1887
image of Verbal horror and slaughterhouse imagery in media representation of herdsmen violence
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Nigerian media reports on herdsmen’s violence present dehumanised images of a slaughterhouse in which farmers are represented as animals being slaughtered by herders. Using a critical discourse analysis and appraisal framework, with a focus on the systems of and , this paper critically examines media representation of herdsmen’s violence as “butchering” in the form of carnism. Analysis reveals that carnist representation is reinforced through death-dealing socio-cognitive labelling, attitudinal lexicalisation and strands of carnism. Also, using and resources, a one-directional and horrific image is painted. The study concludes that the creation as well as consumption of such scary news cultivates cognitive prejudices and stereotypes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jlac.00070.igw
2021-10-26
2022-05-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abdulai, Abubakari, and Felix Yakubu
    2014 “Pastoralism and Violence in Northern Ghana: Socialization and Professional Requirement.” International Journal of Research in Social Science4(5): 102–111.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Abdulbaqi, Saudat, and Ogaga Ariemu
    2017 “Newspapers Framing of Herdsmen-Farmers’ Conflicts in Nigeria and Its Implication on Peace-Oriented Journalism Creative Artist.” Journal of Theatre and Media Studies11(2): 77–105.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Agyemang, Emmanuel
    2017 “Farmer-Herder Conflict in Africa: An Assessment of the Causes and Effects of the Sedentary Farmers-Fulani Herdsmen Conflict. A Case Study of the Agogo Traditional Area, Ashanti Region of Ghana.” Master’s Thesis, University of Agder.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Akerjiir, Anastasia
    2018 “Increasing Farmer-Herder Conflict in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Clashes between the Fulani Herdsmen and Indigenous Farmers in Ukpabi-Nimbo Community Enugu State.” Master’s Thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Akinyetun, Tope
    2016 “Staff to Gun: Fulani Herdsmen in Nigeria.” Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies4(8): 38–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Alfred, Bukola, and Folajimi Oyebola
    2019 “Media Perspectives on Boko Haram Insurgency and Herdsmen-Farmers’ Crises in Nigeria.” Linguistik Online95(2): 3–16. 10.13092/lo.95.5513
    https://doi.org/10.13092/lo.95.5513 [Google Scholar]
  7. Aliyu, Kolawole, Hope Ikedinma, and Adeyoola Akinwande
    2018 “Assessment of the Effect of Farmers-Herdsmen Conflicts on National Integration in Nigeria.” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science8(10): 118–128.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Amer, Mohammedwesam
    2015 “War Reporting in the International Press: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Gaza War of 2008–2009.” PhD Thesis, University of Hamburg.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Anthony, Laurence
    2019AntConc (Version 3.5.8) [Computer Software]. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Retrieved fromwww.laurenceanthony.net/
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bignell, Jonathan
    1997Media Semiotics: An Introduction. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bukari, Kaderi, and Nicholaus Schareika
    2015 “Stereotypes, Prejudices and Exclusion of Fulani Pastoralists in Ghana.” Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice5(20): 1–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chiluwa, Innocent, and Isioma Chiluwa
    2020 “Deadlier than Boko Haram: Representations of the Nigerian Herder-Farmer Conflict in the Local and Foreign Press.” Media, War and Conflict (Published online first). doi:  10.1177/1750635220902490
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750635220902490 [Google Scholar]
  13. Chinwokwu, Eke
    2015 “Community-Based Early Warning in Conflict Management and Peace Building in Nigeria: An Analysis of Internal Security Issues.” Journal of Culture, Society and Development9: 3–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 2017 “Glamorization of Fulani Herdsmen’s Criminality and its Implications on National Security in Nigeria.” Online Journal of Arts, Management and Social Sciences2(2): 29–51.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ciboh, Rodney
    2017 “Framing the Herdsmen-Farmers’ Conflicts and Peace Building in Nigeria.” Mkar Journal of Media and Culture2(2): 1–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Chomsky, Noam
