Volume 11, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2213-1272
  • E-ISSN: 2213-1280
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The number of unaccompanied foreign minors () in Spain has risen, which has led to them being the subject of discriminatory language and negative stereotyping on Twitter. This study analyses the characteristics of hate speech against on the social platform Twitter and seeks to identify its triggers. A quantitative analysis using text mining and text analytics was performed on 10,776 tweets mentioning published from January 2018 to March 2021. The study concluded that hate speech was built around the terms and , and was characterized by use of language that stripped these minors of the features usually attributed to children, a process which can be described as . Similarly, the analysis revealed that the main trigger of hate speech was the way in which the media reported violent crimes attributed to , displaying what was perceived as positive bias towards their integration.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Alhaboby, Zhraa A., Haider M. al-Khateeb, James Barnes, and Emma Short
    2016 “The Language is Disgusting and they Refer to my Disability: The Cyberharassment of Disabled People.” Disability & Society311: 1138–1143. 10.1080/09687599.2016.1235313
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2016.1235313 [Google Scholar]
  2. Allington, Daniel
    2018 “‘Hitler Had a Valid Argument against Some Jews’: Repertoires for the Denial of Antisemitism in Facebook Discussion of a Survey of Attitudes to Jews and Israel.” Discourse, Context and Media241: 129–136. 10.1016/j.dcm.2018.03.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2018.03.004 [Google Scholar]
  3. Arcila-Calderón, Carlos, David Blanco-Herrero, and María Belén Valdez Apolo
    2020a “Rechazo y discurso de odio en Twitter: análisis de contenido de los tuits sobre migrantes y refugiados en español.” Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas1721: 21–40. 10.5477/cis/reis.172.21
    https://doi.org/10.5477/cis/reis.172.21 [Google Scholar]
  4. Arcila Calderón, Carlos, Gonzalo de la Vega, and David Blanco Herrero
    2020b “Topic Modeling and Characterization of Hate Speech against Immigrants on Twitter around the Emergence of a Far-right Party in Spain.” Social Sciences9 (11): 1–19. 10.3390/socsci9110188
    https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9110188 [Google Scholar]
  5. Arcila-Calderón, Carlos, David Blanco-Herrero, Maximiliano Frías-Vázquez, and Francisco Seoane-Pérez
    2021 “Refugees Welcome? Online Hate Speech and Sentiments in Twitter in Spain during the Reception of the Boat Aquarius.” Sustainability13 (5): 1–17. 10.3390/su13052728
    https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052728 [Google Scholar]
  6. Arcila-Calderón, Carlos, Patricia Sánchez-Holgado, Cristina Quintana-Moreno, Javier-J. Amores, and David Blanco-Herrero
    2022 “Hate Speech and Social Acceptance of Migrants in Europe: Analysis of Tweets with Geolocation.” Comunicar71 (30): 21–35. 10.3916/C71‑2022‑02
    https://doi.org/10.3916/C71-2022-02 [Google Scholar]
  7. Aurrekoetxea-Casaus, Maite
    2020 “San Fermines #la manada Case: An Exploratory Analysis of Social Support for Victims of Sexual Violence on Twitter.” Computers in Human Behavior1081: 106299. 10.1016/j.chb.2020.106299
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106299 [Google Scholar]
  8. Baker, Paul, Costas Gabrielatos, and Tony McEnery
    2013 “Sketching Muslims: A Corpus Driven Analysis of Representations Around the Word ‘Muslim’ in the British Press 1998–2009.” Applied Linguistics341: 255–278. 10.1093/applin/ams048
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/ams048 [Google Scholar]
  9. Baker, Paul, Costas Gabrielatos, Majid KhosraviNik, Michał Krzyzanowski, Tony McEnery, and Ruth Wodak
