1887
image of Partner language development in TWI
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Prior research has sought to describe how teachers view and approach attention to partner language (PL) development in Spanish immersion settings ( ). However, it has not focused specifically on the particularities of two-way immersion (TWI), which is unique for its inclusion of both heritage speakers and second language learners. The current project adds to existing knowledge by using teacher interviews and a survey to report a qualitative case study of three TWI teachers’ beliefs and practices. Data is triangulated through PL student testing and analysis of classroom observations. Results confirm many of the findings of prior research, especially regarding teachers’ perceived need for increased guidance and resources. They also provide insight into how TWI teachers view PL development in the two groups of learners. Implications for teacher training and future research are discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jicb.19013.nav
2021-05-25
2021-06-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Basturkmen, H.
    (2012) Review of research into the correspondence between language teachers’ stated beliefs and practices. System, 40(2), 282–295. doi:  10.1016/j.system.2012.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2012.05.001 [Google Scholar]
  2. Basturkmen, H., Loewen, S., & Ellis, R.
    (2004) Teachers’ stated beliefs about incidental focus on form and their classroom practices. Applied linguistics, 25(2), 243–272. doi:  10.1093/applin/25.2.243
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/25.2.243 [Google Scholar]
  3. Beeman, K., & Urow, C.
    (2013) Teaching for biliteracy: Strengthening bridges between languages. Caslon Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beaudrie, S. M., Ducar, C., & Potowski, K.
    (2014) Heritage language teaching: Research and practice. McGraw-Hill Education Create.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bowles, M. A., & Torres, J.
    (in press). Instructed heritage language acquisition. InM. Polinsky & S. Montrul Eds. The Cambridge handbook of heritage languages and linguistics (pp.826–850). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cammarata, L., & Tedick, D. J.
    (2012) Balancing content and language in instruction: The experience of immersion teachers. The Modern Language Journal, 96(2), 251–269. doi:  10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2012.01330.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2012.01330.x [Google Scholar]
  7. Cervantes-Soon, C. G.
    (2014) A critical look at dual language immersion in the new [email protected] diaspora. Bilingual Research Journal, 37(1), 64–82. doi:  10.1080/15235882.2014.893267
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2014.893267 [Google Scholar]
  8. Cervantes-Soon, C. G., Dorner, L., Palmer, D., Heiman, D., Schwerdtfeger, R., & Choi, J.
    (2017) Combating inequalities in two-way language immersion programs: Toward critical consciousness in bilingual education spaces. Review of Research in Education, 41(1), 403–427. doi:  10.3102/0091732X17690120
    https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X17690120 [Google Scholar]
  9. Corden, A., & Sainsbury, R.
    (2006) Using verbatim quotations in reporting qualitative social research: researchers’ views. University of York. https://www.york.ac.uk/inst/spru/pubs/pdf/verbquotresearch.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ellis, R.
    (2001) Introduction: Investigating form-focused instruction. Language Learning, 51 (Special issue), 1–46. doi:  10.1111/j.1467‑1770.2001.tb00013.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.2001.tb00013.x [Google Scholar]
  11. Ellis, R., Basturkmen, H., & Loewen, S.
    (2001) Learner uptake in communicative ESL lessons. Language Learning, 51(2), 281–318. doi:  10.1111/1467‑9922.00156
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00156 [Google Scholar]
  12. Fang, Z.
    (1996) A review of research on teacher beliefs and practices. Educational Research, 38(1), 47–65. doi:  10.1080/0013188960380104
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0013188960380104 [Google Scholar]
  13. Farrell, T. S. C., & Bennis, K.
    (2013) Reflecting on ESL teacher beliefs and classroom practices: A case study. RELC Journal, 44(2), 163–176. doi:  10.1177/0033688213488463
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688213488463 [Google Scholar]
  14. Flores, B. B., & Smith, H. L.
    (2009) Teachers’ characteristics and attitudinal beliefs about linguistic and cultural diversity. Bilingual Research Journal, 31(1–2), 323–358. doi:  10.1080/15235880802640789
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15235880802640789 [Google Scholar]
  15. Flores, N.
    (2016) A tale of two visions: Hegemonic whiteness and bilingual education. Educational Policy, 30(1), 13–38. doi:  10.1177/0895904815616482
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0895904815616482 [Google Scholar]
