Volume 9, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2212-8433
  • E-ISSN: 2212-8441
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Considerable research documents the efficacy of dual language programs for the reading achievement of English learners from Spanish-speaking homes. However, there is uncertainty in the field of dual language education about how students at-risk for literacy difficulties fare in these same programs, as well as questions about how risk should be defined – i.e., difficulty with decoding versus lower levels of vocabulary – with distinct understandings of risk potentially differentially explaining students’ reading trajectories. This study followed Spanish-speaking students from Grades 3–5 to understand how students at-risk for reading difficulties fare in English reading comprehension in dual language versus English-medium programs, examining two different risk indicators in the process. Study results indicate that across risk categories, students performed equally well regardless of program model. In addition, decoding was a more robust indicator of risk than vocabulary.


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