Volume 12, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2212-8433
  • E-ISSN: 2212-8441
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The language learning outcomes of students in CLIL settings outstrip those of their peers who study the language in stand-alone classes. Research also indicates that in some cases the language development of CLIL students lacks grammatical accuracy, appropriate syntax, and lexical specificity. To combat this, CLIL teachers need to interweave the teaching of content and language. This can be a complex task as the vast majority of CLIL teachers do not have specific CLIL training. The issue is particularly complex at secondary level where teachers are content specialists. This article presents the research and theoretical underpinnings of SIOF, a pedagogical tool that focuses on scaffolding, input, output and feedback practices in the classroom. This tool has been developed to guide teachers in their efforts to place a more explicit focus on language. The authors discuss how SIOF can lead to what they term a Language Sensitive Learning Environment and the development of both language proficiency and subject knowledge.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., Raths, J., & Wittrock, M. C.
    (2001) A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arnott, S., & Vignola, M.-J.
    (2018) The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) in French immersion teacher education. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 6(2), 321–345. 10.1075/jicb.17008.arn
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.17008.arn [Google Scholar]
  3. Bloom, B. S., Englehart, M. B., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R.
    (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives, the classification of educational goals – Handbook 1: Cognitive domain. McKay.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brown, H. D.
    (2014) Principles of language learning and teaching. Pearson.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cammarata, L., & Cavanagh, M.
    (2018) In search of immersion teachers educators’ knowledge base. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 6(2), 189–217. 10.1075/jicb.18009.cam
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.18009.cam [Google Scholar]
  6. Cammarata, L., & Ó Ceallaigh, T. J.
    (2018) Teacher education and professional development for immersion and content-based instrucion. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 6(2), 153–161. 10.1075/jicb.00004.cam
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.00004.cam [Google Scholar]
  7. Cammarata, L., & Tedick, D. J.
    (2012) Balancing content and language in instruction: The experience of immersion teachers. The Modern Language Journal, 96(2), 251–269. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2012.01330.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2012.01330.x [Google Scholar]
  8. CAST
    CAST (2018) Universal Design for Learning guidelines version 2.2. https://udlguidelines.cast.org
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chittooran, M. M.
    (2018) Scaffolding. InB. B. Frey (Ed.), The Sage encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp.1451–1454). Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cloud, N., Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E.
    (2000) Dual language instruction: A handbook for enriched instruction. Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Corder, S. P.
    (1967) The significance of learners’ errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 51, 161–170. 10.1515/iral.1967.5.1‑4.161
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.1967.5.1-4.161 [Google Scholar]
  12. Council of Europe
    Council of Europe (2018) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Companion volume with new discriptors. Council of Europe.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Coyle, D., Hood, P., & Marsh, D.
    (2010) Content and Language Integrated Learning. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781009024549
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009024549 [Google Scholar]
  14. Cummins, J.
    (2000) Language, power and pedagogy. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853596773
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853596773 [Google Scholar]
  15. Dalton-Puffer, C.
    (2007) Discourse in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms. John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.20
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.20 [Google Scholar]
  16. Day, E. M., & Shapson, S.
    (1996) Studies in immersion education. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781800418011
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781800418011 [Google Scholar]
  17. DeKeyser, R.
    (2007) Conclusion: The future of practice. InR. De Keyser (Ed.), Practice in a second language: Perspectives from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology (pp.287–304). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667275.016
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667275.016 [Google Scholar]
  18. (2010) Practice for second language learning: Don’t throw out the baby with the bathwater. International Journal of English Studies, 10(1), 155–165. 10.6018/ijes/2010/1/114021
    https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes/2010/1/114021 [Google Scholar]
  19. Echevarría, J., Vogt, M. E., & Short, D. J.
    (2017) Making content comprehensible for secondary English learners: The SIOP model (3rd ed.). Pearson.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ellis, R.
    (2003) Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (2009a) Corrective feedback and teacher development. L2 Journal, 11, 3–18. 10.5070/L2.V1I1.9054
    https://doi.org/10.5070/L2.V1I1.9054 [Google Scholar]
  22. (2009b) A typology of written corrective feedback types. ELT Journal, 63(2), 97–107. 10.1093/elt/ccn023
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccn023 [Google Scholar]
  23. Fernández-Sanjurjo, J., Fernández-Costales, A., & Blanco, J. M. A.
    (2019) Analysing students’ content-learning in science in CLIL vs. non-CLIL programmes: empirical evidence from Spain. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(661–674). 10.1080/13670050.2017.1294142
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1294142 [Google Scholar]
  24. Frayer, D. A., Frederick, W. C., & Klausmeier, H. G.
    (1969) A schema for testing the level of concept mastery. Wisconsin Center for Education Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Genesee, F., & Lindholm-Leary, K.
