1887
Volume 3, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2212-8433
  • E-ISSN: 2212-8441
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

This article describes the efforts undertaken by a grassroots, non-profit association established to promote French-second-language learning in Canada, and how those efforts have contributed to the advancement of Canada’s official languages policy. After identifying the historical context in which the immersion approach to second language instruction was developed, we use a historical institutionalism theory with an archival research method to examine texts produced by Canadian Parents for French over the past 38 years to see how the organization has contributed to the growth of English-French bilingualism within Canada. We then note the continuing challenges to universal access to French immersion programs which the association has identified. This article demonstrates that stakeholders can play an important role in the successful implementation of a policy and offers examples that may be relevant for international audiences seeking to promote language learning.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jicb.3.2.03gib
2015-10-02
2019-11-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Allen, P. , Cummins, J. , Harley, B. , Lapkin, S. , & Swain, M
    (1989) Restoring the balance: A response to Hammerly. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 45, 770–776.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Brehaut, P. , & Gibson, J
    (1996) Yes, you can help! A guide for French immersion parents. Edmonton: Alberta Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. British Columbia Family French Camp Society
    . (n.d.). British Columbia Family French Camp.Retrieved fromwww.bcffc.com.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Canada. Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages
    (1977) Parents conference on French language and exchange opportunities. Ottawa: Commissioner of Official Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Canadian Gallup Poll Limited, and Canadian Parents for French
    (1984, June/July). Gallup national omnibus conducted for Canadian Parents for French. Toronto: Canadian Gallup Poll Limited.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Canadian Parents for French
    . (n.d.a). How to be an immersion parent: A guidebook for parents.Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. . (n.d.b). Early childhood activity workbook.Retrieved fromcpf.ca/en/resources/for-parents/early-childhood-activity-workbook.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. . (n.d.c). Concours d’art oratoire.Retrieved fromcpf.ca/en/actvities/youth-activities/concours-dart-oratoire/.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. . (n.d.d). Allons en France. Retrieved fromcpf.ca/en/actvities/youth-activities/allons-en-france/.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. (1978) Introduction. CPF National Newsletter, 2, 1.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. (1982a) The CPF immersion registry 1982.Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. (1982b) Prince Edward Island. CPF National Newsletter, 16, 3.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. (1982c) Okanagan resort summer camp. CPF National Newsletter, 16, 3.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. (1989) Leading Canadians agree: Learning French matters!CPF National Newsletter, 45, 11.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. (1990) “A wider vision” coming soon. CPF National Newsletter, 51, 1.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. (1992a) CPF takes part in national dialogue. CPF National Newsletter, 57, 1.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. (1992b) CPF launches national campaign. CPF National Newsletter, 58, 2.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. (1995) Learning English and French opens doors to tomorrow. CPF National News, 69, 1.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. (2001) School self-assessment tool: An aid for evaluating support of French-second-language education. InThe state of French-second-language education in Canada 2001 (pp.13–18). Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. (2003) Promotional campaign now underway. CPF National News, 92, 13.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (2005a) Peer tutoring literacy program for French immersion schools launched. CPF National News, 99, 14–15.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. (2005b) The state of French-second-language education in Canada 2005. Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. (2006a) Students need facts to be confident to pursue French language courses at post-secondary level. CPF National News, 100, 1–2.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (2006b) The FSL teacher shortage bellwether survey 2006. InThe state of French-second-language education in Canada 2006: Executive summary (p.11). Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (2010a) Voices of new Canadians: Perspectives and experiences with French as a second official language in Canada. InThe state of French-second-language Education in Canada 2010: Executive summary (pp.5–7). Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. (2010b) Review of ministries of education: Policies affecting equitable access to French-second-language programs. InThe state of French-second language education in Canada 2010: Executive summary (pp.10–12). Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. (2012, November29). Brief to House of Commons Standing Committee on Official Languages re linguistic duality during the 150th anniversary celebrations of Canadian confederation in 2017. Retrieved fromcpf.ca/en/files/Brief-Eng3.pdf.
