1887
Volume 9, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2213-1272
  • E-ISSN: 2213-1280
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Violence against women in politics encompasses physical, psychological, economic, sexual and semiotic forms of violence, targeting women because their gender is seen as threatening to hegemonic political norms. Theoretical debates over these categories and empirical applications to global cases often overlook that backgrounds and lived experiences of women in politics can differ considerably. Using the United Kingdom as a case study, in this article I analyze different manifestations of online semiotic violence – violence perpetrated through words and images seeking to render women incompetent and invisible (Krook 2020, 187) – against female, religious-minority politicians. Through a qualitative discursive approach, I identify patterns and strategies of violence in an original dataset of Twitter posts that mention the usernames of seven prominent Muslim and Jewish female politicians. Results show that multiply-marginalized politicians are exposed to both sexist and racist rhetoric online. In this case, semiotic violence functions to render women incompetent using racist disloyalty tropes as well as to render women invisible by invalidating their testimonies of abuse.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jlac.00055.kup
2021-03-04
2021-05-10
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. All-Party Parliamentary Group against Antisemitism
    All-Party Parliamentary Group against Antisemitism 2006Report of the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Antisemitism. https://archive.jpr.org.uk/download?id=1274
    [Google Scholar]
  2. All Party Parliamentary Group on British Muslims
    All Party Parliamentary Group on British Muslims 2018Islamophobia Defined. https://appg​british​muslims.org/publications
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Amnesty International
    Amnesty International 2018 “Women abused on Twitter every 30 seconds – new study.” https://www.amnesty.org.uk/press-releases/women-abused-twitter-every-30-seconds-new-study
  4. Bardall, Gabrielle, Gift Murombo, Tazreen Hussain, and Otito Greg-Obi
    2018Violence against Women in Elections in Zimbabwe: An IFES Assessment. International Foundation for Election Systems. https://www.ifes.org/sites/default/files/vawie_in_zimbabwe_july_2018.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  5. BBC News
    BBC News 2017 “Jewish and Muslim women MPs’ face most abuse.” BBC News, March21.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. BBC News
    BBC News 2019 “A guide to Labour Party anti-Semitism claims.” BBC News, July16.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Beard, Mary
    2017Women and Power: A Manifesto. London: Profile Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Berry, Marie, Yolande Bouka, and Marilyn Muthoni Kamuru
    2017 “Kenyan Women just Fought one of the most Violent Campaigns in History.” Foreign Policy. https://foreign​policy.com/2017/08/07/kenyas-female-politicians-just-fought-the-one-of-the-most-violent-campaign-in-history-election/
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Brechenmacher, Saskia
    2017 “Fighting Violence against Women in Politics: The Limits of Legal Reform.” International Peace Institute – The Global Observatory. October5.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Breslin, Rachel, Sheela Pandey, and Norma Riccucci
    2017 “Intersectionality in Public Leadership Research: A Review and Future Research Agenda.” Review of Public Personnel Administration37(2): 160–182. doi: 10.1177/2F0734371X17697118
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2F0734371X17697118 [Google Scholar]
  11. Brody, Jane E.
    2011 “The Twice-Victimized of Sexual Assault.” The New York Times, December 12.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Burke, Shani
    2018 “The Discursive ‘Othering’ of Jews and Muslims in the Britain First Solidarity Patrol.” Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology28(5): 365–377. doi:  10.1002/casp.2373
    https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.2373 [Google Scholar]
  13. Burnap, Pete, and Matthew Williams [Google Scholar]
  14. Butler, Judith
    1990Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York; London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Casciani, Dominic
    2018 “Religious Hate Crimes: Rise in Offences Recorded by Police.” BBC News, October16.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Castle, Stephen
    2018 “Anti-Semitism Accusations Taint Labour Party, Once Home to U.K.’s Jews.” The New York Times, 29March.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Citizens UK
    Citizens UK 2018The Missing Muslims: Unlocking British Muslim Potential for the Benefit of All. https://www.citizensuk.org/missing_muslims
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cocozza, Paula
    2019 “I’m a Black Female MP. Why do People Assume my White Office Manager is my Boss?” The Guardian, October8.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Cole, Mike