    2008 “A Useful Methodological Synergy? Combining Critical Discourse Analysis and Corpus Linguistics to Examine Discourses of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the UK Press”. Discourse and Society19 (3): 273–306. 10.1177/0957926508088962
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926508088962 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bowker, Lynne
    2018 “Corpus Linguistics is not just for Linguists: Considering the Potential of Computer-based Corpus Methods for Library and Information Science Research.” Library Hi Tech36 (2): 358–371. 10.1108/LHT‑12‑2017‑0271
    https://doi.org/10.1108/LHT-12-2017-0271 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bravo Arteaga, Amaia, and Iriana Santos González
    2017 “Menores no acompañados en España: necesidades y modelos de intervención.” Psychosocial Intervention261: 55–62. 10.1016/j.psi.2015.12.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psi.2015.12.001 [Google Scholar]
  12. Brown, Alexander
    2018 “What is so Special about Online (as Compared to Offline) Hate Speech?” Ethnicities181: 297–326. 10.1177/1468796817709846
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1468796817709846 [Google Scholar]
  13. Burch, Leah
    2018 “‘You are a parasite on the productive classes’: Online Disablist Hate Speech in Austere Times.” Disability and Society331: 392–415. 10.1080/09687599.2017.1411250
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2017.1411250 [Google Scholar]
  14. Castaño-Pulgarín, Sergio Andrés, Natalia Suárez-Betancur, Luz Magnolia Tilano Vega, and Harvey Mauricio Herrera López
    2021 “Internet, Social Media and Online Hate Speech: Systematic Review.” Aggression and Violent Behavior581: 101608. 10.1016/j.avb.2021.101608
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2021.101608 [Google Scholar]
  15. Chetty, Naganna, and Sreejith Alathur
    2018 “Hate Speech Review in the Context of Online Social Networks.” Aggression and Violent Behavior401: 108–118. 10.1016/j.avb.2018.05.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2018.05.003 [Google Scholar]
  16. Chovanec, Jan
    2021 “‘Re-educating the Roma? you must be Joking…’: Racism and Prejudice in Online Discussion Forums.” Discourse and Society321: 156–174. 10.1177/0957926520970384
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926520970384 [Google Scholar]
  17. Cowan, Gloria, Becky Heiple, Caroline Marquez, Désirñee Khatchadourian, and Michelle McNevin
    2005 “Heterosexuals’ Attitudes toward Hate Crimes and Hate Speech against Gays and Lesbians: Old-fashioned and Modern Heterosexism.” Journal of Homosexuality49 (2): 67–82. 10.1300/J082v49n02_04
    https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v49n02_04 [Google Scholar]
  18. Council of Europe
    Council of Europe 2016ECRI General Policy Recommendation N°15 on Combating Hate Speech – adopted on 8 December 2015. https://rm.coe.int/ecri-general-policy-recommendation-no-15-on-combating-hate-speech/16808b5b01
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Erdogan-Ozturk, Yasemin, and Hale Isik-Guler
    2020 “Discourses of Exclusion on Twitter in the Turkish Context: #ülkemdesuriyeliistemiyorum (#idontwantsyriansinmycountry).” Discourse, Context & Media361: 100400. 10.1016/j.dcm.2020.100400
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2020.100400 [Google Scholar]
  20. Esposito, Eleonora, and Sole Alba Zollo
    2021 “‘How Dare you Call her a Pig, I Know Several Pigs who would be Upset if they Knew’ A Multimodal Critical Discursive Approach to Online Misogyny against UK MPs on YouTube.” Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict91: 47–75. 10.1075/jlac.00053.esp
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00053.esp [Google Scholar]
  21. European Commission
    European Commission 2021, December9. A More Inclusive and Protective Europe: Extending the List of EU Crimes to Hate Speech and Hate Crime. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/1_1_178542_comm_eu_crimes_en.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Firoozeh, Nazanin, Adeline Nazarenko, Fabrice Alizon, and Béatrice Daille