  16. Fortune, T. W., & Tedick, D. J.
    (2015) Oral proficiency assessment of English-proficient K–8 Spanish immersion students. The Modern Language Journal, 99(4), 637–655. doi:  10.1111/modl.12275
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12275 [Google Scholar]
  17. Fortune, T. W., Tedick, D. J., & Walker, C. L.
    (2008) Integrated language and content teaching: Insights from the language immersion classroom: Evolving perspectives on immersion education. InT. W. Fortune & D. J. Tedick. (Eds.), Pathways to multilingualism: Evolving perspectives on immersion education (pp.71–96). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847690371‑007
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847690371-007 [Google Scholar]
  18. Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A.
    (2015) Input, interaction, and output in second language learning. InB. VanPatten & J. Williams. (Eds.), Theories in second language learning: An introduction (pp.180–206). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. George, A., & Salgado-Robles, F.
    (2018) Raising awareness about heritage language learners in the L2 Spanish classroom: Teacher beliefs and attitudes. ELIA, 18, 157–181. doi:  10.12795/elia.2018.i18.07
    https://doi.org/10.12795/elia.2018.i18.07 [Google Scholar]
  20. Hamman, L.
    (2018) Translanguaging and positioning in two-way dual language classrooms: A case for criticality. Language and Education, 32(1), 21–42, doi:  10.1080/09500782.2017.1384006
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2017.1384006 [Google Scholar]
  21. Harley, B., Allen, J. B., Cummins, J., & Swain, M.
    (1987) The development of bilingual proficiency: Final report. Modern Language Centre, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Harley, B., & Swain, M.
    (1984) The interlanguage of immersion students and its implications for second language teaching. InA. Davies, C. Criper, & A. P. R. Howatt. (Eds.), Interlanguage (pp.291–311). Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Harklau, L.
    (2009) Heritage speakers’ experiences in new Latino diaspora Spanish classrooms. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 6(4), 211–242. doi:  10.1080/15427580903118689
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15427580903118689 [Google Scholar]
  24. Harper, C., & de Jong, E.
    (2004) Misconceptions about teaching English-language learners. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48(2), 152–162. doi:  10.1598/JAAL.48.2.6
    https://doi.org/10.1598/JAAL.48.2.6 [Google Scholar]
  25. Howard, E. R., Christian, D., & Genesee, F.
    (2004) The development of bilingualism and biliteracy from grade 3 to 5: A summary of findings from the CAL/CREDE study of two- way immersion education. Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence. www.cal.org/ndlf/pdfs/publications/development-of-bilingualism-and-biliteracy-from-grade-3-to-5.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Howard, E. R., Lindholm-Leary, K. J., Rogers, D., Olague, N., Medina, J., Kennedy, B., Sugarman, J., & Christian, D.
    (2018) Guiding principles for dual language education (3rd ed.). Center for Applied Linguistics. https://www.cal.org/resource-center/publications-products/gp3-pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lee, J. S., & Oxelson, E.
    (2006) “It’s not my job”: K-12 teacher attitudes toward students’ heritage language maintenance. Bilingual Research Journal, 30(2), 453–477. doi:  10.1080/15235882.2006.10162885
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2006.10162885 [Google Scholar]
  28. Leeman, J.
    (2005) Engaging critical pedagogy: Spanish for native speakers. Foreign Language Annals, 38(1), 35–45. doi:  10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2005.tb02451.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2005.tb02451.x [Google Scholar]
  29. (2012) Investigating language ideologies in Spanish as a heritage language. InS. Beaudrie & M. Fairclough. (Eds.), Spanish as a heritage language in the United States: The state of the field (pp.43–59). Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. (2018) Critical language awareness and Spanish as a heritage language: Challenging the linguistic subordination of US Latinxs. InK. Potowski. (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of Spanish as a heritage language (pp.345–358). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315735139‑22
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315735139-22 [Google Scholar]
  31. Lindholm-Leary, K. J.
    (2001) Dual language education. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853595332
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853595332 [Google Scholar]
  32. (2018) Developing Spanish in dual language programs: Preschool through twelfth grade. InK. Potowski. (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of Spanish as a heritage language (pp.433–444). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315735139‑28
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315735139-28 [Google Scholar]
  33. Long, M. H.
    (1996) The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. InW. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia. (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp.413–468). Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Lyster, R.
