1887
image of Covert hate speech
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Previous research on extremist discourse has revealed that racism is linguistically shaped by its socio-cultural context. For instance, a comparison between Greek Cypriot and Greek online data indicated that the two communities use different linguistic means and strategies to express their aversion to the Other, and that Greek comments are more overtly insulting than Greek Cypriot comments ( ). The present study focuses on how irony is used to disseminate hate speech, albeit covertly. Our dataset comprises online Greek and Greek Cypriot comments posted on social media and collected during the same period of time (2015- 2016) within an EU project. We use concepts such as and to deconstruct ironic racist comments. We conclude that irony in both datasets fulfils three socio-pragmatic functions: it serves to insult or humiliate members of groups targeted for their ethnic identity; it creates or reinforces negative feelings against such groups; it promotes beliefs that could be used to legitimate their mistreatment. Regarding socio-cultural differences, it emerges that the use of the Greek Cypriot vernacular and the appeal to indigenous in-group social stereotypes influence the way irony shapes racist comments and reinforces in-group membership.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jlac.00040.bai
2020-07-15
2020-08-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Alba-Juez, Laura, and Geoff Thompson
    2014 “The Many Faces and Phases of Evaluation.” InEvaluation in Context, ed. byGeoff Thompson, and Laura Alba-Juez, 3–24. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.242.01alb
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.242.01alb [Google Scholar]
  2. Assimakopoulos, Stavros, and Fabienne Baider
    2019 “Hate Speech in Online Reactions to News Articles in Cyprus and Greece.” Proceedings of the 13th ICGL Conference, University of Westminster, Westminster, September 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Attardo, Salvatore
    2000 “Irony as Relevant Inappropriateness.” Journal of Pragmatics32 (6): 793–826. 10.1016/S0378‑2166(99)00070‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00070-3 [Google Scholar]
  4. 2001Humorous Texts: A Semantic and Pragmatic Analysis. Berlin/ New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110887969
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110887969 [Google Scholar]
  5. Baker, Paul, Costas Gabrielatos, Majid KhosraviNik, Michał Krzyżanowski, Tony McEnery, and Ruth Wodak
    2008 “A Useful Methodological Synergy? Combining Critical Discourse Analysis and Corpus Linguistics to Examine Discourses of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the UK Press.” Discourse and Society19: 273–306. 10.1177/0957926508088962
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926508088962 [Google Scholar]
  6. Baider, Fabienne
    2013 “Hate: Saliency Features in Cross-cultural Semantics.” InResearch Trends in Intercultural Pragmatics, ed. byIstván Kecskés, and Jesús Romero-Trillo, 7–25. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9781614513735.7
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614513735.7 [Google Scholar]
  7. 2017 “Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Mainstream Supremacist Concepts within a Local Socio-historical Context.” Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict5 (2): 178–204. 10.1075/jlac.5.2.02bai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.5.2.02bai [Google Scholar]
  8. Baider, Fabienne, and Maria Constantinou
    2014 “How to Make People Feel Good when Wishing Hell: Golden Dawn and National Front Discourse, Emotions and Argumentation.” InNew Empirical and Theoretical Paradigms Series: Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics, ed. byJesús Romero–Trillo, 179–210. Dordrecht: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 2017a “‘At Night we’ll Come and Find you, Traitors’: Cybercommunication in the Greek-Cypriot Ultra-nationalist Space.” InGreece in Crisis: Combining Critical Discourse and Corpus Linguistics Perspectives, ed. byOurania Hatzidaki, and Dionysis Goutsos, 413–454. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/dapsac.70.12bai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.70.12bai [Google Scholar]
  10. 2017b “‘Burn the Antifa Traitors at the Stake’. Transnational Political Cyber-exchanges, Proximisation of Emotions.” InCurrent Issues in Intercultural Pragmatics, ed. byStavros Assimakopoulos, and István Kecskés, 75–102. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.274.05bai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.274.05bai [Google Scholar]
  11. Balibar, Etienne
    1991 “Is there a Neo-racism?” InRace, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities, ed. byEtienne Balibar, and Immanuel Wallerstein, 17–28. London: Verso.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Barbe, Katharina
    1995Irony in Context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.34
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.34 [Google Scholar]
  13. Barker, Martin
    1981The New Racism: Conservatives and the Ideology of the Tribe. London: Junction Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ben-David, Anat, and Ariadna Matamoros-Fernández
