1887
image of Progress, Challenges, and Trajectories for Indigenous Language Content-Based Instruction in the United States and
Canada
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Indigenous language content-based instruction in the United States and Canada is primarily known as Indigenous language medium or Indigenous language immersion (ILI) education. In spite of huge barriers, it has grown over the past decade. Programs have emerged from concerns about language loss and a desire for language revitalization. Language revitalization takes several generations since it seeks an outcome where the Indigenous language is primary with high, but secondary, proficiency in the nationally dominant language. To establish a trajectory to reach such an outcome, the majority of schooling until high school graduation should be through the Indigenous language. Indigenous language medium schooling also seeks to produce sufficient mastery of academics and English for access to English medium higher education. Where a sufficiently strong model has been implemented, as in Hawaiʻi, those results are beginning to be produced. At present, the models being implemented elsewhere in the two countries are at varying stages of development, with minimal government support.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jicb.21023.wil
2022-09-08
2022-09-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. ʻAha Pūnana Leo & Ka Haka ʻUla O Keʻelikōlani
    ʻAha Pūnana Leo & Ka Haka ʻUla O Keʻelikōlani (2009) Kumu honua mauli ola. www.olelo.hawaii.edu/documents/pdf/KHMO.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  2. ʻAipia-Peters, T. K.
    (2014) Impact of culturally responsive education on college choice. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California.
  3. Alexie, O., Alexie, S., & Marlow, P.
    (2009) Creating space and defining roles: Elders and adult Yup’ik immersion. Journal of American Indian Education, 48(3), 1–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Arnold, R. D.
    (2001) “…To help assure the survival and continuing vitality of Native American languages.” InL. Hinton & K. Hale (Eds.), The green book of language revitalization in practice (pp.45–48). Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Arviso, M., & Holm, W.
    (2001) Tséhootsooídi Olta’gi Diné bizaad bihoo’aah: A Navajo immersion program at Fort Defiance, Arizona. InL. Hinton & K. Hale (Eds.), The green book of language revitalization in practice (pp.205–215). Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baldwin, D., & Costa, D. J.
    (2018) Myaamiaataweenki: Revitalization of a sleeping language. InK. L. Rehg & L. Campbell (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of endangered languages (pp.553–570). Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190610029.013.26
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190610029.013.26 [Google Scholar]
  7. Baldwin, D., Hinton, L., & Pérez-Báez, G.
    (2018) The Breath of Life Workshops and Institutes. InL. Hinton, L. Huss, & G. Roche (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of language revitalization (pp.188–196). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315561271‑24
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315561271-24 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bill C-91
    Bill C-91 (2019) An Act Respecting Indigenous Languages [Indigenous Languages Act]. https://www.parl.ca/DocumentViewer/en/42-1/bill/C-91/first-reading
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Clauschee, J.
    (2015) What are the limitations to teaching Navajo language in the Head Start immersion program?https://repository.asu.edu/attachments/164040/content/Clauschee_asu_0010E_15530.pdf
  10. Education Counts
  11. Fishman, J. A.
    (1991) Reversing language shift: Theoretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Galla, C. K., & Wilson, W. H.
    (2019) Early and emergent literacy practices as a foundation for Hawaiian language medium education. In. A. Sherris & J. K. Peyton (Eds.), Teaching writing to children in Indigenous languages (pp.25–43). Routledge. 10.4324/9781351049672‑2
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351049672-2 [Google Scholar]
  13. García, O., Ibarra Johnson, S., & Seltzer, K.
    (2017) The translanguaging classroom: Leveraging student bilingualism for learning. Carlson.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Genesee, F.
    (1994) Educating second language children: The whole child, the whole curriculum, the whole community. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Goodyear-Kaʻōpua, N.
    (2014) Domesticating Hawaiians: Kamehameha schools and the tender violence of marriage. InB. J. Child & B. Klopotek (Eds.), Indian subjects: Hemispheric perspectives on the history of Indigenous education (pp.16–47). School of Advanced Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Green, T. J., & Maracle, O. B.
    (2018) The root-word method for building proficient second-language speakers of polysynthetic languages: Onkwawen:na Ketyokhwa Adult Mohawk Language Immersion Program. InL. Hinton, L. Huss, & G. Roche (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of language revitalization (pp.146–155). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hale Kuamoʻo
    Hale Kuamoʻo (2021) Hōkeo ʻIkepili Kula Kaiapuni me ka Pūnana Leo 2021–2022 [Hawaiian Medium/Immersion and Pūnana Leo Language Nest Database 2021–2022]. Ka Haka ʻUla O Keʻelikōlani.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hauff, T. R.