    (1987) Speaking immersion. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 43(4), 701–717. 10.3138/cmlr.43.4.697
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.43.4.697 [Google Scholar]
  35. (2007) Learning and teaching languages through content: A counterbalanced approach. John Benjamins Publishing. doi:  10.1075/lllt.18
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.18 [Google Scholar]
  36. Lyster, R., & Ranta, L.
    (1997) Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in second language acquisition, 19(1), 37–66. doi:  10.1017/S0272263197001034
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263197001034 [Google Scholar]
  37. Martínez, R. A., Hikida, M., & Durán, L.
    (2015) Unpacking ideologies of linguistic purism: How dual language teachers make sense of everyday translanguaging. International Multilingual Research Journal, 9(1), 26–42. doi:  10.1080/19313152.2014.977712
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2014.977712 [Google Scholar]
  38. McCarthey, S. J., & Mkhize, D.
    (2013) Teachers’ orientations towards writing. Journal of Writing Research, 5(1), 1–33. doi:  10.17239/jowr‑2013.05.01.1
    https://doi.org/10.17239/jowr-2013.05.01.1 [Google Scholar]
  39. Montrul, S.
    (2008) Incomplete acquisition in bilingualism: Re-examining the age factor. John Benjamins Publishing. doi:  10.1075/sibil.39
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.39 [Google Scholar]
  40. Montrul, S., & Bowles, M. A.
    (2017) Instructed heritage language acquisition. InS. Loewen and M. Sato. (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp.488–502). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315676968‑27
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315676968-27 [Google Scholar]
  41. Montrul, S., & Potowski, K.
    (2007) Command of gender agreement in school-age Spanish- English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11(3), 301–328. doi:  10.1177/13670069070110030301
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069070110030301 [Google Scholar]
  42. Palmer, D., and Henderson, K. I.
    (2016) Dual language bilingual education placement practices: Educator discourses about emergent bilingual students in two program types. International Multilingual Research Journal, 10(1), 17–30. doi:  10.1080/19313152.2015.1118668
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2015.1118668 [Google Scholar]
  43. Palmer, D. K., Martínez, R. A., Mateus, S. G., & Henderson, K.
    (2014) Reframing the debate on language separation: Toward a vision for translanguaging pedagogies in the dual language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 98(3), 757–772. doi:  10.1111/modl.12121
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12121 [Google Scholar]
  44. Potowski, K.
    (2005) Tense and aspect in the oral and written narratives of two-way immersion students. InSelected Proceedings of the 6th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages (pp.123–136). citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.465.2416&rep=rep1&type=pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  45. (2007) Language and identity in a dual immersion school. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853599453
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853599453 [Google Scholar]
  46. (2018, March). No child left monolingual: The present and possible future of dual language education in the U.S. Plenary presented atthe conference of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Chicago, IL
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Román, D., Pastor, A., & Basaraba, D.
    (2019) Internal linguistic discrimination: A survey of bilingual teachers’ language attitudes toward their heritage students’ Spanish. Bilingual Research Journal, 42(1), 6–30. doi:  10.1080/15235882.2018.1563006
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2018.1563006 [Google Scholar]
  48. Rueda, R., & García, E.
    (1996) Teachers’ perspectives on literacy assessment and instruction with language-minority students: A comparative study. The Elementary School Journal, 96(3), 311–332. doi:  10.1086/461830
    https://doi.org/10.1086/461830 [Google Scholar]
  49. Russell, B. D., & Kuriscak, L. M.
    (2015) High school Spanish teachers’ attitudes and practices toward Spanish heritage language learners. Foreign Language Annals, 48(3), 413–433. doi:  10.1111/flan.12145
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12145 [Google Scholar]
  50. Saldaña, J.
    (2012) The coding manual for qualitative researchers (2nd ed). Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Sawyer, B. E., Hammer, C. S., Cycyk, L. M., López, L., Blair, C., Sandilos, L., & Komaroff, E.