    2016 “Hate Speech and Covert Discrimination on Social Media: Monitoring the Facebook Pages of Extreme-right Political Parties in Spain.” International Journal of Communication10: 1167–1193.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Berry, Mike, Iñaki Garcia-Blanco, and Kerry Moore
    2016Press Coverage of the Refugee and Migrant Crisis in the EU: A Content Analysis of Five European Countries. [Project Report]. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. www.unhcr.org/56bb369c9.html
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo
    1997 ‘‘Rethinking Racism.’’ American Sociological Review62 (3): 465–80. 10.2307/2657316
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2657316 [Google Scholar]
  17. 2010Racism without Racists. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bourdieu, Pierre
    1977Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511812507
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812507 [Google Scholar]
  19. Braun, Angelika, and Astrid Schmiedel
    2018 “The Phonetics of Ambiguity: A Study on Verbal Irony.” InCultures and Traditions of Wordplay and Wordplay Research, ed. byEsme Winter-Froemel, and Verena Thaler, 111–136. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctvbkjv1f
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Brindle, Andrew
    2016The Language of Hate: A Corpus Linguistic Analysis of White Supremacist Language. London/New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315731643
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315731643 [Google Scholar]
  21. Brown, Alexander
    2018 “What is so Special about Online (as Compared to Offline) Hate Speech?” Ethnicities18 (3): 297–326. 10.1177/1468796817709846
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1468796817709846 [Google Scholar]
  22. Brown, Christopher
    2009 “White Supremacist Discourse on the Internet and the Construction of Whiteness Ideology.” Howard Journal of Communications20 (2): 189–208. 10.1080/10646170902869544
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10646170902869544 [Google Scholar]
  23. Chovanec, Jan
    2018 “Irony as Counter Positioning.” InThe Pragmatics of Irony and Banter, ed. byManuel Jobert, and Sandrine Sorlin, 165–194. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/lal.30.09cho
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lal.30.09cho [Google Scholar]
  24. Citron, Danielle Keats
    2014Hate Crimes in Cyberspace. Harvard, MA: Harvard University Press. 10.4159/harvard.9780674735613
    https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674735613 [Google Scholar]
  25. Cohen-Almagor, Raphael
    2017 “Why Confronting the Internet’s Dark Side?” Philosophia45: 919–929. 10.1007/s11406‑015‑9658‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11406-015-9658-7 [Google Scholar]
  26. Cuddy, Amy J. C., Susan T. Fiske, and Peter Glick
    2007 “The BIAS Map: Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology92 (4): 631–48. 10.1037/0022‑3514.92.4.631
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.92.4.631 [Google Scholar]
  27. Culpeper, Jonathan, Leyla Marti, Meilian Mei, Minna Nevala, and Gina Schauer
    2010 “Cross-cultural Variation in the Perception of Impoliteness: A Study of Impoliteness Events Reported by Students in England, China, Finland, Germany and Turkey.” Intercultural Pragmatics7 (4): 597–624. 10.1515/iprg.2010.027
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iprg.2010.027 [Google Scholar]
  28. Daniels, Jessie
    2008 “Race, Civil Rights, and Hate Speech in the Digital Era.” InLearning Race and Ethnicity: Youth and Digital Media, ed. byAnna Everett, 129–154. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Dennison, James, and Lenka Drazanova
    2018Public Attitudes on Migration. Firenze: European University Institute.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Dynel, Marta
    2016 “Two Layers of Overt Untruthfulness: When Irony Meets Metaphor, Hyperbole or Meiosis.” Pragmatics and Cognition23 (2): 259–283. 10.1075/pc.23.2.03dyn
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pc.23.2.03dyn [Google Scholar]
  31. 2017 “The Irony of Irony: Irony Based on Truthfulness.” Corpus Pragmatics1: 3–36. 10.1007/s41701‑016‑0003‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s41701-016-0003-6 [Google Scholar]
  32. 2018Irony, Deception and Humour: Seeking the Truth about Overt and Covert Untruthfulness. Boston/Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781501507922
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501507922 [Google Scholar]
  33. Erjavec, Karmen, and Melita Poler Kovačič
    2012 “‘You don’t understand, this is a new war!’: Analysis of Hate Speech in News Web Sites’ Comments.” Mass Communication and Society15: 899–92. 10.1080/15205436.2011.619679
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2011.619679 [Google Scholar]
  34. Fessler, Daniel M. T., and Kevin J. Haley
    2003 “The Strategy of Affect: Emotions in Human Cooperation.” InThe Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation, ed. byPeter Hammerstein, 7–36. Boston: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Fine, Gary A.