    2020 “Keyword Extraction: Issues and Methods.” Natural Language Engineering261: 259–291. 10.1017/S1351324919000457
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1351324919000457 [Google Scholar]
  23. Francia, Guadalupe, Adrián Neubauer, and Silvia Edling
    2021 “Unaccompanied Migrant Children’s Rights: A Prerequisite for the 2030 Agenda’s Sustainable Development Goals in Spain and Sweden.” Social Science101: 185. 10.3390/socsci10060185
    https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060185 [Google Scholar]
  24. Francisco, Sara C., and Diane H. Felmlee
    2021 “‘What did you Call me?’ An Analysis of Online Harassment towards Black and Latinx Women.” Race and Social Problems141: 1–13. 10.1007/s12552‑021‑09330‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12552-021-09330-7 [Google Scholar]
  25. Franzke, Aline Shakti, Anja Bechmann, Michael Zimmer, Charles Ess, and the Association of Internet Researchers
    (2020) “Internet Research: Ethical Guidelines 3.0.” https://aoir.org/reports/ethics3.pdf
  26. Frenda, Simona, Bilal Ghanem, Manuel Montes-y-Gómez, and Paolo Rosso
    2019 “Online Hate Speech against Women: Automatic Identification of Misogyny and Sexism on Twitter.” Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems361: 4743–4752. 10.3233/JIFS‑179023
    https://doi.org/10.3233/JIFS-179023 [Google Scholar]
  27. Frías Vázquez, Maximiliano, and Francisco Seoane Pérez
    2019 “Hate Speech in Spain against Aquarius Refugees 2018 in Twitter”. TEEM19: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality, 906–910. 10.1145/3362789.3362849
    https://doi.org/10.1145/3362789.3362849 [Google Scholar]
  28. Gablasova, Dana, Vaclav Brezina, and Tony McEnery
    2017 “Collocations in Corpus-Based Language Learning Research: Identifying, Comparing, and Interpreting the Evidence.” Language Learning: A Journal of Research in Language Studies671: 155–179. 10.1111/lang.12225
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12225 [Google Scholar]
  29. Gabrielatos, Costas
    2018 “Keyness Analysis: Nature, Metrics and Techniques.” InCorpus Approaches to Discourse: A Critical Review, ed. byCharlotte Taylor and Anna Marchi, 225–258. New York, NY: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315179346‑11
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315179346-11 [Google Scholar]
  30. Gardiner, Becky, Mahana Mansfield, Ian Anderson, Josh Holder, Daan Louter, and Monica Ulmanu
    2016, April12. The Dark Side of Guardian Comments. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/apr/12/the-dark-side-of-guardian-comments
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Gleason, Benjamin
    2013 “#Occupy Wall Street: Exploring Informal Learning about a Social Movement on Twitter”. American Behavioral Scientist571: 966–982. 10.1177/0002764213479372
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764213479372 [Google Scholar]
  32. Gómez-García, Salvador, María-Antonia Paz-Rebollo, and José Cabeza-San-Deogracias
    2021 “Newgames against Hate Speech in the Refugee Crisis.” Comunicar671: 123–133. 10.3916/C67‑2021‑10
    https://doi.org/10.3916/C67-2021-10 [Google Scholar]
  33. Gómez-Quintero, Juan-David, Jesús-C. Aguerri, and Chabier Gimeno-Monterde
    2021 “Media Representation of Minors who Migrate on their own: The ‘MENA’ in the Spanish Press.” Comunicar661: 95–105. 10.3916/C66‑2021‑08
    https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-08 [Google Scholar]
  34. Greenhalgh, Spencer P., Joshua M. Rosenberg, and Annelise Russell
    2021 “The Influence of Policy and Context on Teachers’ Social Media Use”. British Journal of Educational Technology52(5): 2020–2037. 10.1111/bjet.13096
    https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.13096 [Google Scholar]
  35. Hswen, Yulin, Qiuyuan Qin, David R. Williams, K. Viswanath, S. V. Subramanian, and John S. Brownstein