    2002Understanding Power: The Indispensable Chomsky. New York: The New Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Croteau, David, and William Hoynes
    2003Media/Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences. 3rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dary, Stanley, Harvey James, and Asaah Mohammed
    2017 “Triggers of Farmer-Herder Conflicts in Ghana: A Non Parametric Analysis of Stakeholders’ Perspectives.” Sustainable Agriculture Research6(2): 141–151. 10.5539/sar.v6n2p141
    https://doi.org/10.5539/sar.v6n2p141 [Google Scholar]
  19. De Bruijn, Mirjam, and Han van Dijk
    2003 “Changing Population Mobility in West Africa: Fulbe Pastoralists in Central and South Mali.” African Affairs102(407): 285–307. 10.1093/afraf/adg005
    https://doi.org/10.1093/afraf/adg005 [Google Scholar]
  20. Eraye, Christopher Michael, Eke Chinwokwu, and Martins Inyang
    2016 “Resident’s Vulnerability to Criminal Victimization in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.” Online Journal of Arts, Management and Social Science2(1): 127–139.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Eraye, Christopher Michael, Martins Inyang, and Mercy Ukpong
    2017 “Non-vulnerable against the Vulnerable: A Socio-criminological Analysis of Herdsmen Attack on Vulnerable Population in Nigeria.” Online Journal of Arts, Management and Social Sciences2(1): 89–102.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Fairclough, Norman
    1992Discourse and Social Change. London: Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 1995Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 2001Language and Power. 2nd edition, London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Fowler, Roger
    1991Language in the News: Language and Ideology in the Press. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gilliam, Franklin, Shanto Iyengar, Adam Simon, and Oliver Wright
    1996 “Crime in Black and White: The Violent, Scary World of Local News.” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics1: 6–23. 10.1177/1081180X96001003003
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1081180X96001003003 [Google Scholar]
  27. Gilliam, Franklin, and Shanto Iyengar
    2000 “Prime Suspects: The Influence of Local Television News on the Viewing Public.” American Journal of Political Science44(3): 560–573. 10.2307/2669264
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2669264 [Google Scholar]
  28. Global Terrorism Index
    Global Terrorism Index 2015Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism. New York: Institute of Economics and Peace.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hall, Stuart
    1982 “The Rediscovery of ‘Ideology’: Return of the Repressed in Media Studies.” InCulture, Society and the Media, edited byTony Bennett, James Curran, Michael Gurevitch, and Janet Wollacott, 56–90. London: Methuen.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Igwebuike, Ebuka
    2018 “Discursive Strategies and Ideologies in Selected Newspaper Reports on the Nigerian-Cameroonian Bakassi Peninsula Border Conflict.” Communication and the Public3: 151–168. 10.1177/2057047317748500
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2057047317748500 [Google Scholar]
  31. 2021 “Metaphorical Constructions of Herding in News Reports on Fulani Herdsmen”. Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies35(1): 85–98. 10.1080/10304312.2020.1852531
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10304312.2020.1852531 [Google Scholar]
  32. Imoro, Muhammed
    2018 “The Fulani Herdsmen Crisis in West Africa: The Case of Agogo Area in the Asante-Akim North District, Ashanti Region of Ghana.” Master’s Thesis, University of Ghana.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. International Crisis Group
    International Crisis Group 2018Stopping Nigeria’s Spiraling Farmer-Herder Violence, Africa Report No. 262, July26.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Joy, Melanie
    2001 “From Carnivore to Carnist: Liberating the Language of Meat. Satya8(2): 26–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Machin, David, and Andrea Mayr
    2012How to Do Critical Discourse Analysis: A Multimodal Introduction. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Martin, James, and David Rose
    2003Working with Discourse: Meaning beyond the Clause. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Martin, James, and Peter White
    2005The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230511910
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230511910 [Google Scholar]
  38. Matheson, Donald
