Volume 6, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2212-8433
  • E-ISSN: 2212-8441
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


This article summarizes the findings of a corpus-based study investigating assessment for learning (AfL) and its relationship to motivation in CLIL contexts. Using a mixed methods approach, classroom recordings from bilingual primary schools in Madrid, Spain, were analyzed to identify motivational strategies used by teachers. The relationship between these strategies and the AfL techniques implemented by teachers was then examined.

The findings show that the implementation of AfL coincided with an increase in frequency, length of time of use, and variety of teacher motivational strategies. This led to classes in which activities were supported by a more motivational discourse. A qualitative analysis of the corpus shows that the incorporation of AfL techniques coincided with several motivational strategies for language learning. The findings contribute to an understanding of how the use of AfL techniques may contribute to integrating motivational strategies in a more systematic way in the CLIL educational context.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Alvarez, L. , Ananda, S. , Walqui, A. , Sato, E. , & Rabinowitz, S.
    (2014) Focusing formative assessment on the needs of English language learners. San Francisco, CA: WestEd.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ames, C.
    (1992) Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84 (3), 261–271. doi: 10.1037/0022‑0663.84.3.261
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.261 [Google Scholar]
  3. Atkinson, J. W.
    (1964) An introduction to motivation. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Barbero, T.
    (2012) Assessment tools and practices in CLIL. In F. Quartapelle (Ed.), Assessment and evaluation in CLIL (pp.38–56). Retrieved from: www.aeclil.net.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bingham, G. , Holbrook, T. , & Meyers, L. E.
    (2010) Using self-assessments in elementary classrooms. Phi Delta Kappan, 91 (5), 59–61. doi: 10.1177/003172171009100515
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003172171009100515 [Google Scholar]
  6. Birenbaum, M. , Kimron, H. , Shilton, H. , & Shahaf-Barzilay, R.
    (2009) Cycles of inquiry: Formative assessment in service of learning in classrooms and in school-based professional communities. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 35 (4), 130–149. doi: 10.1016/j.stueduc.2010.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2010.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  7. Black, P. , & Wiliam, D.
    (1998a) Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in education, 5 (1), 7–74. doi: 10.1080/0969595980050102
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0969595980050102 [Google Scholar]
  8. (1998b) Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappa, October, 1–13. Retrieved fromhttps://www.rdc.udel.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/InsideBlackBox.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. (2003) In praise of educational research: Formative assessment. British Educational Research Journal, 29 (5) 623–637. doi: 10.1080/0141192032000133721
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0141192032000133721 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bloom, B. S. , Hastings, J. T. , & Madaus, G. F.
    (1971) Handbook on formative and summative evaluation of student learning. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Broadfoot, P. M. , Daugherty, R. , Gardner, J. , Harlen, W. , James, M. , & Stobart, G.
    (2002) Assessment for learning: 10 principles. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge School of Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Clegg, J.
    (2012) Preface. In F. Quartapelle (Ed.), Assessment and evaluation in CLIL (pp.5–7). Retrieved from: www.aeclil.net.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Consejería de Educación, Comunidad de Madrid
    Consejería de Educación, Comunidad de Madrid (2016) Bilingual schools in the Comunidad de Madrid. Retrieved from: www.madrid.org.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Coyle, D.
    (1999) Theory and planning for effective classrooms: Supporting students in content and language integrated learning contexts. In J. Masih (Ed.), Learning through a foreign language: Models, methods and outcomes (pp.1–26). London: Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. (2010) Assessment issues in CLIL. In D. Coyle , P. Hood , & D. Marsh (Eds.), CLIL: Content and language integrated learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Csizér, K. , & Dörnyei, D.
    (2005) Language learners’ motivational profiles and their motivated learning behavior. Language Learning, 55 (4), 613–659. doi: 10.1111/j.0023‑8333.2005.00319.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0023-8333.2005.00319.x [Google Scholar]
  17. Dalton-Puffer, C.
    (2008) Outcomes and processes in content and language integrated learning (CLIL): Current research from Europe. In W. Delanoy & L. Volkmann (Eds.), Future perspectives for English language teaching (pp.1–19). Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Deci, E. L. , & Ryan, R. M.
    (1992) The initiation and regulation of intrinsically motivated learning and achievement. In A. K. Boggiano & T. S. Pittman (Eds.), Achievement and motivation: A social-fevelopmental perspective (pp.9–36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Dörnyei, Z.