    2015Racism: A Critical Analysis. London: Pluto Press. 10.2307/j.ctt18gzdjq
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt18gzdjq [Google Scholar]
  20. Collins, Patricia Hill
    2000Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 2007 “Pushing the Boundaries or Business as Usual? Race, Class and Gender Studies and Sociological Inquiry.” InSociology in America: A History, ed. byCraig Calhoun, 572–604. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Crenshaw, Kimberlé
    1989 “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex.” University of Chicago Legal Forum1: 139–167.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Criado Perez, Caroline
    2019Invisible Women: Data Bias in a World Designed for Men. New York: Abrams Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. CST
    CST 2018 “Annual Review. 2018”. Community Security Trust. https://cst.org.uk/data/file/2/c/Annual%20Review%202018%20-%20ER%20edit%20web.1550505710.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Dearden, Lizzie
    2018 “Religious Hate Crime Rises 40% in England and Wales – with More than Half Directed at Muslims.” The Independent, October16.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Dhrodia, Azmina
    2017 “Black and Asian Women MPs Abused More Online.” Amnesty International. https://www.amnesty.org.uk/online-violence-women-mps
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Dotson, Kristie
    2011 “Epistemic Violence, Tracking Practices of Silencing.” Hypatia26(2): 236–257. doi:  10.1111/j.1527‑2001.2011.01177.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.2011.01177.x [Google Scholar]
  28. Eagly, Alice, Mona Makhijani, and Bruce Klonsky
    1992 “Gender and the Evaluation of Leaders: A Meta-Analysis.” Psychological Bulletin111(1): 3–22. doi:  10.1037/0033‑2909.111.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.111.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  29. eMarketer
    eMarketer 2018 “Social Media Platforms Used by UK Internet Users, by Age, Sep 2017 (% of respondents in each group).” https://www.emarketer.com/chart/212173/social-media-platforms-used-by-uk-internet-users-by-age-sep-2017-of-respondents-each-group
  30. Esposito, Eleonora
    2021 “Introduction: Critical Perspectives on Gender, Politics and Violence.” Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict: Special Issue on Critical Perspectives on Gender, Politics and Violence. 10.1075/jlac.00051.int
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00051.int [Google Scholar]
  31. Esposito, Eleonora, and Sole Alba Zollo
    2021 “‘How dare you call her a pig, I know several pigs who would be upset if they knew’: A Multimodal Critical Discursive Approach to Online Misogyny against UK MPs on YouTube.” Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict: Special Issue on Critical Perspectives on Gender, Politics and Violence. 10.1075/jlac.00053.esp
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00053.esp [Google Scholar]
  32. Feldman, Matthew, and Mark Littler
    2014Tell MAMA Reporting 2013/14 Anti-Muslim Overview, Analysis and ‘Cumulative Extremism’. Teesside University. https://www.tellmamauk.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/finalreport.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Fricker, Miranda
    2007Epistemic Injustice: Power and the Ethics of Knowing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198237907.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198237907.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  34. GOV.UK
    GOV.UK 2017Intimidation in Public Life: A Review by the Committee on Standards in Public Life. Committee on Standards in Public Life. https://www.gov.uk/government/pub​li​cations/inti​midation-in-public-life-a-review-by-the-committee-on-standards-in-public-life
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Grassegger, Hannes
    2019 “The Unbelievable Story of the Plot against George Soros.” Buzzfeed News, January20.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Hargreaves, Julian, and L. Daniel Staetsky
    2019 “Antisemitism and Islamophobia: Measuring Everyday Sensitivity in the UK.” Ethnic and Racial Studies43(12): 2176–2198. doi:  10.1080/01419870.2019.1682177
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2019.1682177 [Google Scholar]
  37. International Foundation for Electoral Systems
    International Foundation for Electoral Systems 2019Violence against Women in Elections Online: A Social Media Analysis Tool. https://www.ifes.org/publications/violence-against-women-elections-online-social-media-analysis-tool
    [Google Scholar]
  38. ITV
    ITV 2018 “Jeremy Corbyn: MPs ‘not under threat’ at Labour Party Conference.” ITV. September26.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. King, Deborah
    1988 “Multiple Jeopardy, Multiple Consciousness: The Context of a Black Feminist Ideology.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society14(1): 42–72. 10.1086/494491
    https://doi.org/10.1086/494491 [Google Scholar]
  40. Klug, Brian
    2014 “The Limits of Analogy: Comparing Islamophobia and Antisemitism.” Patterns of Prejudice48(5): 442–459. doi:  10.1080/0031322X.2014.964498