    (2016) Preschool teachers’ language and literacy practices with dual language learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 39(1), 35–49. doi:  10.1080/15235882.2016.1138904
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2016.1138904 [Google Scholar]
  52. Sheen, Y.
    (2004) Corrective feedback and learner uptake in communicative classrooms across instructional settings. Language Teaching Research, 8(3), 263–300. doi:  10.1191/1362168804lr146oa
    https://doi.org/10.1191/1362168804lr146oa [Google Scholar]
  53. Snow, M. A., Met, M., & Genesee, F.
    (1989) A conceptual framework for the integration of language and content in second/foreign language instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 23(2), 201–217. doi:  10.2307/3587333
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587333 [Google Scholar]
  54. Spada, N., & Lightbown, P. M.
    (2008) Form-focused instruction: Isolated or integrated?TESOL Quarterly, 42(2), 181–207. doi:  10.1002/j.1545‑7249.2008.tb00115.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2008.tb00115.x [Google Scholar]
  55. Swain, M.
    (1985) Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. InS. M. Gass & C. Madden. (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp.235–253). Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. (1995) Three functions of output in second language learning. InB. Cook & B. Seidlhofer. (Eds.), Principles and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in honor of H. G. Widdowson (pp.125–144). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Tedick, D. J., & Lyster, R.
    (2020) Scaffolding language development in immersion and dual language classrooms. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Tedick, D. J., & Young, A. I.
    (2016) Fifth grade two-way immersion students’ responses to form-focused instruction. Applied Linguistics, 37(6), 784–807. doi:  10.1093/applin/amu066
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amu066 [Google Scholar]
  59. Toth, P. D., & Davin, K. J.
    (2016) The sociocognitive imperative of L2 pedagogy. The Modern Language Journal, 100 (Special issue), 148–168. 10.1111/modl.12306
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12306 [Google Scholar]
  60. Valdés, G.
    (1981) Pedagogical implications of teaching Spanish to the Spanish-speaking in the United States. InG. Valdés, A. G. Lozano, & R. García-Moya. (Eds.), Teaching Spanish to the Hispanic bilingual (pp.3–20). Teachers College.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. (1997) Dual-language immersion programs: A cautionary note concerning the education of language-minority students. Harvard Educational Review, 67(3), 391–430. doi:  10.17763/haer.67.3.n5q175qp86120948
    https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.67.3.n5q175qp86120948 [Google Scholar]
  62. (2005) Bilingualism, heritage language learners, and SLA research: Opportunities lost or seized?The Modern Language Journal, 89(3), 410–426. doi:  10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2005.00314.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2005.00314.x [Google Scholar]
  63. (2015) [email protected] and the intergenerational continuity of Spanish: The challenges of curricularizing language. International Multilingual Research Journal, 9(4), 253–273. doi:  10.1080/19313152.2015.1086625
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2015.1086625 [Google Scholar]
  64. (2018) Analyzing the curricularization of language in two-way immersion education: Restating two cautionary notes. Bilingual Research Journal, 41(4), 388–412. doi:  10.1080/15235882.2018.1539886
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2018.1539886 [Google Scholar]
  65. Valdés, G., & Parra, M. L.
    (2018) Towards the development of an analytical framework for examining goals and pedagogical approaches in teaching language to heritage speakers. InK. Potowski. (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of Spanish as a heritage language (pp.301–330). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315735139‑20
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315735139-20 [Google Scholar]
  66. Valdés, G., Poza, L., & Brooks, M. D.
    (2015) Language acquisition in bilingual education. InW. E. Wright, S. Boun, & O. García. (Eds.), The handbook of bilingual and multilingual education (pp.56–74). Wiley-Blackwell. doi:  10.1002/9781118533406.ch4
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118533406.ch4 [Google Scholar]
  67. Young, A. I.
    (2016) Facilitating functional complexity: Differentiated linguistic scaffolding in two-way Spanish-English immersion. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 4(2), 251–273. doi:  10.1075/jicb.4.2.05you
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.4.2.05you [Google Scholar]
  68. Walker, C. L., & Tedick, D. J.
    (2000) The complexity of immersion education: Teachers address the issues. The Modern Language Journal, 84(1), 5–27. doi:  10.1111/0026‑7902.00049
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00049 [Google Scholar]
  69. WIDA
    WIDA (2013) The Spanish language development standards: Kindergarten – Grade 12 (2013 ed.). Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jicb.19013.nav
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jicb.19013.nav
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error