    2020 “Online Negative Sentiment towards Mexicans and Hispanics and Impact on Mental Well-being: A Time-series Analysis of Social Media Data during the 2016 United States Presidential Election.” Heliyon61: e04910. 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04910
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04910 [Google Scholar]
  36. Hswen, Yulin, Xiang Xu, Anna Hing, Jared B. Hawkins, John S. Brownstein, and Gilbert C. Gee
    2021 “Association of “#covid19” versus “#chinesevirus” with Anti-Asian Sentiments on Twitter: March 9–23, 2020.” American Journal of Public Health1111: 956–964. 10.2105/AJPH.2021.306154
    https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306154 [Google Scholar]
  37. Jaramillo-Dent, Daniela, Paloma Contreras-Pulido, and M. Amor Pérez-Rodríguez
    2022 “Right-wing Immigration Narratives in Spain: A Study of Persuasion on Instagram Stories.” European Journal of Communication37 (2): 161–180. 10.1177/02673231211012157
    https://doi.org/10.1177/02673231211012157 [Google Scholar]
  38. Kimmons, Royce, and George Veletsianos
    2018 “Public Internet Data Mining Methods in Instructional Design, Educational Technology, and Online Learning Research.” TechTrends621: 492–500. 10.1007/s11528‑018‑0307‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-018-0307-4 [Google Scholar]
  39. Kreis, Ramona
    2017 “#refugeesnotwelcome: Anti-refugee Discourse on Twitter.” Discourse & Communication111: 498–514. 10.1177/1750481317714121
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481317714121 [Google Scholar]
  40. Kuckartz, Udo, and Stefan Rädiker
    2019Analyzing Qualitative Data with MAXQDA. Text, Audio, and Video. S.I.: Springer International Publishing. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑15671‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-15671-8 [Google Scholar]
  41. Kuna, Marián
    2020 “Kritika Brownovej Koncepcie Nenávistného Prejavu (‘A Critique of Brown’s Concept of Hate Speech’).” Filozofia751: 77–90. 10.31577/filozofia.2020.75.2.1
    https://doi.org/10.31577/filozofia.2020.75.2.1 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kyslova, Olga, Iryna Kuzina, and Iryna Dyrda
    2020 “Hate Speech against the Roma Minority on Ukrainian Web Space.” Ideology and Politics Journal2 (16): 252–278. CitetononCRdoi:10.36169/2227‑6068.2020.01.00021
    https://doi.org/Cite to nonCR doi: 10.36169/2227-6068.2020.01.00021 [Google Scholar]
  43. Lawlor, Andrea, and Erin Tolley
    2017 “Deciding Who’s Legitimate: News Media Framing of Immigrants and Refugees.” International Journal of Communication111: 967–991. https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/6273/1946
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Liu, Bing
    2012Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining. Synthesis Lectures on Human Language Technologies5(1). Morgan & Claypool Publishers. 10.1007/978‑3‑031‑02145‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-02145-9 [Google Scholar]
  45. Luo, Xiao, Gregory Zimet, and Setu Shah
    2019 “A Natural Language Processing Framework to Analyse the Opinions on HPV Vaccination Reflected in Twitter over 10 years (2008 – 2017).” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics151: 1496–1504. 10.1080/21645515.2019.1627821
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1627821 [Google Scholar]
  46. Lutzky, Ursula, and Andrew Kehoe
    2022 “Using Corpus Linguistics to Study Online Data.” InResearch Methods for Digital Discourse Analysised. byCamilla Vásquez, 219–236. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Marchellim, Glleen Allan, and Yova Ruldeviyani
    2021 “Sentiment Analysis of Hate Speech as an Information Tool to Prevent Riots and Environmental Damage.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science700 012024. 10.1088/1755‑1315/700/1/012024
    https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/700/1/012024 [Google Scholar]
  48. McEnery, Tony, and Andrew Hardie
