Volume 6, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2212-8433
  • E-ISSN: 2212-8441
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Inadequate teacher preparation for immersion programs remains a challenge. While there is a significant dearth of research on teacher development in immersion education, research focusing on immersion teacher educators (ITEs) is even more scant. Using self-study methodology, this study explores the professional learning and experiences of three teacher educators (TEs) as they construct new professional identities as ITEs as part of engagement in Lesson Study. The paper particularly focuses on two Mathematics teacher educators (MTEs) who were to the immersion education setting. A (CoP) framework was utilised to provide insights into what Vygotsky (1987) terms the twisting path of all three TEs as they engaged in the CoP. Critical moments of defending content as priority, negotiating an integrated space, and becoming immersion-responsive were revealed. CoP played a vital role in facilitating new professional identities and illuminates in multiple ways the exclusive and complex process of becoming an ITE.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Beijaard, D., Meijer, P., & Verloop, N.
    (2004) Reconsidering research on teachers’ professional identity. Teacher and Teacher Education, 20 (2), 107–128. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2003.07.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2003.07.001 [Google Scholar]
  2. Ben‐Peretz, M., Kleeman, S., Reichenberg, R., & Shimoni, S.
    (2010) Educators of educators: Their goals, perceptions and practices. Professional Development in Education, 36(1–2):, 111–129. doi: 10.1080/19415250903454908
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19415250903454908 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bullock, S.
    (2009) Learning to think like a teacher educator: Making the substantive and syntactic structures of teaching explicit through self-study. Teachers and Teaching, 15, 291–304. doi: 10.1080/13540600902875357
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13540600902875357 [Google Scholar]
  4. Cammarata, L., & Tedick, D. J.
    (2012) Balancing content and language in instruction: The experience of immersion teachers. The Modern Language Journal, 96(2), 251–269. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2012.01330.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2012.01330.x [Google Scholar]
  5. Cavanaugh, S. H.
    (1993) Connecting education and practice. InL. Curry & J. F. Wergin (Eds.) Educating professionals: Responding to new expectations for competence and accountability (pp.107–125). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Clemans, A., Berry, A., & Loughran, J.
    (2010) Lost and found in transition: The professional journey of teacher educators. Professional Development in Education, 36, 211–228. doi: 10.1080/19415250903457141
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19415250903457141 [Google Scholar]
  7. Darling-Hammond, L.
    (2006) Powerful teacher education: Lessons from exemplary programs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Department of Education (DENI) (Northern Ireland)
    Department of Education (DENI) (Northern Ireland) (2015) Learning leaders: A strategy for teacher professional learning. Retrieved from dera.ioe.ac.uk/25762/1/strategy-document-english.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Department of Education and Skills
    Department of Education and Skills (2016) Policy on Gaeltacht Education 2017–2022. Retrieved from https://www.education.ie/en/Publications/Policy-Reports/Policy-on-Gaeltacht-Education-2017-2022.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dinkelman, T.
    (2003) Self-study in teacher education: A means and ends tool for promoting reflective teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 54, 6–18. doi: 10.1177/0022487102238654
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487102238654 [Google Scholar]
  11. Fernandez, C., & Yoshida, M.
    (2004) Lesson study: A Japanese approach to improving mathematics teaching and learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fletcher, T., & Bullock, S.
    (2012) Enacting literacy pedagogies: A collaborative self- study between teacher educators in physical education and science. Studying Teacher Education: A Journal of Self-Study of Teacher Education Practices, 8, 19–33.10.1080/17425964.2012.657011
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17425964.2012.657011 [Google Scholar]
  13. Gilleece, L., Shiel, G., Clerkin, A., & Millar, D.
    (2011) The 2010 national assessments of English reading and mathematics in Irish-medium primary schools. Main report. Dublin: Educational Research Centre.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Glaser, B. G.
    (1978) Theoretical sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L.
    (1967) The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Guilfoyle, K.
    (1995) Constructing the meaning of teacher educator: The struggle to learn the roles. Teacher Education Quarterly, 22, 11–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Halquist, D., & Musanti, S. I.