    1983 “Sociological Approaches to the Study of Humor.” InHandbook of Humor Research, ed. byPaul E. McGhee, and Jeffrey H. Goldstein, 159–181. New York, NY: Springer. 10.1007/978‑1‑4612‑5572‑7_8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-5572-7_8 [Google Scholar]
  36. Ford, Thomas E., and Mark A. Ferguson
    2004 “Social Consequences of Disparagement Humor: A Prejudiced Norm Theory.” Personality and Social Psychology Review8(1): 79–94. 10.1207/S15327957PSPR0801_4
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327957PSPR0801_4 [Google Scholar]
  37. Giora, Rachel
    2003On our Mind: Salience, Context and Figurative Language. New York: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136166.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136166.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  38. Hill, Jane
    2008The Everyday Language of White Racism. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781444304732
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444304732 [Google Scholar]
  39. Hunston, Susan, and Geoffrey Thompson
    2000Evaluation in Text: Authorial Stance and the Construction of Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Jane, Emma A.
    2014 “‘Your a Ugly, Whorish, Slut’: Understanding E-bile.” Feminist Media Studies144: 531–546. 10.1080/14680777.2012.741073
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2012.741073 [Google Scholar]
  41. 2017Misogyny Online: A Short (and Brutish) History. London: Sage. 10.4135/9781473916029
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781473916029 [Google Scholar]
  42. Jobert, Manuel, and Sandrine Sorlin
    2018 “Introduction. The Intricacies of Irony and Banter.” InThe Pragmatics of Irony and Banter, ed. byManuel Jobert, and Sandrine Sorlin, 3–21. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/lal.30.01job
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lal.30.01job [Google Scholar]
  43. Keum, Brian TaeHyuk, and Matthew Miller
    2018 “Racism on the Internet: Conceptualization and Recommendations for Research.” Psychology of Violence8 (6): 782–791. 10.1037/vio0000201
    https://doi.org/10.1037/vio0000201 [Google Scholar]
  44. Kim, Sei-hill, John P. Carvalho, Andrew G. Davis, and Amanda M. Mullins
    2011 “The View of the Border: News Framing of the Definition, Causes, and Solutions to Illegal Immigration.” Mass Communication and Society14: 292–314. 10.1080/15205431003743679
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15205431003743679 [Google Scholar]
  45. Leech, Geoffrey
    2014The Pragmatics of Politeness. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341386.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341386.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  46. Locher, Miriam A.
    2011 “Situated Impoliteness: The Interface between Relational Work and Identity Construction.” InSituated Politeness, ed. byBethan L. Davies, Michael Haugh, and Andrew John Merrison, 187–208. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Lockyer, Sharon, and Michael Pickering
    2008 “You must be Joking: The Sociological Critique of Humour and Comic Media.” Sociology Compass2 (3): 808–820. 10.1111/j.1751‑9020.2008.00108.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2008.00108.x [Google Scholar]
  48. Meyer, John C.
    2000 “Humor as a Double-edged Sword: Four Functions of Humor in Communication.” Communication Theory10 (3): 310–31. 10.1111/j.1468‑2885.2000.tb00194.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2000.tb00194.x [Google Scholar]
  49. Millar, Sharon, Fabienne H. Baider, and Stavros Assimakopoulos
    2017 “The C.O.N.T.A.C.T. Methodological Approach.” InOnline Hate Speech in the European Union: A Discourse Analytic Perspective, ed. byStavros Assimakopoulos, Fabienne H. Baider, and Sharon Millar, 17–24. New York, NY: Springer Briefs in Linguistics. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-319-72604-5
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Musolff, Andreas
    (ed) 2017 “Public Debates on Immigration.” Special issue, Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict5(2). 10.1075/jlac.5.2.01mus
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.5.2.01mus [Google Scholar]
  51. O’Sullivan, Patrick, and Andrew J. Flanagin
    2003 “Reconceptualizing ‘Flaming’ and other Problematic Messages.” New Media and Society51: 69–94. 10.1177/1461444803005001908
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444803005001908 [Google Scholar]
  52. Partington, Alan
    2007 “Irony and Reversal of Evaluation.” Journal of Pragmatics39 (9): 1547–1569. 10.1016/j.pragma.2007.04.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2007.04.009 [Google Scholar]
  53. Pérez, Raúl
    2013 “Learning to Make Racism Funny in the ‘Color-blind’ Era: Stand-up Comedy Students, Performance Strategies, and the (Re)production of Racist Jokes in Public.” Discourse and Society24 (4): 478–503. 10.1177/0957926513482066
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926513482066 [Google Scholar]
  54. 2017 “Racism without Hatred? Racist Humor and the Myth of ‘Colorblindness’.” Sociological Perspectives60 (5): 956–974. 10.1177/0731121417719699
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0731121417719699 [Google Scholar]