    2011Corpus Linguistics: Method, Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511981395
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511981395 [Google Scholar]
  49. Ministerio del Interior
    Ministerio del Interior 2022Informe sobre la evolución de los delitos de odio en España 2021. Madrid: Ministerio del Interior. Secretaría de Estado de Seguridad. Dirección General de Coordinación y Estudios. https://www.interior.gob.es/opencms/pdf/archivos-y-documentacion/documentacion-y-publicaciones/publicaciones-descargables/publicaciones-periodicas/informe-sobre-la-evolucion-de-los-delitos-de-odio-en-Espana/Informe_evolucion_delitos_odio_Espana_2021_126200207.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Montagut, Marta, and Carlota M. Moragas-Fernández
    2020 “The European Refugee Crisis Discourse in the Spanish Press: Mapping Humanization and Dehumanization Frames through Metaphors.” International Journal of Communication141: 69–91. https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/10626
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Moreno Márquez, Gorka
    2012 “Actitudes y opinión sobre los menores extranjeros no acompañados en la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco.” Migraciones311: 43–68.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Nortio, Emma, Miira Niska, Tuuli Anna Renvik, and Inga Jasinskaja-Lahti
    2021 “‘The Nightmare of Multiculturalism’: Interpreting and Deploying Anti-immigration Rhetoric in Social Media.” New Media and Society231: 438–456. 10.1177/1461444819899624
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444819899624 [Google Scholar]
  53. Neuendorf, Kimberly A.
    2017The Content Analysis Guidebook. 2nd Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. 10.4135/9781071802878
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781071802878 [Google Scholar]
  54. Ozalp, Sefa, Matthew L. Williams, Pete Burnap, Han Liu, and Mohamed Mostafa
    2020 “Antisemitism on Twitter: Collective Efficacy and the Role of Community Organisations in Challenging Online Hate Speech.” Social Media + Society6 (2): 1–20. 10.1177/2056305120916850
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305120916850 [Google Scholar]
  55. Paasch-Colberg, Sünje, Christian Strippel, Joachim Trebbe, and Martin Emmer
    2021 “From Insult to Hate Speech: Mapping Offensive Language in German User Comments on Immigration.” Media and Communication9 (1): 171–180. 10.17645/mac.v9i1.3399
    https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v9i1.3399 [Google Scholar]
  56. Partington, Alan
    2004 “Corpora and Discourse, a Most Congruous Beast”. InCorpora and Discourse, ed. byAlan Partington, John Morley, and Louann Haarman, 9–18. Frankfurt, Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Pérez-Curiel, Concha
    2020 “Trend towards Extreme Right-wing Populism on Twitter. An Analysis of the Influence on Leaders, Media and Users.” Communication and Society33 (2): 175–192. 10.15581/‑192
    https://doi.org/10.15581/ [Google Scholar]
  58. Pickles, James
    2020 “Sociality of Hate: The Transmission of Victimization of LGBT+ People through Social Media.” International Review of Victimology271: 311–327. 10.1177/0269758020971060
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0269758020971060 [Google Scholar]
  59. Plaza-Del-Arco, Flor-Miriam., M. Dolores Molina-González, L. Alfonso Ureña-López, and M. Teresa Martín-Valdivia
    2020 “Detecting Misogyny and Xenophobia in Spanish Tweets Using Language Technologies.” ACM Transactions on Internet Technology20 (2): Article 12. 10.1145/3369869
    https://doi.org/10.1145/3369869 [Google Scholar]
  60. Sánchez-Junquera, Javier, Berta Chulvi, Paolo Rosso, and Simone Paolo Ponzetto
    2021 “How do you Speak about Immigrants? Taxonomy and StereoImmigrants Dataset for Identifying Stereotypes about Immigrants.” Applied Sciences11 (8): Article 3610. 10.3390/app11083610
    https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083610 [Google Scholar]
