Volume 10, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2212-8433
  • E-ISSN: 2212-8441
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The developmental trajectory of monolinguals has often been used as the benchmark against which the progress of all language learners is assessed and understood, and the abilities of monolinguals are used to define the native-like competence that is widely cited as the ultimate goal for all language learners. Moreover, language learning standards and curricula to guide language teaching and learning in school, as well as frameworks and strategies for assessing language learner outcomes in school, have all been shaped in significant ways by a monolingual bias. In this article, I critically examine assumptions underlying the monolingual bias and review findings from research on preschool and early-school-age learners who acquire language under diverse circumstances. Explanations that go beyond the monolingual bias are proposed for findings of differences between children who learn language under diverse circumstances and monolingual children. I argue that current research supports the view that there are alternative pathways to becoming language competent.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Abrahamsson, N., & Hyltenstam, K.
    (2009) Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: Listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny. Language Learning, 59(2), 249–306. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2009.00507.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00507.x [Google Scholar]
  2. Albareda-Castellot, B., Pons, F., & Sebastián-Gallés, N.
    (2011) The acquisition of phonetic categories in bilingual infants: New data from an anticipatory eye movement paradigm. Developmental Science, 14(2), 395–401. 10.1111/j.1467‑7687.2010.00989.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.00989.x [Google Scholar]
  3. August, D., & Shanahan, T.
    (2006) Developing literacy in second language learners. Report of the National Literacy Panel on Minority-Language Children and Youth. Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Barratt, L.
    (2018) Monolingual Bias. InThe TESOL encyclopedia of English language teaching (pp.1–7). 10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0024
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0024 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bialystok, E.
    (2015) Bilingualism and the development of executive function: The role of attention. Child Development Perspectives, 91(21), 117–121. 10.1111/cdep.12116
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12116 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bialystok, D., Luk, G., Peets, K. F., & Yang, S.
    (2010) Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13(4), 525–53. 10.1017/S1366728909990423
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909990423 [Google Scholar]
  7. Blom, E., & Paradis, J.
    (2013) Past tense production by English second language learners with and without language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 561, 281–294. 10.1044/1092‑4388(2012/11‑0112)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0112) [Google Scholar]
  8. Bosch, L., Figueras, M., Teixidó, M., & Ramon-Casas, M.
    (2013) Rapid gains in segmenting fluent speech when words match the rhythmic unit: Evidence from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages. Frontiers in Psychology, 41. 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00106
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00106 [Google Scholar]
  9. Canagarajah, S.
    (2011) Translanguaging in the classroom: Emerging issues for research and pedagogy. Applied Linguistics Review, 21, 1–28. 10.1515/9783110239331.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110239331.1 [Google Scholar]
  10. Chomsky, N.
    (1965) Aspects of the theory of syntax. MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chung, S. C., Chen, X., & Geva, E.
    (2019) Deconstructing and reconstructing cross-language transfer in bilingual reading development: An interactive framework. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 501, 149–161. 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2018.01.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2018.01.003 [Google Scholar]
  12. Comeau, L., Genesee, F., & Lapaquette, L.
    (2003) The modeling hypothesis and child bilingual codemixing. International Journal of Bilingualism, 7(2), 113–126. 10.1177/13670069030070020101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069030070020101 [Google Scholar]
  13. Comeau, L., Genesee, F., & Mendelson, M.
    (2010) A comparison of bilingual and monolingual children’s conversational repairs. First Language, 30(3–4), 354–374. 10.1177/0142723710370530
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0142723710370530 [Google Scholar]
  14. Conboy, B. T., & Thal, D. J.
    (2006) Ties between the lexicon and grammar: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of bilingual toddlers. Child Development, 77(3), 712–735. 10.1111/j.1467‑8624.2006.00899.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00899.x [Google Scholar]
  15. Cook, V.
    (1991) The poverty-of-the-stimulus argument and multi-competence. Second Language Research, 7(2), 103–117.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Council of Europe
    Council of Europe (2000) Common European framework of references for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Language Policy Division. Strasbourg. Retrieved fromwww.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/Framework_EN.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Dalen, M., & Rygvold, A.-L.