  28. (2012) The state of French-second-language education in Canada 2012: Executive summary.Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. (2013) French second language learning in Canada. Retrieved fromcpf.ca/en/files/Cdn-Parents-for-French-E.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Canadian Parents for French – British Columbia & Yukon Branch
    (2008) Growth in British Columbia’s immersion program limited by a return to caps and lotteries. InThe state of French-second-language education in Canada 2008 (p.17). Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Canadian Parents for French – Ontario Branch
    (2008) Transportation to French-second-language (FSL) programs in Ontario. InThe state of French-second-language education in Canada 2008 (p.18). Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Canadian Parents for French – Prince Edward Island Branch
    . (n.d.). Canadian Parents for French PEI: Centre Nautique de l’Istorlet/Îles-de-la-Madeleine sponsored camp.Retrieved frompei.cpf.ca/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/Information-Sheet-LIstorlet-2014.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Curran, J
    (1977) Calgary Board of Education. Parents conference on French language and exchange opportunities (pp. 60–72). Ottawa: Commissioner of Official Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Daneault, L
    (1989) French immersion in Canada: From grassroots musing to national issue.Unpublished manuscript.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Finlay, J
    (1994) Meeting the challenges of secondary French. CPF National News, 65, 7.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Fleming, B. , & Whitla, M
    (Eds.) (1990) So you want your child to learn French! (2nd ed.). Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Fraser, G
    (2007) Moving forward: Making bilingualism happen: Speaking notes for an address at the annual general meeting of Canadian Parents for French. Retrieved fromwww.ocol-clo.gc.ca/html/speech_discours_20102007_e.php.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Genesee, F
    (1987) Learning through two languages: Studies of immersion and bilingual education. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. (2015) Canada: Factors that shaped the creation and development of immersion education. In P. Mehisto (Ed.), Building bilingual education systems: Forces, mechanisms and counterweights (pp. 43–57). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Genesee, F. , & Lindholm-Leary, K
    (2013) Two case studies of content-based language education. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 1(1), 3–33 doi: 10.1075/jicb.1.1.02gen
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.1.1.02gen [Google Scholar]
  41. Goodings, S
    (1985) The CPF saga. In W.R. McGillivray (Ed.), More French, s’il vous plaît! (pp. 116-125). Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. (1997) A small miracle – Canadian Parents for French 20 years on. CPF National News, 73, 3.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Government of Canada (1988) Official Languages Act. Statutes of Canada, section 43(1)(b)&(e). Retrieved fromlois-laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/O-3.01/20140401/P1TT3xt3.html.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Halsall, N
    (1994) Attrition/retention of students in French immersion with particular emphasis on secondary school. Canadian Modern Language Review, 50(2), 312–345.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Hammerly, H
    (1989) French immersion: Myths and reality: A better classroom road to bilingualism. Calgary, Alberta: Detselig Enterprises Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Hayday, M
    (2011) Finessing federalism: The development of institutional and popular support for official languages. In J. Jedwab & R. Landry (Eds.), Life after forty. Après quarante ans. Official Languages Policy in Canada. Les politiques de langue officielle au Canada (pp.131–154). Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Heller, H. , Bartholomot, J. , Lévy, L. , & Ostiguy, L
    (1982) Le processus de francisation dans une entreprise montréalaise: Une analyse sociolinguistique. Québec: L’Editeur Officiel.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Kidder, A
    . (n.d.). Parent advocacy: The good, the bad, and the ugly.Retrieved fromwww.cea-ace.ca/education-canada/article/parent-advocacy-good-bad-and-ugly.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. King, K. , & Fogle, L
    (2006) Bilingual parenting as good parenting: Parents’ perspectives on family language policy for additive bilingualism. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9(6), 695–712. doi: 10.2167/beb362.0
    https://doi.org/10.2167/beb362.0 [Google Scholar]
  50. Konok, H
    (1990) In the footsteps of Demosthenes en français: le Festival national d’art oratoire. In B. Fleming & M. Whitla (Eds.), So you want your child to learn French! (2nd ed.), (pp.134–141). Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Lambert, W.E. , & Tucker, G.R
