1887
Volume 6, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2213-1272
  • E-ISSN: 2213-1280
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Using four tweets by Steven Salaita about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict that resulted in the retraction of his academic job offer in September 2014 as our case study, we investigate the role of Twitter in the shaping and reception of the controversial messages. Our analysis combines Gricean pragmatics with im/politeness and hate-speech research to reveal a complex layering of potential meanings stemming from what is linguistically encoded in each tweet. Their construal as hate speech, in particular, depends on which of these potential meanings critics chose to focus upon. We account for this finding by considering the diversity of potential audiences of a tweet and suggest that the effects of context collapse on implicated meanings can be especially detrimental. Competition for attention among incoming tweets, Twitter’s central affiliative function and applicable length restrictions can, nevertheless, place a premium on communicating such meanings.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jlac.00002.ter
2018-07-02
2019-09-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Ariel, Mira
    2010Defining Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511777912
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511777912 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bach, Kent
    1994 “Conversational Implicature.” Mind & Language9 (2):124–162.10.1111/j.1468‑0017.1994.tb00220.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.1994.tb00220.x [Google Scholar]
  3. Bekafigo, Marina A. , and Allan McBride
    2013 “Who Tweets about Politics? Political Participation of Twitter Users during the 2011 Gubernatorial Elections.” Social Science Computer Review31 (5): 625–643.10.1177/0894439313490405
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439313490405 [Google Scholar]
  4. boyd, danah , Scott Golder , and Gilad Lotan
    2010 “Tweet, Tweet, Retweet: Conversational Aspects of Retweeting on Twitter.” InProceedings of the 43rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai, HI, January 5–8, 1–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brody, Samuel , and Nicholas Diakopoulos
    2011 “Cooooooooooooooollllllllllllll!!!!!!!!!!!!!!: Using Word Lengthening to Detect Sentiment in Microblogs.” InProceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 562–570. Stroudsburg, PA, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brown, Penelope , and Stephen Levinson
    (1978) 1987Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Carston, Robyn
    2002Thoughts and Utterances: The Pragmatics of Explicit Communication. Oxford: Blackwell.10.1002/9780470754603
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470754603 [Google Scholar]
  8. Celce-Murcia, Marianne , and Diane Larsen-Freeman
    1999The Grammar Book: An ESL/EFL Teacher’s Course (2nd ed). Boston: Heinle Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cole, Peter
    1975 “The Synchronic and Diachronic Status of Conversational Implicature.” InSyntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts, edited by Peter Cole and Jerry L. Morgan , 257–288. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Conover, Michael , Jacob Ratkiewicz , Matthew Francisco , Bruno Gonçalves , Filippo Menczer , and Alessandro Flammini
    2011 “Political Polarization on Twitter.” InProceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, Barcelona, 89–96. Menlo Park, California: The AAAI Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Culpeper, Jonathan , Paul Iganski , and Abe Sweiry
    2017 “Linguistic Impoliteness and Religiously Aggravated Hate Crime in England and Wales.” Journal of Language, Aggression and Conflict5 (1): 1–29.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Davis, James
    2000Threats and Promises: The Pursuit of International Influence. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Eisenstein, Jacob
    2013 “What to Do about Bad Language on the Internet.” InProceedings of the 2013 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (HLT-NAACL), 359–369. Atlanta, GA: Association for Computational Linguistics
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Finin, Tim , Will Murnane , Anand Karandikar , Nicholas Keller , Justin Martineau , and Mark Dredze
    2010 “Annotating Named Entities in Twitter Data with Crowdsourcing.” InProceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 Workshop on Creating Speech and Language Data with Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, 80–88. Stroudsburg, PA: Association for Computational Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Geis, Michael L. , and Arnold M. Zwicky
    1971 “On Invited Inferences.” Linguistic Inquiry2(4): 561–566.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Goffman, Erving
    1981Forms of Talk. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Grice, H. Paul
    (1969) 1989 “Utterer’s Meaning and Intentions.” InPhilosophical Review78(2): 147–177. Reprinted in Grice, H. Paul , Studies in the way of words, 86–116. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. (1975) 1989 “Logic and Conversation.” InSyntax and Semantics, edited by Peter Cole and Jerry L. Morgan , 3: 41–58. New York: Academic Press. Reprinted in Grice, H. Paul , Studies in the Way of Words, 22–40. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hall, Edward
    1976Beyond Culture. New York: Knopf Doubleday.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Harris, Sandra
    2001 “Being Politically Impolite: Extending Politeness Theory to Adversarial Political Discourse.” Discourse and Society12: 451–472. doi: 10.1177/0957926501012004003
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926501012004003 [Google Scholar]
  21. Haugh, Michael
    2014Im/politeness Implicatures. Berlin: De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hernández Ortiz, Hector , and Joseph S. Fulda
    2012 “Strengthening the Antecedent, Concessive Conditionals, Conditional Rhetorical Questions, and the Theory of Conditional Elements.” Journal of Pragmatics44 (3): 328–331.10.1016/j.pragma.2011.11.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.11.002 [Google Scholar]
  23. Himelboim, Itai , Stephen McCreery , and Marc Smith
    2013 “Birds of a Feather Tweet Together: Integrating Network and Content Analyses to Examine Cross-ideology Exposure on Twitter.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication18 (2): 154–174.10.1111/jcc4.12001
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12001 [Google Scholar]
  24. Horn, Laurence
    1984 “Toward a New Taxonomy for Pragmatic Inference: Q-based and R-based Implicature.” InMeaning, Form, and Use in Context: Linguistic Applications, edited by Deborah Schiffrin , 42: 11–42. Washington: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 2000 “From if to iff: Conditional Perfection as Pragmatic Strengthening.” Journal of Pragmatics32(3): 289–326.10.1016/S0378‑2166(99)00053‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00053-3 [Google Scholar]
  26. Infante, Dominic A. , and Charles J. Wigley III
    1986 “Verbal Aggressiveness: An Interpersonal Model and Measure.” Communications Monographs53 (1):61–69.10.1080/03637758609376126
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03637758609376126 [Google Scholar]
  27. Kerbrat-Orecchioni, Catherine
    1996La Conversation. Paris: Seuil.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lakoff, Robin
    1973 “The Logic of Politeness: Or, Minding Your P’s and Q’s.” In C. Corum , T. Smith-Stark & A. Weiser (eds.), Papers from the Ninth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society, Chicago, 292–305. Chicago, USA: Chicago Linguistic Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Leech, Geoffrey N.