    (2006) Educational achievement in adopted children from China. Adoption Quarterly, 91, 45–58. 10.1300/J145v09n04_03
    https://doi.org/10.1300/J145v09n04_03 [Google Scholar]
  18. David, A., & Li Wei
    (2008) Individual differences in the lexical development of French-English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 111(51), 598–618. 10.1080/13670050802149200
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050802149200 [Google Scholar]
  19. Day, E., & Shapson, S.
    (1991) Integrating formal and functional appraoches to language teaching in French immersion: An experimental study. Language Learning, 411, 25–58. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1991.tb00675.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1991.tb00675.x [Google Scholar]
  20. De Bot, K., Wander, L., & Verspoor, M.
    (2007) A dynamic systems theory approach to second language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 101(11), 7–21. 10.1017/S1366728906002732
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728906002732 [Google Scholar]
  21. DeGeer, B.
    (1992) Internationally adopted children in communication: A developmental study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Lund University, Sweden.
  22. De Houwer, A.
    (2009) Bilingual first language acquisition. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691507
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691507 [Google Scholar]
  23. Delcenserie, A.
    (2016) Language, cognitive and academic abilities of school-age internationally-adopted children. InF. Genesee & A. Delcenserie (Eds), Starting over – the language development in internationally-adopted children (pp.95–124). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tilar.18.05del
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tilar.18.05del [Google Scholar]
  24. Delcenserie, A., & Genesee, F.
    (2014) Language and memory abilities of internationally-adopted children from China. Journal of Child Language, 411, 1195–1223. 10.1017/S030500091300041X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S030500091300041X [Google Scholar]
  25. de Valenzuela, J., Kay-Raining Bird, E., Parkington, K., Mirenda, P., Cain, K., MacLeod, A. A., & Segers, E.
    (2016) Access to opportunities for bilingualism for individuals with developmental disabilities: Key informant interviews. Journal of Communication Disorders, 631, 32–46. 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2016.05.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2016.05.005 [Google Scholar]
  26. Fennell, C., & Byers-Heinlein, K.
    (2014) You sound like Mommy: Bilingual and monolingual infants learn words best from speakers typical of their language environments. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38(4), 309–316. 10.1177/0165025414530631
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025414530631 [Google Scholar]
  27. García, O., & Li Wei
    (2014) Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism, and education. Palgrave MacMillan. 10.1057/9781137385765
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137385765 [Google Scholar]
  28. Genesee, F.
    (1989) Early bilingual development: One language or two. Journal of Child Language, 161, 161–179. 10.1017/S0305000900013490
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900013490 [Google Scholar]
  29. (2002) Portrait of the bilingual child. InV. Cook (Ed.), Portraits of the Second Language User (pp.170–196). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853595851‑009
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853595851-009 [Google Scholar]
  30. (2004) What do we know about bilingual education for majority language students?InT. K. Bhatia & W. Ritchie (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism and multiculturalism (pp.547–576). Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. (2019) Language development in simultaneous bilinguals: The early years. InJ. von Koss Torkildsen & J. Horst (Eds.) International handbook on language development (pp.300–320). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Genesee, F., Boivin, I., & Nicoladis, E.
    (1996) Talking with strangers: A study of bilingual children’s communicative competence. Applied Psycholinguistics, 17(4), 427–442. 10.1017/S0142716400008183
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400008183 [Google Scholar]
  33. Genesee, F. & Delcenserie, A.
    (2016) Starting over – the language development in internationally-adopted children. John Benjamins. 10.1075/tilar.18
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tilar.18 [Google Scholar]
  34. Genesee, F., & Fortune, T.
    (2014) Bilingual education and at-risk students. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 2(2), 165–180. 10.1075/jicb.2.2.03gen
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.2.2.03gen [Google Scholar]
  35. Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E.