    (2013) Two case studies of content-based language education. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 1(1), 3–33. 10.1075/jicb.1.1.02gen
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.1.1.02gen [Google Scholar]
  26. Gibbons, P.
    (2015) Scaffolding language scaffolding learning: Teaching second language learners in the mainstream classroom. (2nd ed.). Heinemann.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hall, K.
    (1993) Process writing in French immersion. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 49(2), 255–274. 10.3138/cmlr.49.2.255
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.49.2.255 [Google Scholar]
  28. Harley, B.
    (1992) Patterns of second language development in French Immersion. Journal of French Language Studies, 2(2), 159–183. 10.1017/S0959269500001289
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959269500001289 [Google Scholar]
  29. Hattie, J.
    (2012) Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203181522
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203181522 [Google Scholar]
  30. He, P., & Lin, A. M. Y.
    (2018) Becoming a “language aware” content teacher. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 6(2), 162–188. 10.1075/jicb.17009.he
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.17009.he [Google Scholar]
  31. Holec, H.
    (1981) Autonomy in foreign language learning. Pergamon.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kang, E., & Han, Z.
    (2015) The efficacy of written corrective feedback in improving L2 written accuracy: A meta-analysis. The Modern Language Journal, 99(1), 1–18. 10.1111/modl.12189
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12189 [Google Scholar]
  33. Krashen, S. D.
    (1982) Principles and practice in second language acquistion. Prentice-Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. (1984) Immersion: why it works and what it has taught us. Language and Society, 121(Winter), 61–64.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Lightbown, P., & Spada, N.
    (2013) How languages are learned (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lightbown, P. M.
    (2000) Classroom SLA research and second language teaching. Applied Linguistics, 21(4), 431–462. 10.1093/applin/21.4.431
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/21.4.431 [Google Scholar]
  37. Little, D.
    (1991) Learner autonomy 1: Definitions, issues and problems. Authentik.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Long, M. H.
    (1996) The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. InW. Ritchie & T. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp.413–468). Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Lyster, R.
    (2007) Learning and teaching languages through content: A counterbalanced approach. John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.18
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.18 [Google Scholar]
  40. Lyster, R., Collins, L., & Ballinger, S.
    (2009) Linking languages through a bilingual read-aloud project. Language Awareness, 18(3–4), 366–383. 10.1080/09658410903197322
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658410903197322 [Google Scholar]
  41. Lyster, R., & Ranta, L.
    (1997) Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquistion, 19(1), 37–66. 10.1017/S0272263197001034
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263197001034 [Google Scholar]
  42. Lyster, R., & Sato, M.
    (2013) Skill Acquisition Theory and the role of practice in L2 development. InM. García Mayo, M. Gutierrez Mangado, & M. Martínez Adrían (Eds.), Contemporary approaches to second language acquisition (pp.71–92). John Benjamins. 10.1075/aals.9.07ch4
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aals.9.07ch4 [Google Scholar]
  43. Mac Gearailt, B., Mac Ruairc, G., & Murray, C.
    (2021) Actualising Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Irish-medium education; why, how and why now?Irish Educational Studies, 1–19. 10.1080/03323315.2021.1910971
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03323315.2021.1910971 [Google Scholar]
  44. Mahan, K. R.
    (2022) The comprehending teacher: Scaffolding in Content and Language Integrated learning (CLIL). The Language Learning Journal, 50(1), 74–88. 10.1080/09571736.2019.1705879
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2019.1705879 [Google Scholar]
  45. Manchón, R. M., & Vasylets, O.
    (2019) Language learning through writing: Theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence. InJ. W. Schwieter & A. Benati (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of language learning (pp.341–362). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108333603.015
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108333603.015 [Google Scholar]
  46. Marsh, D., Maljers, A., & Hartiala, A.-K.
    (2001) Profiling European CLIL classrooms. University of Jyväskylä.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Mehisto, P.
    (2008) CLIL counterweights: Recognising and decreasing disjuncture in CLIL. International CLIL Research Journal, 1(1), 93–119.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Mehisto, P., Marsh, D., & Frigols, M. J.
    (2008) Uncovering CLIL. Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Met, M.
    (1999) Content-based instruction: Defining terms, making decisions. The National Foreign Language Center. carla.umn.edu/cobaltt/modules/principles/decisions.html
    [Google Scholar]
  50. NCCA
    NCCA (2015) Effective questioning. NCCA.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Ní Dhíorbháin, A., & Ó Duibhir, P.