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0031322X.2014.964498 [Google Scholar]
  41. Knapp, Gudrun-Axeli
    2005 “Race, Class, Gender: Reclaiming Baggage in Fast Traveling Theories.” European Journal of Women’s Studies12: 249–265. 10.1177/1350506805054267
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1350506805054267 [Google Scholar]
  42. Komath, Ashwath
    2014 “On Scrutiny and Representation of Women in Politics.” iKNOW Politics (blog). October27.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Kopytowska, Monika
    2021 “Xenophobia, Misogyny and Rape Culture: Targeting Women in Cyberspace.” Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict: Special Issue on Critical Perspectives on Gender, Politics and Violence. 10.1075/jlac.00054.kop
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00054.kop [Google Scholar]
  44. Krook, Mona Lena
    2017 “Violence against Women in Politics.” Journal of Democracy7(1): 74–88. 10.1353/jod.2017.0007
    https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.2017.0007 [Google Scholar]
  45. 2020Violence against Women in Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780190088460.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190088460.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  46. Krook, Mona Lena, and Juliana Restrepo Sanín
    2016 “Gender and Political Violence in Latin America: Concepts, Debates, and Solutions.” Política y GobiernoXXIII(1): 125–157.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 2019 “The Cost of Doing Politics? Analyzing Violence and Harassment against Female Politicians.” Perspectives on Politics18(3): 740–755. doi:  10.1017/S1537592719001397
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592719001397 [Google Scholar]
  48. Kuperberg, Rebecca
    2018 “Intersectional Violence against Women in Politics.” Politics & Gender14(4): 685–690. doi:  10.1017/S1743923X18000612
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743923X18000612 [Google Scholar]
  49. Kushner, Tony
    2013 “Anti-Semitism in Britain: Continuity and the Absence of a Resurgence?” Ethnic and Racial Studies36(3): 434–449. doi:  10.1080/01419870.2013.734387
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2013.734387 [Google Scholar]
  50. Lacey, Jonathan
    2014 “‘Turkish Islam’ as ‘Good Islam’: How the Gülen Movement Exploits Discursive Opportunities in a Tweet-9/11 Milieu.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs34(2): 95–110. doi:  10.1080/13602004.2014.912861
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13602004.2014.912861 [Google Scholar]
  51. Lazar, Michelle M.
    2007 “Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis: Articulating a Feminist Discourse Praxis.” Critical Discourse Studies4(2): 141–164. doi:  10.1080/17405900701464816
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17405900701464816 [Google Scholar]
  52. Levey, Tania G.
    2018Sexual Harassment Online: Shaming and Silencing Women in the Digital Age. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Linehan, Thomas
    2012 “Comparing Antisemitism, Islamophobia, and Asylophobia: The British Case.” Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism12(2). doi:  10.1111/j.1754‑9469.2012.01161.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9469.2012.01161.x [Google Scholar]
  54. Mamdani, Mahmood
    2004Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: America, the Cold War, and the Roots of Terror. New York: Pantheon Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. McCall, Leslie
    2005 “The Complexity of Intersectionality.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society30(3): 1771–1800. doi:  10.1086/426800
    https://doi.org/10.1086/426800 [Google Scholar]
  56. Meer, Nasar
    2013a “Racialization and Religion: Race, Culture and Difference in the Study of Antisemitism and Islamophobia.” Ethnic and Racial Studies36(3): 385–398. doi:  10.1080/01419870.2013.734392
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2013.734392 [Google Scholar]
  57. 2013b “Semantics, Scales and Solidarities in The Study of Antisemitism and Islamophobia.” Ethnic and Racial Studies36(3): 500–515. doi:  10.1080/01419870.2013.734382
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2013.734382 [Google Scholar]
  58. Noble, Safiya
    2018Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. New York: New York University Press. 10.2307/j.ctt1pwt9w5
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1pwt9w5 [Google Scholar]
  59. Och, Malliga
    2019 “Manterrupting in the German Bundestag: Gendered Opposition to Female Members of Parliament?” Politics & Gender16(2): 388–408. doi:  10.1017/S1743923X19000126
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743923X19000126 [Google Scholar]
  60. Prins, Baukje
    2006 “Narrative Accounts of Origins: A Blind Spot in the Intersectional Approach?” European Journal of Women’s Studies13(3): 277–290. 10.1177/1350506806065757
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1350506806065757 [Google Scholar]
  61. Proctor, Kate
    2019 “Boris Johnson urged to apologise for ‘derogatory and racist’ letterboxes article.” The Guardian, September4.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Puwar, Nirmal