    (2016) CLIL in context: Practical guidance for educators. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Genesee, F., & Lindholm-Leary, K.
    (2021) The suitability of dual language education for diverse students: An overview of research in Canada and the United States. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 9(2), 164–192. 10.1075/jicb.21001.gen
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.21001.gen [Google Scholar]
  37. Genesee, F., Nicoladis, E., & Paradis, J.
    (1995) Language differentiation in early bilingual development. Journal of Child Languages, 221, 611–632. 10.1017/S0305000900009971
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900009971 [Google Scholar]
  38. Genesee, F., & Tedick, D. J.
    (2021) Issues and perspectives on student diversity and content-based language education. Special issue of theJournal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 9(2). 10.1075/jicb.00012.int
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.00012.int [Google Scholar]
  39. Gildersleeve-Newman Kester, C. E., Davis, B. I., & Pena, E. D.
    (2008) English speech sound development in preschool-age children from English-Spanish environments. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 391(31), 314–328. 10.1044/0161‑1461(2008/030)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2008/030) [Google Scholar]
  40. Grosjean, F.
    (1985) The bilingual as a competent but specific speaker-hearer. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 6(6), 467–477. 10.1080/01434632.1985.9994221
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1985.9994221 [Google Scholar]
  41. Hambly, C., & Fombonne, E.
    (2014) Factors influencing bilingual expressive vocabulary size in children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 81, 1079–1089. 10.1016/j.rasd.2014.05.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2014.05.013 [Google Scholar]
  42. Harley, B.
    (1998) The role of form-focused tasks in promoting child L2 acquisition. InC. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds), Focus on Form in Classroom Second Language Acquisition (pp.156–174). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Hoff, E.
    (2003) The specificity of environmental influence: socioeconomic status affects early vocabulary development via maternal speech. Child Development, 741(51), 1368–1378. 10.1111/1467‑8624.00612
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00612 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hoff, E., Core, C., Place, S., Rumiche, R., Señor, M., & Parra, M.
    (2012) Dual language exposure and early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 39(1), 1–27. 10.1017/S0305000910000759
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000910000759 [Google Scholar]
  45. Hoshino, N., & Thierry, G.
    (2011) Language selection in bilingual word production: Electrophysiological evidence for cross-language competition. Brain Research, 13711, 100–109. 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.11.053
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.11.053 [Google Scholar]
  46. Hurtado, N., Gruter, T., Marchman, V., & Fernald, A.
    (2014) Relative language exposure, processing efficiency, and vocabulary in Spanish-English bilingual toddlers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 171(11), 189–202. 10.1017/S136672891300014X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S136672891300014X [Google Scholar]
  47. Jorgensen, J.
    (2008) Poly-lingual languaging around and among children and adolescents. International Journal of Multilingualism, 5(3), 161–176. 10.1080/14790710802387562
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710802387562 [Google Scholar]
  48. Kay-Raining Bird, E., Genesee, F., & Verhoeven, L.
    (2016) Bilingualism in children with developmental disorders. Journal of Communication Disorders, 631, 1–14. 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2016.07.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2016.07.003 [Google Scholar]
  49. Kehoe, M., & Havy, M.
    (2109) Bilingual phonological acquisition: The influence of language internal, language external, and lexical factors. Journal of Children Language, 461(21), 292–333. 10.1017/S0305000918000478
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000918000478 [Google Scholar]
  50. Kim, H. S. K., Relkin, N. R., Kyoung-Min, L., & Hirsch, J.
    (1997) Distinct cortical areas associated with native and second languages. Nature, 3881, 171–174. 10.1038/40623
    https://doi.org/10.1038/40623 [Google Scholar]
  51. Kroll, J.
    (2008) Juggling two languages in one mind. Psychological Science Agenda, 22(1). www.apa.org/science/about/psa/2008/01/kroll.aspx. 10.1037/e406222008‑004
    https://doi.org/10.1037/e406222008-004 [Google Scholar]