    (2020) Beyond numbers, colors, and animals: Strengthening Lakota/Dakota teaching on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation. Journal of American Indian Education, 59(1), 5–25. 10.5749/jamerindieduc.59.1.0005
    https://doi.org/10.5749/jamerindieduc.59.1.0005 [Google Scholar]
  19. Hermes, M.
    (2005) “Ma’iingan is just a misspelling of the world wolf”: A case for teaching culture through language. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 36(1), 43–56. 10.1525/aeq.2005.36.1.043
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aeq.2005.36.1.043 [Google Scholar]
  20. Hermes, M., & Kawaiʻaeʻa, K.
    (2014) Revitalizing Indigenous languages through Indigenous immersion education. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Education, 2(2), 303– 10.1075/jicb.2.2.10her
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.2.2.10her [Google Scholar]
  21. Hinton, L.
    (1994) Flutes of fire: Essays on California Indian languages. Heyday.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. (Ed.) (2013) Bringing our languages home – Language revitalization for families. Heyday.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hinton, L., Vera, M., & Steele, N.
    (2002) How to keep your language alive: A commonsense approach to one-on-one language learning. Heyday.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hinton, L., Florey, M., Gessner, S., & Manatowa-Bailey, J.
    (2018) The Master-Apprentice Language Learning Program. InL. Hinton, L. Huss, & G. Roche (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of language revitalization (pp.127–136). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315561271‑17
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315561271-17 [Google Scholar]
  25. Holm, A., & Holm, W.
    (1990) Rock Point, a Navajo way to go to school: A valediction. Annals of the American Association of Political and Social Science, 508, 170–184. 10.1177/0002716290508001014
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716290508001014 [Google Scholar]
  26. Hoover, M. L., & Kanien’kehaka Raotitihkwa Cultural Center (KOR)
    (1992) The revival of the Mohawk language in Kahnawake. Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 12(2), 269–287.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Jenni, B., Anisman, A., McIvor, O., & Jacobs, P.
    (2017) An exploration of the effects of mentor-apprentice programs on mentors’ and apprentices’ wellbeing. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 12(2), 25. 10.18357/ijih122201717783
    https://doi.org/10.18357/ijih122201717783 [Google Scholar]
  28. Johnson, F. T., & Wilson, J.
    (2005, March/April). Navajo immersion in the Navajo Nation. NABE News. https://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/NABE/Mar2005.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Jones, B.
    (2017) Translanguaging in bilingual schools in Wales. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 16(4), 199–215. 10.1080/15348458.2017.1328282
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2017.1328282 [Google Scholar]
  30. Kimura, L. L.
    (2010) Aia Iā Kākou Nā Hāʻina – The answers are within us: Language rights in tandem with language survival. InC. K. Galla, S. Oberly, G. L. Romero, M. Sam, & O. Zepeda (Eds.), American Indian Language Development Institute: 30 year tradition of speaking from our heart (pp.32–42). American Indian Language Development Institute.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kimura, L., & Counceller, A.
    (2009) Indigenous new words creation: Perspectives from Alaska and Hawaiʻi. InJ. Reyhner & L. Lockard (Eds.), Indigenous language revitalization: Encouragement, guidance and lessons learned (pp.121–140). Northern Arizona University.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kipp, D.
    (2000) Encouragement, guidance, insights, and lessons for Native language activists developing their own tribal language programs. Piegan Institute’s Cut-Bank Language Immersion School.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Krauss, M.
    (1998) The condition of Native North American languages: The need for realistic assessment and action. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 132, 9–21. 10.1515/ijsl.1998.132.9
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1998.132.9 [Google Scholar]
  34. Leonard, W. Y.
    (2017) Producing language reclamation by decolonizing “language.”InW. Y. Leonard & H. De Korne (Eds.) Language Documentation and Description, 14, 15–36www.elpublishing.org/PID/150
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Lessard, S., & Edge, L.
    (2018) On the land education: De Gáh Elementary and Secondary School. https://indspire.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/DehGah-on-the-land-Final-5.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lomawaima, K. T.