    (1998) Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching, 31 , 117–135. doi: 10.1017/S026144480001315X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480001315X [Google Scholar]
  20. (2001) Motivational strategies in the foreign language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511667343
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667343 [Google Scholar]
  21. (2005) The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Dweck, C. S.
    (1999) Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality and development. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Dweck, C. S. , & Leggett, E. L.
    (1988) A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95 (2), 256. doi: 10.1037/0033‑295X.95.2.256
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256 [Google Scholar]
  24. Eurydice
    Eurydice (2006) Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) at school in Europe. Brussels: Eurydice.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Flórez, M. T. , & Sammons, P.
    (2013) Assessment for learning: Effects and impact. Evaluative Report. CfBT Education Trust, University of Oxford (England), Department of Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gardner, R. C. , & Lambert, W. E.
    (1972) Attitudes and motivation in second-language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gobierno de España, Ministerio de la Presidencia
    Gobierno de España, Ministerio de la Presidencia (1990) Ley Orgánica de Ordenación General del Sistema Educativo [Organic Act on the General Organization of the Education System]. Retrieved from: www.boe.es/buscar/doc.php?id=BOE-A-1990-24172.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Guilloteaux, M. J. , & Dörnyei, Z.
    (2008) Motivating language learners: A classroom oriented investigation of the effects of motivational strategies on student motivation. TESOL Quarterly, 42 (1), 55–77. doi: 10.1002/j.1545‑7249.2008.tb00207.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2008.tb00207.x [Google Scholar]
  29. Guion, L. A. , Diehl, D. C. , & McDonald, D.
    (2002) Triangulation: Establishing the validity of qualitative studies. University of Florida IFAS Extension. Retrieved fromwww.ie.ufrj.br/intranet/ie/userintranet/hpp/arquivos/texto_7_-_aulas_6_e_7.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Halbach, A.
    (2009) The primary school teacher and the challenges of bilingual education. In E. Davouz & M. Guerrini (Eds.), CLIL across educational levels: Experiences from primary, secondary and tertiary contexts (pp.19–26) Madrid: Richmond-Santillana.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Harlen, W.
    (2007) Assessment of learning. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Heritage, M. , Walqui, A. , & Linquanti, R.
    (2013, April). Formative assessment as contingent teaching and learning: Perspectives on assessment as and for language learning in the content areas. Paper presented at theannual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Hönig, I.
    (2010) Assessment in CLIL: Theoretical and empirical research. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Johnson, R. B. , Onwuegbuzie, A. J. , & Turner, L. A.
    (2007) Toward a definition of mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1 (2), 112–133. doi: 10.1177/1558689806298224
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1558689806298224 [Google Scholar]
  35. Kellard, K. , Costello, M. , Godfrey, D. , Griffiths, E. , & Rees, C.
    (2008) Evaluation of the Developing Thinking and Assessment for Learning Development Programme. Cardiff: Welsh Assembly Government.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kiely, R.
    (2009) CLIL – The question of assessment. Retrieved from: www.developingteachers.com/articles_tchtraining/clilpf_richard.htm.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Kirton, A. , Hallam, S. , Peffers, J. , Robertson, P. , & Stobart, G.
    (2007) Revolution, evolution or a Trojan horse? Piloting assessment for learning in some Scottish primary schools. British Educational Research Journal, 33 (4), 605–627. doi: 10.1080/01411920701434136
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01411920701434136 [Google Scholar]
  38. Lasagabaster, D.
    (2008) Foreign language competence in content and language integrated learning courses. The Open Applied Linguistics Journal, 1 , 30–41. doi: 10.2174/1874913500801010030
    https://doi.org/10.2174/1874913500801010030 [Google Scholar]
  39. (2011) English achievement and student motivation in CLIL and EFL settings. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 5 (1), 3–18. doi: 10.1080/17501229.2010.519030
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2010.519030 [Google Scholar]
  40. Llinares, A. , Morton, T. , & Whittaker, R.
    (2012) The roles of language in CLIL. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Maggi, F.
    (2012) Evaluation in CLIL. In F. Quartapelle (Ed.), Assessment and evaluation in CLIL (pp.57–75). Retrieved from: www.aeclil.net.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Maljers, A. , Marsh, D. , Coyle, D. , Hartiala, A. , Marsland, B. , & Perez-Vidal, C.
    (2001) CLIL: Compendium. Retrieved from: www.clilcompendium.com.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Marsh, D.
