Volume 5, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2212-8433
  • E-ISSN: 2212-8441
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


This summary reports on an ethnographic study conducted in French immersion concerning the writing development of at-risk and typically developing writers. Eight Grade 7 writers – four at-risk and four typically developing – were observed closely during classroom observations and participated in think-aloud protocols at the beginning and at the end of the school year 2012–2013 as well as in formal and informal interviews. In addition, the context in which those eight writers were learning to write was taken into consideration, therefore a total of 20 students participated in this study. Four teachers, the resource teacher, the counselor, and the two administrators were informants. Adopting a sociocognitive lense, the data reported here provide a detailed description of how the socioaffective, affective, and academic domains affected writing development, especially for at-risk writers. In order to respond to the affective and social needs of the writers of this study, a Sociocognitive Model of Interventions for Writing Instruction is proposed.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Atwell, N.
    (1987) In the middle: Writing, reading and learning with adolescents. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bandura, A.
    (1986) Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. (2002) Social cognitive theory in cultural context. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51(2), 269–290. doi: 10.1111/1464‑0597.00092
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00092 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bereiter, C. , & Scardamalia, M.
    (1987) The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bergeron, L. , Rousseau, N. , & Leclerc, M.
    (2011) La pédagogie universelle: Au coeur de la planification de l’inclusion scolaire [Universal pedagogy: At the heart of planning for inclusive schooling.] Éducation et Francophonie [Education and Francophonie], 39(2), 87–104. doi: 10.7202/1007729ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/1007729ar [Google Scholar]
  6. Blain, S. , & Painchaud, G.
    (1999) L’impact de la rétroaction verbale des pairs sur l’amélioration des compositions des élèves de 5e année en immersion française [The impact of peers’ verbal feedback on the improvement of Grade 5 FI students’ texts.] The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes, 56(1), 73–98. doi: 10.3138/cmlr.56.1.73
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.56.1.73 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bourgoin, R. , & Dicks, J.
    (2013) Reading without borders: At-risk students transitioning from L1 to L2 in French immersion. In K. Arnett & C. Mady (Eds.), Minority populations in Canadian second language education (pp.118–134). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Braaksma, M. A. H. , Rijlaarsdam, G. , van den Bergh, H. , & van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M.
    (2004) Observational learning and its effects on the orchestration of writing processes. Cognition and Instruction, 22(1), 1–36. doi: 10.1207/s1532690Xci2201_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532690Xci2201_1 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bournot-Trites, M.
    (2007) Qualité de l’écrit au niveau intermédiaire en immersion française: Effet d’un programme intensif et hypothèse d’un effet de plateau [Writing quality at the middle school level in French immersion: Effect of an intensive program and plateau effect hypothesis.] Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10(1), 7–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bournot-Trites, M. , & Séror, J.
    (2003) Students’ and teachers’ perceptions about strategies which promote proficiency in second language writing. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 6(2), 129–157.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Canadian Parents for French
    . (nd). French immersion enrolment by province/territory and grade. Retrieved fromcpf.ca/en/files/COED-2012-2013-French-Immersion-by-Prov-Terr-Grade.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  12. CAST
    (2011) Universal Design for Learning guidelines Version 2.0. Wakefield, MA. Retrieved fromwww.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cavanagh, M.
    (2006) Validation d’un programme d’intervention [Validating an intervention program.] Revue des Sciences de l’Éducation [Review of Educational Sciences], 32(1), 159–182. doi: 10.7202/013481ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/013481ar [Google Scholar]
  14. CBC News
    . (March28 2008) Early French immersion program has created a two-tier system: Education minister. Retrieved fromwww.cbc.ca/news/Canada/new-brunswick/story/2008/03/28/lamrock-immersion.html
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Charmaz, K. , & Mitchell, R. G.
    (2008) Grounded theory in ethnography. In P. Atkinson , A. Coffey , S. Delamont , J. Lofland , & L. Lofland (Eds.), Handbook of ethnography (pp.160–174). London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Day, E. , & Shapson, S.
    (1991) Integrating formal and functional approaches to language teaching in French immersion: An experimental study. Language Learning, 41, 25–58. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1991.tb00675.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1991.tb00675.x [Google Scholar]
  17. Dörnyei, Z.
    (2005) The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Erdos, C. , Genesee, F. , Savage, R. & Haigh, C.
    (2013) Predicting risk for oral and written language learning difficulties in students’ education in a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35(2), 371–398. doi: 10.1017/S0142716412000422
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716412000422 [Google Scholar]
  19. Fagan, W. T. , & Hayden, H. M.
    (1988) Writing processes in French and English of fifth grade French immersion students. The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes, 44(4), 653–668.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Genesee, F.