  52. Kroll, J., Bobb, S., & Hoshino, N.
    (2014) Two languages in mind: Bilingualism as a tool to investigate language, cognition, and the brain. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 231, 159–163. 10.1177/0963721414528511
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721414528511 [Google Scholar]
  53. Kuhl, P. K., Williams, K. A., Lacerda, F., Stevens, K. N., & Lindblom, B.
    (1992) Linguistic experience alters phonetic perception in infants by 6 months of age. Science, 255(5044), 606–608. 10.1126/science.1736364
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1736364 [Google Scholar]
  54. Leopold, W. F.
    (1939–49) Speech development of a bilingual child: A linguist’s record. 41vols.Northwestern University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Lightbown, P. M.
    (2014) Focus on content-based language teaching. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Lindholm-Leary, K., & Genesee, F.
    (2014) Student outcomes in one-way, two-way and indigenous language immersion programs. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 21(21), 196–209. 10.1075/jicb.2.2.01lin
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.2.2.01lin [Google Scholar]
  57. Lyster, R.
    (1994) The effect of functional-analytic teaching on aspects of French immersion students’ sociolinguistic competence. Applied Linguistics, 151, 263–287. 10.1093/applin/15.3.263
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/15.3.263 [Google Scholar]
  58. (2007) Learning and teaching languages through content: A counterbalanced approach. John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.18
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.18 [Google Scholar]
  59. Lyster, R., & Genesee, F.
    (2020) Immersion education. InC. Chapelle (Ed.) The Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics (pp.570–576). Wiley.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Lyster, R., Quiroga, J., & Ballinger, S.
    (2013) The effects of biliteracy instruction on morphological awareness. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 11(21), k169–197. 10.1075/jicb.1.2.02lys
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.1.2.02lys [Google Scholar]
  61. MacSwan, J.
    (2017) A multilingual perspective on translanguaging. American Educational Research Journal, 54(1), 3–34. 10.3102/0002831216683935
    https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831216683935 [Google Scholar]
  62. Mady, C.
    (2015) Immigrants outperform Canadian-born groups in French immersion: Examining factors that influence their achievement. International Journal of Multilingualism, 13(3), 298–311. 10.1080/14790718.2014.967252
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2014.967252 [Google Scholar]
  63. (2017) The bilingual advantage for immigrant students in French immersion in Canada: Linking advantages to contextual variables. International Journal of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education, 20(3), 225–251. 10.1080/13670050.2015.1041875
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2015.1041875 [Google Scholar]
  64. Marchman, V. A., & Bates, E.
    (1994) Continuity in lexical and morphological development: A test of the critical mass hypothesis. Journal of Child Language, 21(2), 339–366. 10.1017/S0305000900009302
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900009302 [Google Scholar]
  65. Marchman, V. A., Martinez-Sussman, C., & Dale, P.S.
    (2004) The language-specific nature of grammatical development: Evidence from bilingual language learners. Developmental Science, 7(2), 212–224. 10.1111/j.1467‑7687.2004.00340.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2004.00340 [Google Scholar]
  66. Martin, S., Hodder, C., Merritt, E., Culliton, A., Pottie, E., & Kay-Raining Bird, E.
    (2021) Bilingual outcomes for a student with Down Syndrome in French. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 9(2), 223–252. 10.1075/jicb.20011.mar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.20011.mar [Google Scholar]
  67. Macnamara, J.
    (1966) Bilingualism and primary education. Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Mehisto, P.
    (2017) CLIL essentials for secondary school teachers. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Meisel, J. M.