    (2017) An explicit-inductive approach to grammar in Irish-medium immersion schools. Language Awareness, 26(1), 3–24. 10.1080/09658416.2016.1261870
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2016.1261870 [Google Scholar]
  52. Ó Ceallaigh, T. J., Hourigan, M., & Leavy, A.
    (2018) Developing potentiality: Pre-service elementary teachers as learners of language immersion teaching. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 2–18. 10.1080/13670050.2018.1489779
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2018.1489779 [Google Scholar]
  53. Ó Ceallaigh, T. J., & Ní Shéaghdha, A.
    (2017) I dtreo barr feabhais: Dea-chleachtais san oideachas lán-Ghaeilge [Towards excellence: Best practice in Irish-medium education]. Gaeloideachas.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Ó Ceallaigh, T. J., Ó Laoire, M., & Uí Chonghaile, M.
    (2019) Comtháthú an ábhair agus na teanga san iar-bhunscoil lán-Ghaeilge/Ghaeltachta: I dtreo éispéiris fobartha gairmiúla chun dea-chleachtais a nochtadh [The integration of content and language in post-primary all-Irish/Gaeltacht schools: Towards professional development experiences to uncover best practice]. An Chomhairle um Oideachas Gaeltachta agus Gaelscolaíochta.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Ó Duibhir, P.
    (2018) Immersion education: Lessons from a minority language context. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/ODUIBH9832
    https://doi.org/10.21832/ODUIBH9832 [Google Scholar]
  56. Oxford, R. L.
    (2016) Teaching and researching language learning strategies (2 ed.). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315719146
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315719146 [Google Scholar]
  57. Polio, C., & Lee, J.
    (2017) Written language learning. InS. Loewen & M. Sato (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp.299–317). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315676968‑17
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315676968-17 [Google Scholar]
  58. Schmidt, R. W.
    (1990) The role of conciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 111, 129–158. 10.1093/applin/11.2.129
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/11.2.129 [Google Scholar]
  59. Schön, D. A.
    (1983) The reflective practitioner. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Segalowitz, N.
    (2000) Automaticity and attentional skill in fluent performance. InH. Riggenbach (Ed.), Perspectives on fluency (pp.200–219). University of Michigan Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Sharwood Smith, M.
    (1993) Input enhancement in instructed SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 151, 165–179. 10.1017/S0272263100011943
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100011943 [Google Scholar]
  62. Skehan, P.
    (1998) A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Snow, M. A., Met, M., & Genesee, F.
    (1989) A conceptual framework for the integration of language and content in second/foreign language Instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 23(2), 201–217. 10.2307/3587333
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587333 [Google Scholar]
  64. Spada, N.
    (1997) Form-focused instruction and second language acquisition: A review of classroom and laboratory research. Language Teaching, 301, 73–87. 10.1017/S0261444800012799
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444800012799 [Google Scholar]
  65. Swain, M.
    (1985) Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. InS. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp.235–253). Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. (1995) Three functions of output in second language learning. InG. Cook & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in honour of H.G. Widdowson (pp.125–144). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. (2005) The Output Hypothesis: Theory and research. InE. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (Vol.11, pp.471–483). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. (2013) Languaging: Collaborative dialogue as a source of second language learning. InC. A. Chapelle (Ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp.3218–3225). Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Tedick, D. J., & Fortune, T. W.
    (2013) Bilingual/immersion teacher education. InC. A. Chapelle (Ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp.438–443). Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Tedick, D. J., & Lyster, R.
    (2020) Scaffolding language development in immersion and dual language classrooms. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Troyan, F., Cammarata, L., & Martel, J.
    (2017) Integration PCK: Modeling the knowledges(s) underlying a world language teacher’s implemenataion of CBI. Foreign Language Annals, 50(2), 458–476. 10.1111/flan.12266
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12266 [Google Scholar]
  72. Truscott, J.
    (1999) What’s wrong with oral grammar correction. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 55(4), 437–456. 10.3138/cmlr.55.4.437
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.55.4.437 [Google Scholar]
  73. Vygotsky, L. S.
    (1978) Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Webb, S., & Nation, P.
    (2017) How vocabulary is learned. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Williams, J.
    (2012) The potential role(s) of writing in second language development. Journal of Second Language Writing, 211, 321–331. 10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.007 [Google Scholar]
  76. Zimmerman, B. J.
    (2002) Becoming a self-regulated learner: An overview. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64–70. 10.1207/s15430421tip4102_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4102_2 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): CLIL; immersion; language acquisition; language learning; language teaching
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error