    (2015) Education. InR. Warrior (Ed.), The world of Indigenous North America (pp.365–387). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Māori Education Overview
  38. Marjomaa, M.
    (2012) North Sami in Norway: An overview of a language in context. Working Papers in European Language Diversity. https://www.oulu.fi/sites/default/files/content/Giellagas_Marjomaa_NorthSamiInNorway.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  39. May, S.
    (2013) Indigenous immersion education: International developments. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 1(1), 34–69. 10.1075/jicb.1.1.03may
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.1.1.03may [Google Scholar]
  40. May, S., Hill, R., & Tiakiwai, S.
    (2004) Bilingual/immersion education: Indicators of good practice. Report to the [New Zealand] Ministry of Education, Wellington.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. McCarty, T. L.
    (2002) A place to be Navajo – Rough Rock and the struggle for self-determination in Indigenous schooling. Lawrence Erlbaum. 10.4324/9781410602503
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410602503 [Google Scholar]
  42. (2011) State of the field: The role of Native languages and cultures on American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian student achievement. https://center-for-indian-education.asu.edu/resources/keynotes-papers-and-policy-briefs
    [Google Scholar]
  43. (2020) The holistic benefits of education for Indigenous revitalisation and reclamation (ELR2). Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 42(10), 927–940. 10.1080/01434632.2020.1827647
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2020.1827647 [Google Scholar]
  44. McCarty, T. L., Nicholas, S. E., & Wigglesworth, G.
    (Eds.) (2019) A world of Indigenous languages – Resurgence, reclamation, revitalization and resilience. InT. L. McCarty, S. E. Nicholas, & G. Wigglesworth (Eds.), A world of Indigenous languages: Politics, pedagogies, and prospects for language reclamation (pp.1–26). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/MCCART3064
    https://doi.org/10.21832/MCCART3064 [Google Scholar]
  45. McIvor, O.
    (2015) Adult Indigenous language learning in Western Canada: What is holding us back?InK. A. Michel, P. D. Walton, E. Bourassa, & J. Miller (Eds.), Living our languages: Papers from the 19th Stabilizing Indigenous Languages Symposium (pp.37–49). Linus Learning.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. McIvor, O., & McCarty, T. L.
    (2016) Indigenous bilingual and revitalization-immersion education in Canada and the USA. InO. García & A. Lin (Eds.), Bilingual and multilingual education (3rd ed.). Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑02324‑3_34‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02324-3_34-1 [Google Scholar]
  47. Meek, B., & Messing, J.
    (2007) Framing Indigenous languages as secondary to matrix languages. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 38(2):99–118. 10.1525/aeq.2007.38.2.99
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aeq.2007.38.2.99 [Google Scholar]
  48. Nagle, R.
    (2019, Nov.5). The U.S. has spent more money erasing Native languages than saving them. High Country News. https://www.hcn.org/issues/51.21-22/indigenous-affairs-the-u-s-has-spent-more-money-erasing-native-languages-than-saving-them
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Native American Languages Act (NALA)
    Native American Languages Act (NALA) (1990) https://www2.nau.edu/jar/SIL/NALAct.pdf
  50. Newland, B.
    (2022, May). Federal Indian boarding school initiative investigative report. United States Department of the Interior.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Olthuis, M-J., Kivelä, & Skutnabb-Kangas, T.
    (2013) Revitalising Indigenous languages: How to recreate a lost generation. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847698896
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847698896 [Google Scholar]
  52. Outakoski
    Outakoski (2015) Multilingual literacy among young learners of North Sámi: Contexts, complexity and writing in Sápmi. Umeå Studies in Language and Literature 27. Department of Language Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Philips, L.
    (2011) Unexpected languages: Multilingualism and contact in eighteenth and nineteenth-century America. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 35(2), 19–41. 10.17953/aicr.35.2.d068130q08554n06
    https://doi.org/10.17953/aicr.35.2.d068130q08554n06 [Google Scholar]
  54. Rameka, L., & Petersen, S. S.
    (2021) Sustaining Indigenous languages and cultures: Māori medium educaion in Aotearoa New Zealand and Aboriginal Head Start in Canada. Kōtuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online. 10.1080/1177083X.2021.1922466
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1177083X.2021.1922466 [Google Scholar]
  55. Rasmussen, T.
    (2015) The Finnish school system – A taboo issue in Sami language revitalization. agon.fi/article/the-finnish-school-system-a-taboo-issue-in-sami-language-revitalization/
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Rau, C., Murphy, W., & Bird, P.
