Volume 5, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2213-1272
  • E-ISSN: 2213-1280
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


This research examined Facebook comments in response to ‘solidarity patrol’ video, in which is shown patrolling in Golders Green, North London, ostensibly to show support for the Jewish community after the shooting in the Kosher supermarket in Paris following the Charlie Hebdo attack. A Critical Discursive Psychological analysis was conducted on comments. Initial comments were identified as showing support and gratitude towards ; however, comments became progressively anti-Semitic (e.g. by posing the rhetorical question, what benefits have Jews brought to Britain?). Results are discussed in terms of how has managed to achieve anti-Islamic rhetoric whilst trying to maintain support from the mainstream. This research has identified that discussions on Facebook have transitioned from Jews being constructed as vulnerable at the hands of Islamic extremism, to Jews being problematic and the aggressors.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Antaki, Charles
    2004 “The Uses of Absurdity.” InAnalysing Race Talk, edited by Harry van den Berg , Margaret Wetherell , and Hanneke Houtkoop-Steenstra , 85–102. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511489792.007
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489792.007 [Google Scholar]
  2. Augoustinos, Martha , and Every, Danielle
    2007 “The Language of ‘Race’ And Prejudice: A Discourse of Denial, Reason, and Liberal-practical Politics”. Journal of Language and Social Psychology26(2):123–141. doi: 10.1177/0261927X07300075.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X07300075 [Google Scholar]
  3. Billig, Mick
    1978Fascists: A Social Psychological View of the National Front. London: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Billig, Mick , Condor, Susan , Edwards, Derek , Gane, Mike , Middleton, Drew , and Radley, Alan
    1988Ideological Dilemmas: A Social Psychology of Everyday Thinking. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Burke, Shani , and Goodman, Simon
    2012 ‘“Bring Back Hitler’s Gas Chambers”: Asylum Seeking, Nazis And Facebook: A Discursive Analysis’. Discourse and Society23 (1): 19-33. doi: 10.1177/0957926511431036.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926511431036 [Google Scholar]
  6. Byford, Jovan , and Billig, Mick
    2001 “The Emergence of Anti-Semitic Conspiracy Theories in Yugoslavia during the War with NATO”. Patterns of Prejudice35(4):50–63. doi: 10.1080/003132201128811287
    https://doi.org/10.1080/003132201128811287 [Google Scholar]
  7. Capdevila, Rose , and Callaghan, Jane E. M.
    2008 “‘It’s Not Racist. It’s Common Sense’: A Critical Analysis of Political Discourse around Asylum and Immigration in the UK.” Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology18:1–16. doi: 10.1002/casp.
    https://doi.org/10.1002/casp [Google Scholar]
  8. Drew, Paul
    1978 “Accusations: The Occasioned Use of Members’ Knowledge of ‘Religious Geography’ in Describing Events.” Sociology12(1): 1–22. doi: 10.1177/003803857801200102.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003803857801200102 [Google Scholar]
  9. Drew, Paul , and Walker, Traci
    2009 “Going Too Far: Complaining, Escalating, and Disaffiliation.” Journal of Pragmatics41:2400–2414. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2008.09.046.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2008.09.046 [Google Scholar]
  10. Dyers, Charlyn , and Wankah, Foncha John
    2012 “‘Us’ and ‘Them’: The Discursive Construction of ‘the Other’ in Greenmarket Square, Cape Town.” Language and Intercultural Communication12(3):230–247. doi: 10.1080/14708477.2012.659186.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2012.659186 [Google Scholar]
  11. Eatwell, Roger
    2000 “The Extreme Right and British Exceptionalism: The Primacy of Politics.” InThe Politics of the Extreme Right, edited by Paul Hainsworth , 172–192. London: Biddles Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Edwards, Derek , and Potter, Jonathon
    1992Discursive Psychology. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Foner, Nancy , and Alba, Richard
    2008 “Immigrant Religion in the US and Western Europe: Bridge or Barrier to Inclusion?” International Migration Review42:360–392. doi: 10.1111/j.1747‑7379.2008.00128.x.
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2008.00128.x [Google Scholar]
  14. Fozdar, Farida , and Pederson, Anne
    2013 “Diablogging about Asylum Seekers: Building a Counter-Hegemonic Discourse.” Discourse and Communication7(4):371–388. doi: 10.1177/1750481313494497.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481313494497 [Google Scholar]
  15. Garcés-Conejos Blitvich, Pilar
    2010 A Genre Approach to the Study of (Im)politeness. International Review of Pragmatics2:46–94. doi: 10.1163/187731010X491747.