    2004Space Invaders: Race, Gender and Bodies out of Place. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Razack, Sherene
    1998Looking White People in the Eye: Gender, Race, and Culture in Courtrooms and Classrooms. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Restrepo Sanín, Juliana
    2018 “Violence against Women in Politics in Latin America.” Ph.D. Dissertation, Political Science, Rutgers University.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Rheault, Ludovic, Erica Rayment, and Andreea Musulan
    2019 “Politicians in the Line of Fire: Incivility and the Treatment of Women on Social Media.” Research & Politics6(1). doi:  10.1177/2053168018816228
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168018816228 [Google Scholar]
  66. Rosette, Ashleigh Shelby, Christy Zhou Koval, Anyi Ma, and Robert Livingston
    2016 “Race Matters for Women Leaders: Intersectional Effects on Agentic Deficiencies and Penalties.” The Leadership Quarterly27(3): 429–445. doi:  10.1016/j.leaqua.2016.01.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2016.01.008 [Google Scholar]
  67. Rudman, Laurie, Corinne Moss-Racusin, Julie Phelan, and Sanne Nauts
    2012 “Status Incongruity and Backlash Effects: Defending the Gender Hierarchy Motivates Prejudice against Female Leaders.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology48(1): 165–179. doi:  10.1016/j.jesp.2011.10.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2011.10.008 [Google Scholar]
  68. Sabbagh, Dan
    2019 “Tories Suspend 14 Members Over Alleged Islamophobia.” The Guardian, March5.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Sanbonmatsu, Kira
    2008 “Gender Backlash in American Politics?” Politics & Gender4(4): 634–642. doi:  10.1017/S1743923X08000512
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743923X08000512 [Google Scholar]
  70. Shames, Shauna
    2015 “Barriers and Solutions to Increasing Women’s Political Power.” Paper presented atThe Women Effect Symposium. https://scholars.org/sites/scholars/files/shauna_shames_-_barriers_and_solutions.pdf
  71. Šimonović, Dubravka
    2018 “Violence against Women in Politics.” www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/73/301
  72. Sommers, Jack
    2018 “Study Lays Bare the Scale of Online ‘Venom’ Jewish Female MPs Face.” The JC, November25.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Sue, Derald Wing
    2010 “Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life.” Psychology Today, October5.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Swami, Viren, David Barron, Laura Weis, and Adrian Furnham
    2017 “To Brexit or not to Brexit: The Roles of Islamophobia, Conspiracist Beliefs, and Integrated Threat in Voting Intentions for the United Kingdom European Union Membership Referendum.” British Journal of Psychology109(1). doi:  10.1111/bjop.12252
    https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12252 [Google Scholar]
  75. Topolski, Anya
    2018 “Good Jew, bad Jew … good Muslim, bad Muslim: ‘managing’ Europe’s others.” Ethnic and Racial Studies41(12): 2179–2196. doi:  10.1080/01419870.2018.1391402
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2018.1391402 [Google Scholar]
  76. UN General Assembly
    UN General Assembly 1993 “Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women.” https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/violenceagainstwomen.aspx
  77. Ward, Stephen, and Liam McLoughlin
    2020 “Turds, Traitors and Tossers: The Abuse of UK MPs via Twitter.” The Journal of Legislative Studies26(1): 47–73. doi:  10.1080/13572334.2020.1730502
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13572334.2020.1730502 [Google Scholar]
  78. Weller, Paul
    2006 “Addressing Religious Discrimination and Islamophobia: Muslims and Liberal Democracies. The Case of the United Kingdom.” Journal of Islamic Studies17(3): 295–325. doi:  10.1093/jis/etl001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jis/etl001 [Google Scholar]
  79. Yorke, Harry
    2019 “Joan Ryan Becomes Eighth Labour MP To Quit, Blaming ‘Culture of Anti-Semitism’ under Corbyn Leadership.” The Telegraph, February20.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Zeiter, Kirsten, Sandra Pepera, Molly Middlehurst, and Derek Ruths
    2019Tweets that Chill: Analyzing Online Violence Against Women in Politics. National Democratic Institute. https://www.ndi.org/sites/default/files/NDI%20Tweets%20That%20Chill%20Report.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Zempi, Irene
    2019 “Veiled Muslim Women’s Responses to Experiences of Gendered Islamophobia in the UK.” International Review of Victimology26(1): 96–111. doi:  10.1177/0269758019872902
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0269758019872902 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jlac.00055.kup
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jlac.00055.kup
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): British politics; gender and politics; social media; violence against women
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error