    (2007) Immersion française et élèves à risques: Revue des données de recherche [French immersion and at-risk students: A review of research findings]. The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes, 63(5), 655–688. doi: 10.3138/cmlr.63.5.655
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.63.5.655 [Google Scholar]
  21. Genesee, F. , & Fortune, T.
    (2014) Bilingual education and at-risk students. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 2(2), 196–209. doi: 10.1075/jicb.2.2.03gen
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.2.2.03gen [Google Scholar]
  22. Hall, K.
    (1993) Process writing in French immersion. The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes, 49(2), 255–274.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hammersley, M. , & Atkinson, P.
    (2007) Ethnography. Principles in practice (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Harklau, L.
    (2005) Ethnography and ethnographic research on second language teaching and learning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp.179–194). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Harley, B.
    (1989) Functional grammar in French immersion: A classroom experiment. Applied linguistics, 10, 331–359. doi: 10.1093/applin/10.3.331
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/10.3.331 [Google Scholar]
  26. Harley, B. , & King, M. L.
    (1989) Verb lexis in the written compositions of young L2 learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11, 415–439. doi: 10.1017/S0272263100008421
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100008421 [Google Scholar]
  27. Hayes, J. R.
    (1996) A new framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing. In C. M. Levy & S. Randsdell (Eds.), The science of writing: Theories, methods, individual differences and applications (pp.1–27). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hayes, J. R. , & Flower, L.
    (1980) Identifying the organisation of writing processes. In L. Gregg & E. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive processes in writing (pp.3–30). Hillsdale, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. McKay, S. L.
    (2006) Researching second language classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Hyland, K.
    (2007) Second language writing (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kristmanson, P. , & Dicks, J.
    (2014) Looking in the one-way mirror: Reflections on the changing face(s) of immersion in North America and beyond. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 2(2), 273–287. doi: 10.1075/jicb.2.2.08kri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.2.2.08kri [Google Scholar]
  32. Kristmanson, P. , Dicks, J. , & Le Bouthillier, J.
    (2008) ÉCRI: A writing model incorporating best practices in French immersion. Proceedings of the International Association for the Scientific Knowledge-Teaching and Learning (IASK) . Aveiro, Portugal: IASK.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. (2009) ÉCRI: A writing model incorporating best practices in French immersion at the middle school level. Reflexions, 28(1), 16–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. (2010) Pedagogical applications of a second language writing model at the elementary and middle school levels. Equinox, 1(1), 37–62.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Lapkin, S. , & Swain, M.
    (2000) Task outcomes: A focus on immersion students’ use of pronominal verbs in their writing. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique appliquée, 3(1–2), 7–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lapkin, S. , Swain, M. , & Smith, M.
    (2002) Formulation and the learning of French pronominal verbs in a Canadian French immersion context. The Modern Language Journal, 86(4), 485–507. doi: 10.1111/1540‑4781.00157
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-4781.00157 [Google Scholar]
  37. Le Bouthillier, J.
    (2013) The writing processes of a Grade 7 French immersion student with Asperger Syndrome. In K. Arnett & C. Mady (Eds.), Minority populations in second language education: Broadening the lens from Canada (pp.135–150). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Le Bouthillier, J. , & Dicks, J.
    (2013) L’emploi d’un modèle d’enseignement systématique d’écriture: Une étude de cas en 7e année de l’immersion précoce [Systematic use of a writing instruction model: A case study in Grade 7 early French immersion]. The Canadian Modern Language Journal/Revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes, 69(3), 298–323. doi: 10.3138/cmlr.69.3.298
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.69.3.298 [Google Scholar]
  39. Leki, I. , Cumming, A. & Silva, T.
    (2008) A synthesis of research on second language writing in English. New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Lin, S.-J. , Monroe, B. , & Troia, G.
    (2007) Development of writing knowledge in Grades 2–8: A comparison of typically developing writers and their struggling peers. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 23, 207–230. doi: 10.1080/10573560701277542
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10573560701277542 [Google Scholar]
  41. Lyster, R.
    (1994) The effect of functional-analytic teaching on aspects of French immersion students’ sociolinguistic competence. Applied Linguistics, 15(2), 263–287. doi: 10.1093/applin/15.3.263
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/15.3.263 [Google Scholar]
  42. (2004) Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form-focused instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 399–432. doi: 10.1017/S0272263104263021
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104263021 [Google Scholar]
  43. (2007) Learning and teaching languages through content: A counterbalanced approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/lllt.18
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.18 [Google Scholar]
  44. MacKay, W.
    (2006) Connecting care and challenge: Tapping our human potential. Fredericton, N.-B.: AWM Legal Consulting.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Merriam, S.