    (2010) Critical incidents and reflection: Turning points that challenge the researcher and create opportunities for knowing. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 23(4),. 449–461. doi: 10.1080/09518398.2010.492811
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09518398.2010.492811 [Google Scholar]
  18. Harris, J., Forde, P., Archer, P., Nic Fhearaile, S., & O’ Gorman, M.
    (2006) Irish in primary schools – Long term national trends in achievement. Dublin: Government Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Izadinia, M.
    (2014) Teacher educators’ identity: A review of literature. European Journal of Teacher Education, 37(4), 426–441. doi: 10.1080/02619768.2014.947025
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2014.947025 [Google Scholar]
  20. Kavanagh, L.
    (2014) Exploring parental involvement and home-school relations in Irish immersion education: Integrating multiple perspectives. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 2(1), 119–136. doi: 10.1075/jicb.2.1.06kav
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.2.1.06kav [Google Scholar]
  21. Korthagen, F., Loughran, J., & Lunenberg, M. L.
    (2005) Teaching teachers: Studies into expertise of teacher educators: An introduction to this theme issue. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(2), 107–115. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2004.12.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2004.12.007 [Google Scholar]
  22. Lave, J.
    (1996) Teaching, as learning, in practice. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 3, 149–164. doi: 10.1207/s15327884mca0303_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327884mca0303_2 [Google Scholar]
  23. Lave, J., & Wenger, E.
    (1991) Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511815355
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815355 [Google Scholar]
  24. Leavy, A. M.
    (2015) Looking at practice: Revealing the knowledge demands of teaching data handling in the primary classroom. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 27(3), 283–309. doi: 10.1007/s13394‑014‑0138‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s13394-014-0138-3 [Google Scholar]
  25. Leavy, A., & Hourigan, M.
    (2016) Using lesson study to support knowledge development in initial teacher education: Insights from early number classrooms. Teaching and Teacher Education, 57, 161–175. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2016.04.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.04.002 [Google Scholar]
  26. (2018) Using lesson study to support the teaching of early number concepts: Examining the development of prospective teachers specialized content knowledge. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46(1), 47–60. doi: 10.1007/s10643‑016‑0834‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-016-0834-6 [Google Scholar]
  27. Lewis, C., & Tsuchida, I.
    (1998) A lesson is like a swiftly flowing river: How research lessons improve Japanese education. American Educator, 22(4), 12–17, 50–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lunenberg, M., & Hamilton, M. L.
    (2008) Threading a golden chain: An attempt to find our identities. Teacher Education Quarterly, 35 (1): 185–205.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Lyster, R.
    (2007) Learning and teaching languages through content: A counterbalanced approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/lllt.18
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.18 [Google Scholar]
  30. Mac Donnacha, S., Ní Chualáin, F., Ní Shéaghdha, A., & Ní Mhainín, T.
    (2005) A Study of Gaeltacht Schools 2004. An Chomhairle Um Oideachas Gaeltachta agus Gaelscolaíochta. Retrieved from www.cogg.ie/wp-content/uploads/Staid-Reatha-na-Scoileanna-Gaeltachta-2004.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  31. McKeon, F., & Harrison, J. K.
    (2010) Developing pedagogical practice and professional identities of beginning teacher educators. Professional Development in Education, 36(1–2), 25–44. doi: 10.1080/19415250903454783
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19415250903454783 [Google Scholar]
  32. Mhic Aoidh, E., Garland, J., Nig Uidhir, G., & Sweeney, J.
    (2012) Irish-medium initial teacher education: lessons from self-evaluation. InF. Waldron, J. Smith, M. Fitzpatrick, & T. Dooley (Eds.), Re-imagining initial teacher education: Perspectives on transformation (pp.266–284). Dublin: The Liffey Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Murray, J., Swennen, A., & Shagrir, L.
    (2009) Understanding teacher educators’ work and identities. InA. Swennen &, M. Van der Klink (Eds.), Becoming a teacher educator. Theory and practice for teacher educators (pp.29–43). Dordrecht: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑4020‑8874‑2_3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8874-2_3 [Google Scholar]
  34. National Council for Curriculum and Assessment
    National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (2006) Language and literacy in Irish-medium primary schools: Descriptions of practice. Dublin: Stationary Office.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Newberry, M.