    2005Media Discourses: Analysing Media Texts. Berkshire: Open University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. McQuail, Denis
    1992Media Performance: Mass Communication and the Public Interest. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Mikailu, Naziru
    2016 “Making Sense of Nigeria’s Fulani-Farmer Conflict.” BBC News, May5May, www.bbc.uk/news/world-africa
  41. Monteiro, Christopher, Tamara Pfeiler, Marcus Patterson, and Michael Milburn
    2017 “The Carnism Inventory: Measuring the Ideology of Eating Animals.” Appetite113: 51–62. 10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.011 [Google Scholar]
  42. Naylor, Bronwyn
    2001 “Reporting Violence in the British Print Media: Gendered Stories.” The Howard Journal40(2): 180–194. 10.1111/1468‑2311.00200
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2311.00200 [Google Scholar]
  43. Obi, Deborah, Uzochukwu Chinweze, and Dominic Onyejebu
    2018 “Politics of Herdsmen Attack and its Socio-Economic Implication in Nigeria.” European Journal of Political Science Studies1(2): 65–73.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Olomojobi, Oluwafemi
    2017 “National Newspapers’ Coverage of the Conflict between Herders and Farmers in Nigeria.” Master’s Thesis, Babcock University, Nigeria.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Omilusi, Mike
    2016 “Roving Terrorists or Innocuous Cattle Grazers? Between Herdsmen’s Economic Survival and Community Annihilation in Nigeria.” Cultural Relations Quarterly Review48–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Omitola, Bolaji
    2014 “Between Boko Haram and Fulani Herdsmen: Organised Crime and Insecurity in Nigeria.” Paper Presented at the5th Institute of Security Studies Conference on Crime and Crime Reduction, 14 and 15 August, 2014, Sandton, South Africa. Accessed on24/06/2019fromhttps://issafrica.s3.amazonaws.com/site/uploads/5th-Crime-Conf-2014/X002-Bolaji-Omitola.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Ononye, Chuka, and Gabriel Osoba
    2020 “Humans or Animals?’ Herdsmen Attack as Game Hunting in Media Reports of Herder-Farmer Conflicts in Nigeria.” Research in Pragmatics2(1): 11–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Simeon, Uchenna
    2017 “Incidence of Herdsmen Militancy in Southern Nigeria: A Threat- import Analysis.” Asian International Journal of Social Sciences17: 53–79. 10.29139/aijss.20170304
    https://doi.org/10.29139/aijss.20170304 [Google Scholar]
  49. Talbot, Mary, Karen Atkinson, and David Atkinson
    2003Language and Power in the Modern World. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Tirocchi, Simona
    2014 “Media Representations of the ‘New’ Childhoods: From Mass Media to Digital Environment.” Interdisciplinary Journal of Family Studies19(1): 60–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Tonah, Steve
    2005Fulani in Ghana: Migration History, Integration and Resistance. Legon- Accra: Research and Publication Unit, Department of Sociology, University of Ghana.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. van Dijk, Teun
    1995 “Opinions and Ideologies in the Press.” InApproach to Media Discourse, edited byBell, Allan and Peter Garrett, 21–63. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 2006Ideology and Discourse: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. Barcelona: Pompeu Fabra University.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Uvin, Peter
    2001 “Reading the Rwandan Genocide.” International Studies Review3(3): 75–99. 10.1111/1521‑9488.00245
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1521-9488.00245 [Google Scholar]
  55. Weiss, Gilbert, and Ruth Wodak
    2007 “Introduction – Models of Interdisciplinarity”. InCDA, Theory and Interdisciplinarity, edited byWeiss, Gilbert and Ruth Wodak, 1–37. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Wodak, Ruth, and Michael Meyer
    2009 “Critical Discourse Analysis: History, Agenda, Theory, and Methodology”. InMethods of CDA, edited byWodak, Ruth and Michael Meyer, 1–33. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. White, Peter
    2006 “Evaluative Semantics and Ideological Positioning in Journalistic Discourse– A New Framework for Analysis.” InMediating Ideology in Text and Image: Ten Critical Studies, edited byLassen, Inger, Jeanne Strunck and Torben Vestergaard, 37–69. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/dapsac.18.05whi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.18.05whi [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jlac.00070.igw
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jlac.00070.igw
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error