    (2009) Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. New Brunswick Department of Education and Early Childhood Development [Google Scholar]
  47. Pearson, D. , & Gallagher, M.
    (1983) The instruction of reading comprehension. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 317–344. doi: 10.1016/0361‑476X(83)90019‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0361-476X(83)90019-X [Google Scholar]
  48. Peregoy, S. , & Boyle, O.
    (2005) Reading, writing and learning in ESL: A resource book for K–12 teachers. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Popham, W. J.
    (2008) Classroom assessment: What teachers need to know (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Porter, G. , & AuCoin, A.
    (2012) Strengthening inclusion, strengthening schools. Report of the review of inclusive education programs and practices in New Brunswick schools. An action plan for growth. Fredericton: Province of New Brunswick. Retrieved fromwww2.gnb.ca/content/dam/gnb/Departments/ed/pdf/K12/Inclusion/Inclusion.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Pritchard, R. , & Honeycutt, R.
    (2007) Best practices in implementing a process approach to teaching writing. In S. Graham , C. A. MacArthur , & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Best practices in writing instruction (pp.28–49). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Prud’homme, L. , Vienneau, R. , Ramel, S. , & Rousseau, N.
    (2011) La légimité de la diversité en éducation: Réflexions sur l’inclusion [The legacy of diversity in education: Reflections on inclusion]. Éducation et Francophonie [Education and Francophonie], 39(2), 6–22. doi: 10.7202/1007725ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/1007725ar [Google Scholar]
  53. Rehorick, S. , Dicks, J. , Kristmanson, P. , & Cogswell, F.
    (2006) Quality learning in French second language in New Brunswick: A brief to the Department of Education. Retrieved fromwww.unbf.ca/L2/Research/current/documents/FSLStudyUNBreport_complete.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Rivard, L. P.
    (1992) La production écrite en sciences: Étude préliminaire portant sur des élèves du Manitoba [Written production in sciences: A preliminary study on students from Manitoba]. Cahiers franco-canadiens de l’ouest, 4(1), 71–88.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. (2001) Summary writing: A multi-grade study of French-immersion and Francophone secondary students. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 14(2), 171–186. doi: 10.1080/07908310108666620
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07908310108666620 [Google Scholar]
  56. Rivard, L. , Dilk, S. , & Barnabé, G.
    (2004) Le groupe verbal: Compétences grammaticales des élèves au secondaire en FL1 et FL2 au Manitoba [Verbal groups: Grammatical competence of high school students in FL1 and FL2 in Manitoba]. Cahiers Franco-canadiens de l’Ouest, 12(1–2), 139–173.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. (2007) Étude comparative des compétences grammaticales d’élèves du secondaire en FL1 et en FL2 au Manitoba [Comparative study of the grammatical skills of secondary students in FL1 and FL2 in Manitoba]. The Canadian Modern Language Review/La Revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes, 63(4), 487–516. doi: 10.3138/cmlr.63.4.487
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.63.4.487 [Google Scholar]
  58. Saddler, B. , & Graham, S.
    (2007) The relationship between writing knowledge and writing performance among more and less skilled writers. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 23(3), 231–247. doi: 10.1080/10573560701277575
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10573560701277575 [Google Scholar]
  59. Scraba, E.
    (2002) A review of the New Brunswick education system anglophone sector. Edmonton, Alberta: Education Consulting International.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Shapiro, E
    . (nd). Tiered instruction and intervention in a Response-to-Intervention model. Bethlehem, PA: RTI Action Network. Retrieved fromwww.rtinetwork.org/essential/tieredinstruction/tiered-instruction-and-intervention-rti-model
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Swain, M. , & Lapkin, S.
    (1998) Interaction and second language learning: Two adolescent French immersion students working together. The Modern Language Journal, 82(3), 320–337. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1998.tb01209.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb01209.x [Google Scholar]
  62. (2001) Focus on form through collaborative dialogue: Exploring task effects. In M. Bygate , P. Skehan , & M. Swain (Eds.), Researching pedagogic tasks: Second-language learning, teaching and testing (pp.99–118). London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. (2002) Talking it through: Two French immersion learners’ responses to reformulation. International Journal of Educational Research, 37, 285–304. doi: 10.1016/S0883‑0355(03)00006‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355(03)00006-5 [Google Scholar]
  64. Trehearne, M.
    (2006) Littératie de la 3e à la 6e année [Literacy Grades 3–6.] Toronto: Thomson Nelson.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Watson-Gegeo, K. A.
    (1988) Ethnography in ESL: Defining the essentials. TESOL Quarterly, 22(4), 575–592. doi: 10.2307/3587257
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587257 [Google Scholar]
  66. Yin, R.
    (2009) Case study research (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Zollers, N. , Ramanathan, A. , & Moonset, Y.
    (1999) The relationship between school culture and inclusion: How an inclusive culture supports inclusive education. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 12(2), 157–174. doi: 10.1080/095183999236231
    https://doi.org/10.1080/095183999236231 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error