    (2011) First and second language acquisition: Parallels and differences. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511862694
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511862694 [Google Scholar]
  70. Nicoladis, E., Palmer, A., & Marentette, P.
    (2007) The role of type and token frequency in using past tense morphemes correctly. Developmental Science, 101, 237–254. 10.1111/j.1467‑7687.2007.00582.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00582.x [Google Scholar]
  71. Oller, K., Pearson, B. Z., & Cobo-Lewis, A. B.
    (2007) Profile effects in early bilingual language and literacy. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28(2). 191–230. 10.1017/S0142716407070117
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716407070117 [Google Scholar]
  72. Otheguy, R., García, O., & Reid, W.
    (2015) Clarifying translanguaging and deconstructing named languages: A perspective from linguistics. Applied Linguistics Review, 61(31), 281–307. 10.1515/applirev‑2015‑0014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2015-0014 [Google Scholar]
  73. (2019) a translanguaging view of the linguistic system of bilinguals. Applied Linguistics Review, 10(4), 625–651. 10.1515/applirev‑2018‑0020
    https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2018-0020 [Google Scholar]
  74. Paradis, J., & Genesee, F.
    (1996) Syntactic acquisition in bilingual children. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18(1), 1–25. 10.1017/S0272263100014662
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100014662 [Google Scholar]
  75. Paradis, J., Genesee, F., & Crago, M.
    (2021) Dual language development and disorders: A handbook on bilingualism and second language learning, 3rd Edition. Brookes Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Paradis, J., & Govindarajan
    (2018) Bilingualism and children with language and communication disorders. InD. Miller, F. Bayram, J. Rothman & L. Serratrice (Eds). Bilingual cognition and language: The state of the science across its subfields (pp. 347–370). John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.54.16par
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.54.16par [Google Scholar]
  77. Paradis, J., & Navarro, S.
    (2003) Subject realization and crosslinguistic interference in the bilingual acquisition of Spanish and English. Journal of Child Language, 301, 371–393. 10.1017/S0305000903005609
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000903005609 [Google Scholar]
  78. Paradis, J., Nicoladis, E., Crago, M., & Genesee, F.
    (2011) Bilingual children’s acquisition of the past tense: A usage-based approach. Journal of Child Language, 381, 554–578. 10.1017/S0305000910000218
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000910000218 [Google Scholar]
  79. Petersen, J. M., Marinova-Todd, S. H., & Mirenda, P.
    (2012) Brief report: An exploratory study of lexical skills in bilingual children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 421, 1499–1503. 10.1007/s10803‑011‑1366‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1366-y [Google Scholar]
  80. Pierce, L., Chen, J. K., Delcenserie, A., Genesee, F., & Klein, D.
    (2015) Past experience shapes ongoing neural patterns for language. Nature Communications, 61. 10.1038/ncomms10073
    https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10073 [Google Scholar]
  81. Polka, L., & Sundara, M.
    (2003) Word segmentation in monolingual and bilingual infant learners of English and French. Paper presented at theProceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Barcelona, Spain.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Poulin-Dubois, D., Bialystok, E., Blaye, A., Polonia, A., & Yott, J.
    (2013) Lexical access and development in very young bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17(1), 57–70. 10.1177/1367006911431198
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006911431198 [Google Scholar]
  83. Reetzke, R., Zoui, X. K., Sheng, L., & Katsos, N.
    (2015) Communicative development in bilingually exposed Chinese children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 581, 813–835. 10.1044/2015_JSLHR‑L‑13‑0258
    https://doi.org/10.1044/2015_JSLHR-L-13-0258 [Google Scholar]
  84. Rezzonico, S., Chen, X., Cleave, P., Greenberg, J., Hipfner-Boiucher, K., Johnson, C.,
    (2015) Oral narratives in monolingual and bilingual preschoolers with SLI. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 501, 830–841. 10.1111/1460‑6984.12179
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12179 [Google Scholar]
  85. Ribot, K.M., Hoff, E., & Burridge, A.
    (2018) Language use contributes to expressive language growth: Evidence from bilingual children. Child Development, 89(3), 929–940. 10.1111/cdev.12770
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12770 [Google Scholar]
  86. Ronjat, J.
    (1913) Le developpément du language observe chez un enfant bilingue. Paris: Librairie Ancienne H. Champion.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Rottschy, C., Langer, R., Reetz, D. K., Laird, A. R., Shulz, J. B., Fox, P. T., & Eickhoff, S. B.