    (2014) Teacher educator identity development of the non-traditional teacher educator. Studying Teacher Education, 10(2):, 163–178. doi: 10.1080/17425964.2014.903834
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17425964.2014.903834 [Google Scholar]
  36. Ní Dhrisceoil, M.
    (2015) Conas mar a théann féiniúlacht an mhúinteora i bhfeidhm ar chleachtas Foghlaim Chomhtháite Ábhair agus Teanga (FCÁT) i nGaelcholáistí: Cás Staidéir [How does teacher identity impact on the implementation of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in post primary Irish-medium schools: A case study] (Unpublished Master dissertation). Mary Immaculate College, Limerick, Ireland.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Ó Ceallaigh, T. J.
    (2013) Teagasc foirm-dhírithe i gcomhthéacs an tumoideachais lán-Ghaeilge: Imscrúdú criticiúil ar dhearcthaí agus ar chleachtais mhúinteoirí [Form-focused instruction in Irish-medium immersion education: A critical examination of teachers’ perspectives and practices] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. (2016) Ag plé le rigor mortis teangeolaíochta [Grappling with linguistic rigor mortis]. InT. J. Ó Ceallaigh & M. Ó Laoire (Eds.), An Chéad Chomhdháil Taighde Uile-Oileánda ar an Tumoideachas: Imeachtaí Comhdhála [The Inaugural All-Ireland Research Conference on Immersion Education: Conference Proceedings] (pp.2–14). Retrieved from www.cogg.ie/wp-content/uploads/an-tumoideachas-bua-no-dua.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Ó Ceallaigh, T. J., Leavy, A., & Hourigan, M.
    (2016) An bhearna idir an teanga agus an tábhar a dhúnadh sa tumoideachas: Cur chuige bunaithe ar staidéar ceachta [Narrowing the gap between language and content in immersion: An approach based on lesson Study]. InT. J. Ó Ceallaigh & M. Ó Laoire (Eds.), An Chéad Chomhdháil Taighde Uile-Oileánda ar an Tumoideachas: Imeachtaí Comhdhála [The Inaugural All-Ireland Research Conference on Immersion Education: Conference Proceedings] (pp.97–106). Retrieved from www.cogg.ie/wp-content/uploads/an-tumoideachas-bua-no-dua.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Ó Ceallaigh, T. J., & Ní Shéaghdha, A.
    (2017) Critéir aitheantais cuí um dhearbhú cáilíochta agus dea-chleachtais do bhunscoileanna agus iarbhunscoileanna lán-Ghaeilge ar bhonn uile Éireann. Baile Átha Cliath: Gaeloideachas [All-Ireland quality and best practice indicators for elementary and post primary Irish-medium schools]. Dublin: Gaeloideachas.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Ó Ceallaigh, T. J., Hourigan, M., & Leavy, A.
    (2018) Developing potentiality: Pre-service elementary teachers as learners of language immersion teaching. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. doi: 10.1080/13670050.2018.1489779.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1489779 [Google Scholar]
  42. Ó Duibhir, P.
    (2009) The spoken Irish of sixth class pupils in Irish immersion schools (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Trinity College, Dublin.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. O’ Dwyer, J. B., & Atli, H. H.
    (2015) A study of in-service teacher educator roles, with implications for a curriculum for their professional development. European Journal of Teacher Education. 38(1): 4–20. doi: 10.1080/02619768.2014.902438
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2014.902438 [Google Scholar]
  44. Ó Grádaigh, S.
    (2015) Soláthar múinteoirí ábhar do na hiarbhunscoileanna lánGhaeilge & Gaeltachta [The provision of subject teachers for post primary Irish-medium and Gaeltacht schools]. Galway: An Chomhairle Um Oideachas Gaeltachta agus Gaelscolaíochta [National University of Ireland].
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Schön, D.
    (1987) Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Sikes, P., Measor, L., & Woods, P.
    (1985) Teacher careers: Crises and continuities. London: Falmer.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Skovholt, T. M., & McCarthy, P. R.