  55. Philips, Michael
    1984 “Racist Acts and Racist Humor.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy14 (1): 75–96. 10.1080/00455091.1984.10716369
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00455091.1984.10716369 [Google Scholar]
  56. Reisigl, Martin, and Ruth Wodak
    2001Discourse and Discrimination: Rhetoric of Racism and Anti-semitism. London/New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Shelley, Cameron
    2001 “The Bicoherence Theory of Situational Irony.” Cognitive Science25: 775–818. 10.1207/s15516709cog2505_7
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog2505_7 [Google Scholar]
  58. Sophocleous, Andrea, and Christiana Themistocleous
    2014 “Projecting Social and Discursive Identities through Code-switching on Facebook: The Case of Greek Cypriots.” [email protected], 11, article 5.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Sperber, Dan, and Deirdre Wilson
    1981 “Irony and the Use-Mention Distinction.” InRadical Pragmatics, ed. byPeter Cole, 295–318. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Taguieff, Pierre-André
    1990 “The New Cultural Racism in France.” Telos82: 109–122. 10.3817/0390083109
    https://doi.org/10.3817/0390083109 [Google Scholar]
  61. 2001The Force of Prejudice: On Racism and its Doubles. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Trimikliniotis, Nicos, and Corina Demetriou
    2014 “Cyprus.” InEuropean Immigration: A Sourcebook, 2nd edition, ed. byAnna Triantafyllidou, and Ruby Gropas, 67–82. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Tsakona, Villy
    2018 “Online Joint Fictionalization.” InThe Dynamics of Interactional Humor: Creating and Negotiating Humor in Everyday Encounters, ed. byVilly Tsakona, and Jan Chovanec, 229–256. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/thr.7.10tsa
    https://doi.org/10.1075/thr.7.10tsa [Google Scholar]
  64. Tsakona, Villy, and Argiris Archakis
    2019 “Racism in Recent Greek Migrant Jokes Humor.” International Journal of Humor Research32 (2): 267–287. 10.1515/humor‑2018‑0044
    https://doi.org/10.1515/humor-2018-0044 [Google Scholar]
  65. Tsakona, Villy, Rania Karachaliou, and Argiris Archakis
    2020, this issue. “Liquid Racism in the Greek Anti-Racist Campaign #StopMindBorders.” Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict8 (2).
    [Google Scholar]
  66. UNCHR 2019 report
    UNCHR 2019 report, Perceptions of Cypriots about Refugees and Migrantshttps://www.unhcr.org/cy/wp-content/uploads/sites/41/2019/03/Perceptions_FULL-REPORT-FINAL_8March2019.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Utsumi, Akira
    2000 “Verbal Irony as Implicit Display of Ironic Environment: Distinguishing Ironic Utterances from Non-irony.” Journal of Pragmatics32 (12): 1777–1806. 10.1016/S0378‑2166(99)00116‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00116-2 [Google Scholar]
  68. van Dijk, Teun A.
    1987Communicating Racism: Ethnic Prejudice in Thought and Talk. London: Sage Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 1991Racism and the Press: Critical Studies in Racism and Migration. London/New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 2011 “Discourse and Ideology”. Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction, ed. byTeun van Dijk, 379–407. Newbury Park: Sage. 10.4135/9781446289068.n18
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446289068.n18 [Google Scholar]
  71. Waldron, Jeremy
    2012The Harm in Hate Speech. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 10.4159/harvard.9780674065086
    https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674065086 [Google Scholar]
  72. Weaver, Simon
    2007 “Humour, Rhetoric and Racism: A Sociological Critique of Racist Humour.” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bristol.
  73. 2010 “Liquid Racism and the Danish Prophet Muhammad Cartoons.” Current Sociology58 (5): 675–692. 10.1177/0011392110372728
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0011392110372728 [Google Scholar]
  74. 2011 “Liquid Racism and the Ambiguity of Ali G.” European Journal of Cultural Studies14 (3): 249–264. 10.1177/1367549410396004
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367549410396004 [Google Scholar]
  75. 2016The Rhetoric of Racist Humour: US, UK and Global Race Joking. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315553504
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315553504 [Google Scholar]
  76. Weizman, Elda
    2015 “Irony in and through Follow-ups: Talk and Meta-talk in Online Commenting in the Israeli Context.” InThe Dynamics of Political Discourse: Forms and Functions of Follow-ups, ed. byAnita Fetzer, Elda Weizman, and Lawrence N. Berlin, 173–194. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.259.07wei
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.259.07wei [Google Scholar]
  77. Wilson, Deidre
    2006 “The Pragmatics of Verbal Irony: Echo or Pretence?” Lingua116: 1722–1743. 10.1016/j.lingua.2006.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2006.05.001 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jlac.00040.bai
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jlac.00040.bai
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error