The 2nd Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference , September 10-11, 2010: 144–152. Ames, IA.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Saito, Kazuya , and Roy Lyster
    2012 “Effects of Form-Focused Instruction and Corrective Feedback on L2 Pronunciation Development of /r/ by Japanese Learners of English.” Language Learning62 (2): 595–633. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2011.00639.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00639.x [Google Scholar]
  51. Smit, Ute , and Christiane Dalton
    2000 “Motivation in Advanced EFL Pronunciation Learners.” International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching38 (3/4): 229–246. doi: 10.1515/iral.2000.38.3‑4.229
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2000.38.3-4.229 [Google Scholar]
  52. Sturm, Jessica L
    2013a “Explicit Phonetics Instruction in L2 French: A Global Analysis of Improvement.” System41 (3): 654–662. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2013.07.015
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.07.015 [Google Scholar]
  53. 2013b “Liaison in L2 French: The Effects of Instruction.” Proceedings from The 4th Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference , August 24-25, 2012: 157–166. Ames, IA.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Timmis, Ivor
    2002 “Native-speaker Norms and International English: A Classroom Review.” ELT Journal56 (3): 240–249. doi: 10.1093/elt/56.3.240
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/56.3.240 [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error