    (1988) Critical incidents: Catalysts for counselor development. Journal of Counseling and Development, 67(2), 69–130. doi: 10.1002/j.1556‑6676.1988.tb02016.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1988.tb02016.x [Google Scholar]
  48. Snow, M. A., Met, M., & Genesee, F.
    (1989) A conceptual framework for the integration of language and content in second/foreign language instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 23(2), 201–216. doi: 10.2307/3587333
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587333 [Google Scholar]
  49. Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J.
    (1999) The teaching gap. New York, NY: Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J.
    (1998) Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Swennen, A., Jones, K., & Volman, M.
    (2010) Teacher educators: Their identities, sub‐identities and implications for professional development. Professional Development in Education, 36(1–2), 131–148. doi: 10.1080/19415250903457893
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19415250903457893 [Google Scholar]
  52. Tedick, D. J., & Fortune, T. W.
    (2013) Bilingual/immersion teacher education. InC. A. Chapelle (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics (pp.438–443). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0096
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0096 [Google Scholar]
  53. Tedick, D. J., & Wesely, P. M.
    (2015) A review of research on content-based foreign/second language education in US K-12 contexts. Language, Culture, and Curriculum, 28(1), pp.25–40. doi: 10.1080/07908318.2014.1000923
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2014.1000923 [Google Scholar]
  54. Trent, J.
    (2013) Becoming a teacher educator: The multiple boundary-crossing experiences of beginning teacher educators. Journal of Teacher Education, 64, 262–275. doi: 10.1177/0022487112471998
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487112471998 [Google Scholar]
  55. Tripp, D.
    (1993) Critical incidents in teaching: Developing professional judgement. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. (2012) Critical incidents in teaching: Developing professional judgement. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Vloet, K., & van Swet, J.
    (2010) ‘I can only learn in dialogue!’ Exploring professional identities in teacher education. Professional Development in Education, 36(1), 149–168. doi: 10.1080/19415250903457083
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19415250903457083 [Google Scholar]
  58. Vygotsky, L. S.
    (1987) Thinking and speech. InR. W. Rieber & A. S. Carlton (Eds.), The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky, Vol. 1: Problems of general psychology (pp.39–285). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Walker, C., & Tedick, D. J.
    (2000) The complexity of immersion education: Teachers address the issues. The Modern Language Journal, 84(1), 5–27. doi: 10.1111/0026‑7902.00049
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00049 [Google Scholar]
  60. Wenger, E.
    (1998) Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511803932
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803932 [Google Scholar]
  61. White, E.
    (2014) Being a teacher and a teacher educator – developing a new identity?Professional Development in Education, 40(3), 436–449. doi: 10.1080/19415257.2013.782062
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19415257.2013.782062 [Google Scholar]
  62. Williams, J., & Ritter, J. K.
    (2010) Constructing new professional identities through self‐study: From teacher to teacher educator. Professional Development in Education, 36(1), 77–92. doi: 10.1080/19415250903454833
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19415250903454833 [Google Scholar]
  63. Williams, J. J., Ritter, J. K., & Bullock, S. M.
    (2012) Understanding the complexity of becoming a teacher educator: Experience, belonging and practice within a professional learning community. Studying Teacher Education, 8(3), 245–260. doi: 10.1080/17425964.2012.719130
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17425964.2012.719130 [Google Scholar]
  64. Zeichner, K.
    (1999) The new scholarship in teacher education. Educational Researcher, 28(9), 4–15. doi: 10.3102/0013189X028009004
    https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X028009004 [Google Scholar]
  65. (2007) Accumulating knowledge across self-studies in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 58(1), 36–46. doi: 10.1177/0022487106296219
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487106296219 [Google Scholar]
  66. Young, J. R., & Erickson, L. B.
    (2011) Imagining, becoming, and being a teacher: How professional history mediates teacher educator identity. Studying Teacher Education, 7(2), 121–129.10.1080/17425964.2011.591133
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17425964.2011.591133 [Google Scholar]
  67. Zembylas, M.
    (2003) Interrogating “teacher Identity”: Emotion, resistance, and self-formation. Educational Theory, 53(1), 107–127. doi: 10.1111/j.1741‑5446.2003.00107.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-5446.2003.00107.x [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error