    (2012) Modelling neural correlates of working memory: A coordinate-based meta-analysis. NeuroImage, 601, 830–846. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.11.050
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.11.050 [Google Scholar]
  88. Rutter, M., Sonuga-Barke, E., & Castle, J.
    (2010) Investigating the impact of early institutional deprivation on development: Background and research strategy of the English and Romanian adoptees (ERA) study. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 75(1). 10.1111/j.1540‑5834.2010.00548.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5834.2010.00548.x [Google Scholar]
  89. Scott, K. A., & Roberts, J. A.
    (2016) Language development during the preschool years. InF. Genesee & A. Delcenserie (Eds), Starting over – the language development in internationally-adopted children (pp.65–94). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tilar.18.04sco
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tilar.18.04sco [Google Scholar]
  90. Sebastián-Gallés, N., & Bosch, L.
    (2002) Building phonotactic knowledge in bilinguals: Role of early exposure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28(4), 974.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Skinner, B. F.
    (1957) Verbal Behavior. Copley Publishing Group. 10.1037/11256‑000
    https://doi.org/10.1037/11256-000 [Google Scholar]
  92. Smith, L. B., & Thelen, E.
    (2003) Development as a dynamic system. Trends in Cognitive Science, 7(8), 343–348. 10.1016/S1364‑6613(03)00156‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(03)00156-6 [Google Scholar]
  93. Stevens, F.
    (1983) Activities to promote learning and communication in the second language classroom. TESOL Quarterly171, 259–272. 10.2307/3586653
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586653 [Google Scholar]
  94. Swain, M.
    (2005) The output hypothesis: Theory and research. InE. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp.471–484). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Tedick, D. J., & Lyster, R.
    (2020) Scaffolding language development in immersion and dual language classrooms. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Thordardottir, E.
    (2011) The relationship between bilingual exposure and vocabulary development. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15(4), 426–445. 10.1177/1367006911403202
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006911403202 [Google Scholar]
  97. (2014) The typical development of simultaneous bilinguals: Vocabulary, morphosyntax and language processing in two age groups in Montreal preschoolers. InT. Gruter & J. Paradis (Eds). Input and experience in bilingual development (pp.141–169). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tilar.13.08tho
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tilar.13.08tho [Google Scholar]
  98. Valicenti-McDermott, M., Tarshis, N., Schouls, M., Galdston, M., Hottinger, K., Seijo, R., Shulman, L., & Shinnar, S.
    (2013) Language differences between monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish young children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of child neurology, 28(7), 945–948. 10.1177/0883073812453204
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073812453204 [Google Scholar]
  99. van Ijzendoorn, M., Juffer, F., & Poelhuis, C.
    (2005) Adoption and cognitive development: A meta-analytic comparison of adopted and non-adopted children’s IQ and school performance. Psychological Bulletin, 1311, 301–316. 10.1037/0033‑2909.131.2.301
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.2.301 [Google Scholar]
  100. Verhoeven, L., Steenge, J., & van Balkom, H.
    (2011) Verb morphology as a clinical marker of specific language impairment: Evidence from first and second language learners. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 321, 1186–1193. 10.1016/j.ridd.2011.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2011.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  101. Volterra, V., & Taeschner, T.
    (1978) The acquisition and development of language by bilingual children. Journal of Child Language, 51, 311–326. 10.1017/S0305000900007492
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900007492 [Google Scholar]
  102. Werker, J. F., & Hensch, T. K.
    (2015) Critical periods in speech perception: New directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 661, 173–196. 10.1146/annurev‑psych‑010814‑015104
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015104 [Google Scholar]
  103. Werker, J. F., & Tees, R. C.
    (1984) Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behavior and Development, 7(1), 49–63. 10.1016/S0163‑6383(84)80022‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383(84)80022-3 [Google Scholar]
  104. Yip, V., & Matthews, S.
    (2007) The bilingual child. Early development and language contact. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620744
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620744 [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): bilingual standards; monolingual bias
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error