    (2002) CLIL/EMILE – The European dimension: Actions, trends and foresight potential. Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. McCallum, B. , Hargreaves, E. , & Gipps, C.
    (2000) Learning: The pupil’s voice. Cambridge Journal of Education, 30 (2), 275–289. doi: 10.1080/713657145
    https://doi.org/10.1080/713657145 [Google Scholar]
  45. Mehan, H.
    (1979) What time is it, Denise? Asking known information questions in classroom discourse. Theory into Practice, 18 (4), 285–294. doi: 10.1080/00405847909542846
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00405847909542846 [Google Scholar]
  46. Natrillo, G.
    (1987) The impact of evaluation processes on students. Educational Psychologist. 22 (2), 155–175. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep2202_4
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2202_4 [Google Scholar]
  47. Nicol, D. J. , & Macfarlane-Dick, D.
    (2006) Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31 (2), 198–218. doi: 10.1080/03075070600572090
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070600572090 [Google Scholar]
  48. O’Donnell, M.
    (2008) The UAM CorpusTool: Software for corpus annotation and exploration. In B. Callejas et al. (Eds.), La lingüística aplicada hoy: Comprendiendo el lenguaje y la mente [Applied linguistics now: Understanding language and mind] (pp.1433–1447). Almería, Spain: Universidad de Almería.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Pérez-Cañado, M. L.
    (2012) CLIL research in Europe: Past, present, and future. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15 (3), 315–341. doi: 10.1080/13670050.2011.630064
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2011.630064 [Google Scholar]
  50. Raynor, J. O. , Atkinson, J. W. , & Brown, M.
    (1974) Subjective aspects of achievement motivation immediately before an examination. In J. W. Atkinson & J. O. Raynor (Eds.), Motivation and achievement (pp.155–171). Washington DC: Winston & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Ross, P. M. , Siegenthaler, S. L. , & Tronson, D. A.
    (2006) Assessment for learning and motivation. Proceedings of the UniServe Science Assessment Symposium (pp.120–125). Sydney: University of Sydney.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Sadler, D. R.
    (1989) Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science, 18 , 119–144. doi: 10.1007/BF00117714
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00117714 [Google Scholar]
  53. Schunk, D. H. , & Swartz, C. W.
    (1993) Goals and process feedback: Effects on self-efficacy and writing achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18 (3), 337–354. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1993.1024
    https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1993.1024 [Google Scholar]
  54. Schunk, D. H.
    (1996) Goal and self-evaluative influences during children’s cognitive skill learning. American Educational Research Journal, 33 , 359–382. doi: 10.3102/00028312033002359
    https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312033002359 [Google Scholar]
  55. To, J. , & Carless, D.
    (2016) Making productive use of exemplars: Peer discussion and teacher guidance for positive transfer of strategies. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 40 (6), 746–764. doi: 10.1080/0309877X.2015.1014317
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2015.1014317 [Google Scholar]
  56. Tunstall, P. , & Gipps, C.
    (1996) Teacher feedback to young children in formative assessment: A Typology. British Educational Journal, 22 (4), 389–404. doi: 10.1080/0141192960220402
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0141192960220402 [Google Scholar]
  57. UK Department for Education
    UK Department for Education (2013) Primary assessment and accountability under the new National Curriculum. Retrieved from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/298568/Primary_assessment_and_accountability_under_the_new_curriculum_consultation_document.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Webb, M. , & Jones, J.
    (2009) Exploring tensions in developing assessment for learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 16 (2), 165–184. doi: 10.1080/09695940903075925
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09695940903075925 [Google Scholar]
  59. Wewer, T.
    (2014) Assessment of young learners’ English proficiency in bilingual content instruction CLIL. (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Retrieved from: www.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/96838/AnnalesB385Wewer.pdf?sequence=2.
  60. Williams, M. , & Burden, R. L.
    (1997) Psychology for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Yin, Y. , Shavelson, R. , Ayala, C. , Ruiz-Primo, M. A. , Brandon, P. , & Furtak, E.
    (2008) On the impact of formative assessment on student motivation, achievement, and conceptual change. Applied Measurement in Education, 21 (4), 335–359. doi: 10.1080/08957340802347845
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08957340802347845 [Google Scholar]
  62. Young, E.
    (2005) Assessment for learning: Embedding and extending. Retrieved from: studylib.net/doc/12962303/assessment-for-learning--embedding-and-extending-eric-young.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error