    (1972) The bilingual education of children: The St. Lambert experiment. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Lapkin, S. , Swain, M. , & Argue, V
    (1983) French immersion: The trial balloon that flew. Toronto: The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Lyster, R
    (2007) Learning and teaching languages through content: A counterbalanced approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/lllt.18
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.18 [Google Scholar]
  54. Mady, C
    (2010) Voices of Allophone adults and Allophone university students: Perspectives and experiences with French as a second official language in Canada. Retrieved fromcpf.ca/en/files/a-ORIGINAL-ALLO-RPT-Feb-25-2010.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Manzer, K
    (1986) CPF identified major issues at post-secondary colloquium. CPF National Newsletter, 34, 6.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. (1991) Universities have some catching up to co. CPF National Newsletter, 56, 2.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. McGillivray, W.R
    (Ed.) (1985) More French, s’il vous plaît!Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Milstone, C
    (1994, September). False immersion. Saturday Night,12–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Mlacak, B. , & Isabelle, E
    (Eds.) (1979) So you want your child to learn French!Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Oldfield, M
    (2005) Support for Anglophones in post-secondary French: A review of the literature. InThe state of French-second-language education in Canada 2005 (pp.54–67). Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Pennycook, A
    (2008) Critical applied linguistics and language education. In S. May & N. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education. Volume 1: Language policy and political issues in education (pp.169–182). New York: Kluwer. doi: 10.1007/978‑0‑387‑30424‑3_13
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-30424-3_13 [Google Scholar]
  62. Perkins, L.M
    (2013) A message from the president. CPF National News, 115, 1.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Poyen, J
    (1981) What to do about post-secondary education. CPF National Newsletter, 13, 2.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. (1989) Canadian parents for French: A national pressure group in Canadian education. Unpublished master’s thesis. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.
  65. Poyen, J. , & Gibson, J
    (1990) Core French: A brighter future. In B. Fleming & M. Whitla (Eds.), So you want your child to learn French! (2nd ed.) (pp.13–24). Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism
    (1970) Report of the Royal commission on bilingualism and biculturalism. (Appendix I: The Terms of Reference). Ottawa: Queen’s Printer.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Scane, J
    (2004) The road ahead: Core French, extended (core) French, intensive (core) French: A review of the literature. InThe state of French-second-language education in Canada 2004 (pp.50–55). Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Schwartz, M
    (2013) Immigrant parents’ and teachers’ views on bilingual preschool language policy. Language and Education, 27(1), 22–43. doi: 10.1080/09500782.2012.673626
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2012.673626 [Google Scholar]
  69. Skocpol, T
    (1995) Why I am a historical institutionalist. Polity, 28(1), 103–106. doi: 10.2307/3235190
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3235190 [Google Scholar]
  70. Skutnabb-Kangas, T
    (2000) Linguistic genocide in education – or worldwide diversity and human rights?Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Smith, M
    (Ed.) (2007) Group politics and social movements in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Statistics Canada
    (2011) Population by home language, by province and territory (2011 Census). Retrieved fromwww.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/demo61a-eng.htm.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Tollefson, J.W
    (Ed.) (2002) Language policies in education: Critical issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. United Kingdom
    (1867) The British North America Act, 1967 (The Constitution Act, 1867). Retrieved fromcanada.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/csj-sjc/constitution/lawreg-loireg/p1t11.html.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Vandergrift, L
    (2008) A common framework for languages in Canada. InThe state of French-second-language education in Canada 2008 (pp.10–11). Ottawa: Canadian Parents for French.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Ventresca, M.J. , & Mohr, J.W
    (2002) Archival research methods. InThe Blackwell companion to organizations (pp. 805–828). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Webster, P
    (1997) Belief in Canadian unity led the way for CPF. CPF National News, 73, 2.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jicb.3.2.03gib
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error