    1983Principles of Pragmatics. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 2014The Pragmatics of Politeness. New York: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341386.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341386.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  31. Leets, Laura
    2001 “Responses to Internet Hate Sites: Is Speech too Free in Cyberspace?” Communication Law and Policy6(2): 287–317. doi: 10.1207/S15326926CLP0602_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326926CLP0602_2 [Google Scholar]
  32. 2003 “Disentangling Perceptions of Subtle Racist Speech: A Cultural Perspective.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology22 (2):145–168.10.1177/0261927X03022002001
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X03022002001 [Google Scholar]
  33. Leets, Laura , and Howard Giles
    1997 “Words as Weapons – When do they Wound? Investigations of Harmful Speech.” Human Communication Research24 (2): 260–301.10.1111/j.1468‑2958.1997.tb00415.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1997.tb00415.x [Google Scholar]
  34. Lipinski-Harten, Maciek , and Romin W. Tafarodi
    2013 “Attitude Moderation: A Comparison of Online Chat and Face-to-Face Conversation.” Computers in Human Behavior29(6): 2490–2493.10.1016/j.chb.2013.06.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.06.004 [Google Scholar]
  35. Liu, Zhe , and Ingmar Weber
    2014 “Is Twitter a Public Sphere for Online Conflicts? A Cross-ideological and Cross-hierarchical Look.” InProceedings of the 6th International Conference of Social Informatics (SocInfo2014), 336–347. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Marwick, Alice , and danah boyd
    2011 “I Tweet Honestly, I Tweet Passionately: Twitter Users, Context Collapse, and the Imagined Audience.” New Media & Society13(1):114–13310.1177/1461444810365313
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444810365313 [Google Scholar]
  37. Mills, Sara
    2003Gender and Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511615238
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615238 [Google Scholar]
  38. Nehring, Holger
    2011 “‘Civility’ in History: Some Observations on the History of the Concept.” European Review of History: Revue europeenne d’histoire18 (03):313–333.10.1080/13507486.2011.574681
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13507486.2011.574681 [Google Scholar]
  39. Nowak, John E. , Ronald D. Rotunda , and Jesse N. Young
    1986Treatise on Constitutional Law: Substance and Procedure. St. Paul, MN: West.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Papacharissi, Zizi
    2004 “Democracy Online: Civility, Politeness, and the Democratic Potential of Online Political Discussion Groups.” New Media & Society6 (2):259–283. doi: 10.1177/1461444804041444
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444804041444 [Google Scholar]
  41. Sedler, Robert
    1992 The unconstitutionality of campus bans on “racist speech”: The view from without and within. University of Pittsburgh Law Review, 53, 631–683.
  42. Sperber, Dan , and Deirdre Wilson
    1986Relevance: Communication and Cognition. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Squires, Lauren
    2016 “Twitter: Design, Discourse, and the Implications of Public Text.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Language and Digital Communication, edited by Alexandra Georgakopoulou and Tereza Spilioti , 239–255. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Squires, Lauren , and Josh Iorio
    2014 “Tweets in the News. Legitimizing Medium, Standardizing Form.” InMediatization and Sociolinguistic Change, edited by Jannis Androutsopoulos , 331–360. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Terkourafi, Marina
    2011 “From Politeness1 to Politeness2: Tracking norms of Im/politeness across Time and Space.” Journal of Politeness Research7 (2): 159–185.10.1515/jplr.2011.009
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jplr.2011.009 [Google Scholar]
  46. Watts, Richard
    2002 “From Polite Language to Educated Language: The Re-emergence of an Ideology.” InAlternative Histories of English, edited by Richard J. Watts and Peter Trudgill , 155–172. London: Routledge.10.4324/9780203468005
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203468005 [Google Scholar]
  47. Wodak, Ruth
    2007 “Pragmatics and Critical Discourse Analysis: A Cross-disciplinary Inquiry.” Pragmatics & Cognition15 (1): 203–225. doi: 10.1075/pc.15.1.13wod
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pc.15.1.13wod [Google Scholar]
  48. Zappavigna, Michele
    2011 “Ambient Affiliation: A Linguistic Perspective on Twitter.” New Media & Society13 (5): 788–806. doi: 10.1177/1461444810385097
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444810385097 [Google Scholar]
  49. 2012Discourse of Twitter and Social Media: How we Use Language to Create Affiliation on the Web. New York: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 2014 “Coffeetweets: Bonding around the Bean on Twitter.” InThe Language of Social Media: Identity and Community on the Internet, edited by Peter Seargeant and Caroline Tagg , 139–160. London: Palgrave. doi: 10.1057/9781137029317.0012
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137029317.0012 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jlac.00002.ter
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): context collapse , freedom of speech , hate speech , implicatures , impoliteness and language aggression
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error