    https://doi.org/10.1163/187731010X491747 [Google Scholar]
  16. Garland, Jon , and Treadwell, James
    2010 “‘No Surrender to the Taliban!’: Football Hooliganism, Islamophobia and the Rise of the English Defence League”. Papers from the British Criminology Conference10:19–35. britsoccrim.org/new/volume10/2010_Garland_Treadwell.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Goffman, Erving
    1981Forms of Talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Goodman, Simon , and Burke, Shani
    2010 ‘‘Oh You Don’t Want Asylum Seekers, Oh You’re just Racist’: A Discursive Analysis of Discussions about whether it’s Racist to Oppose Asylum Seeking’. Discourse and Society21 (3): 325–340. doi: 10.1177/0957926509360743.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926509360743 [Google Scholar]
  19. Goodman, Simon , and Johnson, Andrew
    2013 “Strategies Used by the Far Right to Counter Accusations of Racism.” Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis across Disciplines6(2):97–113. www.cadaad.net/files/journal/CADAAD%202013_Goodman%20and%20Johnson.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Heritage, John
    1998 “Oh-Prefaced Responses to Inquiry.” Language in Society27:291–334. www.sscnet.ucla.edu/soc/faculty/heritage/Site/Publications_files/OHPREF.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Jackson, Clare
    2013 “‘Why Do These Peoples’ Opinions Matter?’ Positioning Known Referents as Unnameable Others.” Discourse Studies15(3):299–317. doi: 10.1177/1461445613480587.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445613480587 [Google Scholar]
  22. Jefferson, Gail
    1990 “List Construction as a Task and Resource.” InInteraction Competence, edited by George Psathas , 63–93. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jewish Times
    2015 “British Jews Say ‘No Thanks’ to Nationalist Group’s Support.” Last modified14th February. www.timesofisrael.com/britishjews-say-no-thanks-to nationalistgroups-support/.
  24. Kirkwood, Steve , McKinlay, Andy , and McVittie, Chris
    2014 “‘Some People It’s Very Difficult to Trust’: Attributions of Agency and Accountability in Practitioners’ Talk about Integration. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology24(5):376–389. doi: 10.1002/casp.2178.
    https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.2178 [Google Scholar]
  25. Lynn, Nick , and Lea, Susan
    2003 “‘A Phantom Menace and the New Apartheid’: The Social Construction of Asylum-Seekers in the United Kingdom.” Discourse and Society14(4):425–452. doi: 10.1177/0957926503014004002.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926503014004002 [Google Scholar]
  26. Pomerantz, Anita
    1986 “Extreme Case Formulations: A New Way of Legitimating Claims.” Human Studies (Interaction and Language Special Issue)9:219–230. doi: 10.1007/BF00148128.
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00148128 [Google Scholar]
  27. Rhodes, James
    2009 “The Banal National Party: The Routine Nature of Legitimacy.” Patterns of Prejudice43(2):142–160. doi: 10.1080/00313220902793898.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00313220902793898 [Google Scholar]
  28. Richardson, John E.
    2013 “Radical Populism in British Fascist Discourse: The Case of COMBAT and the British National Party (1960–1967).” InAnalysing Fascist Discourse, edited by Ruth Wodak , and John E. Richardson , 181–202. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Richardson, John E. , and Wodak, Ruth
    2009 “The Impact of Visual Racism: Visual Arguments in Political Leaflets of Austrian and British Far-right Parties.” Controversia, 6(2): 45–77. controversia.idebate.org/sites/live/files/23573%20Int%20Deb%20Contro.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sacks, Harvey
    1992 “‘Hotrodders as a Revolutionary Category.” InLectures on Conversation Vol I, II, edited by Gail Jefferson , 169–174. United Kingdom: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Treadwell, James
    2012 “White Riot: The English Defence League and the 2011 English Riots.” Criminal Justice Matters87(1):36–37. doi: 10.1080/09627251.2012.671016.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09627251.2012.671016 [Google Scholar]
  32. Treadwell, James , and Garland Jon
    2011 “Masculinity, Marginalization And Violence: A Case Study of the English Defence League.” British Journal of Criminology51:621–634. doi: 10.1093/bjc/azr027.
    https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azr027 [Google Scholar]
  33. van Dijk, Teun
    1995 “Discourse Analysis as Ideology Analysis.” InLanguage and Peace, edited by Christina Schäffner and Anita Wenden , 17–33. Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Verkuyten, Maykel
    2013 “Justifying Discrimination against Muslim Immigrants: Out‐group Ideology and the Five‐step Social Identity Model.” British Journal of Social Psychology52(2):345–360. doi: 10.1111/j.2044‑8309.2011.02081.x.
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.2011.02081.x [Google Scholar]
  35. Wetherell, Margaret , and Edley, Nigel
    1999 “Negotiating Hegemonic Masculinity: Imaginary Positions and Psycho Discursive Practises.” Feminism and Psychology9(3):335–356. doi: 10.1177/0959353599009003012.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0959353599009003012 [Google Scholar]
  36. Wood, C. and Finlay, W. M. L.
    2008 “British National Party Representations of Muslims in the Month after the London Bombings: Homogeneity, Threat, and the Conspiracy Tradition.” British Journal of Social Psychology47:707–726. doi: 10.1348/014466607X264103.
    https://doi.org/10.1348/014466607X264103 [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error