    (2019) The impact of “culturalcy” in Ngā Kura ā Iwi tribal schools in Aotearoa/NZ: Mõ tatou, mā tatou, e ai ki a tatou – For us, by us, our way. InT. L. McCarty, S. E. Nicholas, & G. Wigglesworth (Eds.), A world of Indigenous languages: Politics, pedagogies, and prospects for language reclamation (pp.69–90). Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Rawlins, N., Wilson, W. H., & Kawaiʻaeʻa, K.
    (2011) Bill Demmert, Native American language revitaliation, and his Hawaiʻi connection. Journal of American Indian Education, 50(1): 74–85.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Roessel, R. A., Jr.
    (1977) Navajo education in action: The Rough Rock Demonstration School. Navajo Curriculum Center Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Ruiz, R.
    (2017[1995]) Language planning considerations in Indigenous communities. InN. H. Hornberger (Ed.), Honoring Richard Ruiz and his work on language planning and bilingual education (pp.59–66). Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Skutnabb-Kangas, T., Phillipson, R., & Dunbar, R.
    (2019) Is Nunavut education criminally inadequate? An analysis of current policies for Inuktut and English in education, international and national law, linguistic and cultural genocide and crimes against humanity. Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Spolsky, B., & Holm, W.
    (1971) Bilingualism in the six-year-old Navajo child. Paper presented at theConference on Child Language, Chicago, IL, Nov. 22–24. https://www.academia.edu/47918387/Bilingualism_in_the_Six_Year_Old_Navajo_Child
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Task Force on Aboriginal Languages and Cultures
    Task Force on Aboriginal Languages and Cultures (2005) Towards a new beginning: A foundational report for a strategy to revitalize First Nation, Inuit and Métis languages and cultures. Aboriginal Languages Directorate, Aboriginal Affairs Branch, Department of Canadian Heritage.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. U.S. Department of Education Office of English Language Acquisition
    U.S. Department of Education Office of English Language Acquisition (2015) Dual education programs: Current state policies and practices. https://ncela.ed.gov/files/rcd/TO20_DualLanguageRpt_508.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  64. White, L.
    (2015) Free to be Mohawk: Indigenous education at the Akwesasne Freedom School. University of Oklahoma Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Wilson, W. H.
    (2018) Higher education in Indigenous language revitalization. InL. Hinton, L. Huss, & G. Roche (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of language revitalization (pp.83–93). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315561271‑11
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315561271-11 [Google Scholar]
  66. Wilson, W. H., & Kamanā, K.
    (2001) “Mai loko mai o ka ʻiʻIni: Proceeding from a dream” – The ʻAha Pūnana Leo connection in Hawaiian language revitalization. InL. Hinton & K. Hale (Eds.), The green book of language revitalization in practice (pp.147–176). Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. (2009) Indigenous youth bilingualism from a Hawaiian activist perspective. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 8(5), 369–375. 10.1080/15348450903305148
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15348450903305148 [Google Scholar]
  68. (2011) Insights from Indigenous language immersion in Hawaiʻi. InD. J. Tedick, D. Christian, & T. W. Fortune (Eds.), Immersion education: Practices, policies, possibilities (pp.36–57). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847694041‑006
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847694041-006 [Google Scholar]
  69. (2019) Voices of language: The path to fluency – Lessons in language revitalization from Hawaii. https://nativesciencereport.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/PathtoFluency.pdf and https://nativesciencereport.org/2019/05/following-a-path-to-fluency/
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Wilson, W. H., & Kawaiʻaeʻa, K.
    (2007) I kumu: I lālā. “Let there be sources: Let there be branches”: Teacher education in the College of Hawaiian Language. Journal of Indian Education, 46(3), 38–55.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Wolfe, P.
    (2006) Settler colonialism and the elimination of the Native. Journal of Genocide Research, 8(4), 387–401. 10.1080/14623520601056240
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14623520601056240 [Google Scholar]
  72. Zepeda, O.
    (1990) American Indian language policy. InK. J. Adams & D. T. Brink (Eds.), Perspectives on Official English: The campaign for English as the official language of the USA (pp.247–256). Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jicb.21023.wil
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error