1887
Volume 4, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2213-1272
  • E-ISSN: 2213-1280
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

The burgeoning literature on studies of swearing suggests that any acceptable definition of swearing involves three features: (a) non-literal meanings, (b) taboo subjects, and (c) emotions. It also suggests that swearwords fall into one of the three classes: aggressive, cathartic, or social. Driven by a rich corpus of swearwords from Persian, this paper argues that swearing in Persian does not necessarily involve these three features, and that a redefinition of swearing is needed. It then borrows ideas from ethics to suggest that any precise definition of swearing will have to involve the distinction between teleological and deontological ethics. It further envisages a continuum for swearing, with teleological ethics at one end and deontological ethics at the other, on which different forms of swearing can be arranged based on the degree to which they lean towards either end.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jlac.4.2.04sal
2016-12-16
2019-10-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Allan, Keith , and Kate Burridge
    2006Forbidden Words: Taboo and Censoring of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511617881
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511617881 [Google Scholar]
  2. Aman, Reinhold
    1975Bayrisch-Österreichisches Schimpfwörterbuch. München: Goldmann.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Andersson, Lars , and Peter Trudgill
    1990Bad Language. Cambridge: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Baker, Mona
    1992In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation. London: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780203327579
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203327579 [Google Scholar]
  5. Burgen, Stephen
    1998Bloody Hell, Verdammt Noch Mal! Eine Europäische Schimpfkunde. München: Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Crystal, David
    1995The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Daly, Nicola , Janet Holmes , Jonathan Newton , and Maria Stubbe
    2004 “Expletives as Solidarity Signals in FTAs on the Factory Floor.” Journal of Pragmatics36 (5): 945–964. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2003.12.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2003.12.004 [Google Scholar]
  8. Dooling, Richard
    1996Blue Streak: Swearing, Free Speech, and Sexual Harassment. New York: Random House.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Feuerstein, Reuven
    1990 “The Theory of Structural Modifiability.” InLearning and Thinking Styles: Classroom Interaction, ed. by Barbara Z. Presseisen , 68–134. Washington, DC.: National Education Associations.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Freud, Anna
    1937The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense. London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ghassempur, Susanne
    2009 “‘Tha’ Sounds Like Me Arse!’: A Comparison of the Translation of Expletives in Two German Translations of Roddy Doyle’s The Commitments.” Ph.D. thesis, Dublin City University.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Havryliv, Oksana
    2003 “Sprechakt Fiktive Beschimpfung.” Grazer Linguistische Studien59: 59–69.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hughes, Geoffrey
    1998Swearing: A Social History of Foul Language, Oaths and Profanity in English. London: Penguin.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Huston, Nancy
    1980Dire et Interdire: Elements de Jurologie. Paris: Payot.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jakobson, Roman
    1960 “Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics.” InStyle in Language, ed. by Thomas A. Sebeok , 350–377. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Jay, Timothy
    1977 “Doing Research with Dirty Words.”Maledicta: The International Journal of Verbal Aggression1: 234–256.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 1992Cursing in America. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/z.57
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.57 [Google Scholar]
  18. 2000Why We Curse: A Neuro-Psycho-Social Theory of Speech. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/z.91
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.91 [Google Scholar]
  19. Kamm, Frances M
    2007Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189698.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189698.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  20. Kidman, Angus
    1993 “How to Do Things with Four-Letter Words: A Study of the Semantics of Swearing in Australia.” BA thesis, University of New England.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mabry, Edward
    1974 “Dimensions of Profanity.” Psychological Reports35: 387–391. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1974.35.1.387
    https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1974.35.1.387 [Google Scholar]
  22. 1975 “A Multivariate Investigation of Profane Language.” Central States Speech Journal26: 39–44. doi: 10.1080/10510977509367817
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10510977509367817 [Google Scholar]
  23. Mateo, José , and Francisco Yus
    2000 “Insults: A Relevance-Theoretic Taxonomical Approach to Their Translation.” International Journal of Translation12 (1): 97–130.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 2013 “Towards an Intercultural Pragmatic Taxonomy of Insults.” Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict1 (1): 87–114. doi: 10.1075/jlac.1.1.05mat
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.1.1.05mat [Google Scholar]
  25. McEnery, Tony
    2006Swearing in English: Bad Language, Purity and Power from 1586 to the Present. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Montagu, Ashley
    1967The Anatomy of Swearing. Philadelphia, PA.: The University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Patrick, G.T.W
    1901 “The Psychology of Profanity.” Psychological Review8 : 113–127. doi: 10.1037/h0074772
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0074772 [Google Scholar]
  28. Pfeiffer, Herbert
    1996Das Große Schimpfwörterbuch. Frankfurt: Eichborn.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Pinker, Steven
    2007The Stuff of Thought. London: Penguin.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali
    2015 “The Secret Life of Slurs from the Perspective of Reported Speech.” Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del Linguaggio9 (2): 92–112. doi: 10.4396/201512204
    https://doi.org/10.4396/201512204 [Google Scholar]
  31. Severens, Els , Simone Kuhn , Robert Hartsuiker , and Marcel Brass
    2012 “Functional Mechanisms Involved in the Internal Inhibition of Taboo Words.” Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience7 (4): 431–435. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsr030
    https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsr030 [Google Scholar]
  32. Stenström, Anna-Brita
    1992 “Expletives in the London Lund Corpus.”InEnglish Corpus Linguistics, ed. by Karin Aijmer and Bengt Altenberg , 239–253. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Stephens, Richard , and Claudia Umland
    2011 “Swearing as a Response to Pain: Effect of Daily Swearing Frequency.” Journal of Pain12 (12): 1274–1281. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2011.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2011.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  34. Van Lancker, Diana , and Jeffrey L. Cummings
    1999 “Expletives: Neurolinguistic and Neurobehavioral Perspectives on Swearing.” Brain Research Reviews31: 83–104. doi: 10.1016/S0165‑0173(99)00060‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0173(99)00060-0 [Google Scholar]
  35. Wajnryb, Ruth
    2005Expletive Deleted: A Good Look at Bad Language. New York: Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Weizman, Elda , and Marcelo Dascal
    1991 “On Clues and Cues: Strategies of Text-Understanding.” Journal of Literary Semantics20 (1): 18–30. doi: 10.1515/jlse.1991.20.1.18
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jlse.1991.20.1.18 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jlac.4.2.04sal
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): deontological ethics , foul language , idioms , slurs , swearing and teleological ethics
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error