  61. Tankovska, H.
    2022a, March8. “Most Popular Social Networks Worldwide as of January 2022, Ranked by Number of Active Users.” Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/272014/global-social-networks-ranked-by-number-ofusers/
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 2022b, March22. “Leading Countries Based on Number of Twitter Users as of January 2022.” Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/242606/number-of-active-twitter-users-in-selected-countries/
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Tsakona, Villy, Rania Karachaliou, and Argiris Archakis
    2020 “Liquid Racism in the Greek Anti-racist Campaign #StopMindBorders.” Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict81: 232–261. 10.1075/jlac.00036.tsa
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00036.tsa [Google Scholar]
  64. Twitter Inc.
    Twitter Inc. 2022Twitter Terms of Service. Twitter, Inc.https://twitter.com/content/twitter-com/legal/en/tos.html
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Twitter
    Twitter 2022Safety and Cybercrime. Twitter, Inc.https://help.twitter.com/en/rules-and-policies#safety-and-cybercrime
    [Google Scholar]
  66. UNICEF
    UNICEF 1989Convention on the Rights of the Child. https://www.unicef.org.uk/what-we-do/un-convention-child-rights/
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Vidgen, Bertie, and Taha Yasseri
    2020 “Detecting Weak and Strong Islamophobic Hate Speech on Social Media.” Journal of Information Technology and Politics171: 66–78. 10.1080/19331681.2019.1702607
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2019.1702607 [Google Scholar]
  68. Wich, Maximilian, Jan Bauer, and Georg Groh
    2020, November. “Impact of Politically Biased Data on Hate Speech Classification.” InProceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Online Abuse and Harms, ed. bySeyu Akiwowo, Bertie Vidgen, Vinodkumar Prabhakaran, and Zeerak Waseem, 54–64. Stroudsburg, PA: Association for Computational Linguistics. 10.18653/v1/2020.alw‑1.7
    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/2020.alw-1.7 [Google Scholar]
  69. Wilhelm, Claudia, Sven Joeckel, and Isabell Ziegler
    2020 “Reporting Hate Comments: Investigating the Effects of Deviance Characteristics, Neutralization Strategies, and Users’ Moral Orientation.” Communication Research471: 921–944. 10.1177/0093650219855330
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650219855330 [Google Scholar]
  70. Williams, Matthew L., Pete Burnap, Amir Javed, Han Liu, and Sefa Ozalp
    2020 “Hate in the Machine: Anti-black and Anti-muslim Social Media Posts as Predictors of Offline Racially and Religiously Aggravated Crime.” British Journal of Criminology601: 93–117. 10.1093/bjc/azz064
    https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azz064 [Google Scholar]
  71. Williams, Matthew L., Pete Burnap, and Luke Sloan
    2017 “Towards an Ethical Framework for Publishing Twitter Data in Social Research: Taking into Account Users’ Views, Online Context and Algorithmic Estimation.” Sociology51 (6): 1149–1168. 10.1177/0038038517708140
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038517708140 [Google Scholar]
  72. Wojcik, Stefan, and Adam Hughes [Google Scholar]
  73. Yu, Chong Ho, Angel Jannasch-Pennell, and Samuel DiGangi
    2011 “Compatibility between Text Mining and Qualitative Research in the Perspectives of Grounded Theory, Content Analysis, and Reliability.” The Qualitative Report161: 730–744. 10.46743/2160‑3715/2011.1085
    https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2011.1085 [Google Scholar]
  74. Zhu, Xun, Youllee Kim, and Haseon Park
    2020 “Do Messages Spread Widely also Diffuse Fast? Examining the Effects of Message Characteristics on Information Diffusion.” Computers in Human Behavior1031: 37–47. 10.1016/j.chb.2019.09.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.09.006 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): adolescents; hate speech; immigrants; prejudices; social network analysis
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error