1887
Volume 15, Issue 5
  • ISSN 1569-2159
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9862
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Public opinion not only influences the likelihood of success for a protest movement; images of public opinion can also be used to legitimize or delegitimize a protest. In contemporary societies, opinion polling is the most authoritative way to “measure” public opinion. Yet the meanings of poll findings need to be interpreted and are often contested. Following these premises, this article analyzes the construction of images of public opinion through polling during the Umbrella Movement. The analysis illustrates the discursive strategies involved in selective reporting of opinion polls by newspapers with different political stances. It also demonstrates how poll results were articulated with other assumptions, principles, and discourses to generate claims about the legitimacy or proper strategies of the movement. On the whole, the analysis shows how public opinion, as a discursive category, was brought to bear on the dynamics of the Umbrella Movement through polling and its communication.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.15.5.05lee
2016-11-29
2019-08-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aalberg, Toril , Jesper Strömbäck , and Claes H. de Vreese
    2012 “The Framing of Politics as Strategy and Game: A Review of Concepts, Operationalizations and Key Findings.” Journalism13 (2): 162–178. doi: 10.1177/1464884911427799
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884911427799 [Google Scholar]
  2. Beniger, James
    1986The Control Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Boykoff, Jules
    2006The Suppression of Dissent: How the State and Mass Media Squelch USAmerican Social Movements. NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brookes, Rod , Justin Lewis , and Karin Wahl-Jorgensen
    2004 “The Media Representation of Public Opinion: British Television News Coverage of the 2001 General Election.” Media, Culture and Society26 (1): 63–80. doi: 10.1177/0163443704039493
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443704039493 [Google Scholar]
  5. Cappella, Joseph N. , and Kathleen H. Jamieson
    1997Spiral of Cynicism: The Press and the Public Good. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chan, Joseph M. , and Chin-Chuan Lee
    1984 “Journalistic Paradigms on Civil Protests: A Case Study of Hong Kong.” InThe News Media in National and International Conflict, ed. by Andrew Arno and Wimal Dissanayake , 183–202. Boulder, Colorado: Westview.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chan, Chainsaw , and King-Wa Fu
    2015 “Bu Cunzai de ‘Zhuliu Minyi’ – Yi Zui Yanjin de Tonghe Fenxi Liaojie ‘Daizhuxian’ Minyi Diaocha [The Non-existent ‘Mainstream Public Opinion’: Rigorous Integrated Analysis of Opinion Survey Findings].” Ming Pao, April 26, 2015, P02.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Erni, John N.
    2015 “A Legal Realist View on Citizen Actions in Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement.” Chinese Journal of Communication8 (4): 412–419. doi: 10.1080/17544750.2015.1063526
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17544750.2015.1063526 [Google Scholar]
  9. Gallup, George , and Saul Forbes Rae
    1940The Pulse of Democracy: The Public Opinion Poll and How It Works. New York: Simon and Shuster.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gamson, William A.
    1992Talking Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gamson, William A. , and Gadi Wolfsfeld
    1993 “Movements and Media as Interacting Systems.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science528: 114–125. doi: 10.1177/0002716293528001009
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716293528001009 [Google Scholar]
  12. Gitlin, Todd
    1980The Whole World Is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left, With a New Preface. CA: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Giugni, Marco
    2004Social Protest and Policy Change: Ecology, Antinuclear, and Peace Movements in Comparative Perspective. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Habermas, Jürgen
    1989The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Herbst, Susan
    1993Numbered Voices: How Opinion Polling Has Shaped American Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 1995 “On Electronic Public Space: Talk Shows in Theoretical Perspective.” Political Communication12 (3): 263–274. doi: 10.1080/10584609.1995.9963073
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.1995.9963073 [Google Scholar]
  17. Hong Kong Journalists Association
    Hong Kong Journalists Association 2014 “Press Freedom under Siege: 2014 Annual Report of the Hong Kong Journalists Association.” July 2014 www.hkja.org.hk/site/Host/hkja/UserFiles/file/annual_report_2014_Final.pdf
  18. Kolb, Felix
    2007Protest and Opportunities. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kwiatkowski, Piotr
    1992 “Opinion Research and the Fall of Communism: Poland, 1981-1990.” International Journal of Public Opinion Research4 (4): 358–374. doi: 10.1093/ijpor/4.4.358
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijpor/4.4.358 [Google Scholar]
  20. Lang, Gladys E. , and Kurt Lang
    1983The Battle for Public Opinion: The President, the Press, and the Polls during Watergate. New York: Columbia University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lee, Francis L. F.
    2006 “Poll Reporting and Journalistic Paradigm: A Study of Popularity Poll Coverage in Newspaper.” Asian Journal of Communication16 (2): 132–151. doi: 10.1080/01292980600638629
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01292980600638629 [Google Scholar]
  22. 2012 “Remediating Prior Talk and Constructing Public Dialogue: Newspaper Coverage of Political Talk Radio Discussions in Hong Kong.” Journalism Studies13 (4): 583–599. doi: 10.1080/1461670X.2012.662399
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2012.662399 [Google Scholar]
  23. 2014 “Triggering the Protest Paradigm: Examining Factors Affecting News Coverage of Protests.” International Journal of Communication8 (2014), 2725–2746.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 2015 “Press Freedom in Hong Kong: Interactions between State, Media and Society.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Chinese Media, ed. by Gary D. Rawnsley , and Ming-yeh T. Rawnsley , 131–144. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lee, Francis L. F. , and Joseph M. Chan
    2009 “The Political Consequences of Ambivalence: The Case of Democratic Reform in Hong Kong.” International Journal of Public Opinion Research21 (1): 47–64. doi: 10.1093/ijpor/edn053
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijpor/edn053 [Google Scholar]
  26. 2011Media, Social Mobilization and Mass Protests in Post-Colonial Hong Kong. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lee, Pui Leung , and Yee Kong Leung
    2001 “Xianggang Shehui Diaocha Huigu [Review of Social Surveys in Hong Kong].” InSurvey Research in Chinese Societies, ed. by Yan Jie Bian , Jow Ching Tu , and Alvin So , 13–42. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lewis, Justin
    2001Constructing Public Opinion. New York: Columbia University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ma, Ngok
    2011 “Value Changes and Legitimacy Crisis in Post-industrial Hong Kong.” Asian Survey51 (4): 683–712. doi: 10.1525/as.2011.51.4.683
    https://doi.org/10.1525/as.2011.51.4.683 [Google Scholar]
  30. McAdam, Doug , Sidney Tarrow , and Charles Tilly
    2001Dynamics of Contention. New York: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511805431
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511805431 [Google Scholar]
  31. McLeod, Douglas M. , and James K. Hertog
    1998 “Social Control and the Mass Media’s Role in the Regulation of Protest Groups: The Communicative Acts Perspective.” InMass Media, Social Control and Social Change, ed. by David Demers and K. Viswanath , 305–330. IA: Iowa State University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Stephens, Niall
    2012 “Tyranny of the Perceived Majority: Polling in the U.S. News Media before the Invasion of Iraq.” Critical Studies in Media Communication29 (3): 220–237. doi: 10.1080/15295036.2011.599849
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15295036.2011.599849 [Google Scholar]
  33. Tang, Gary
    2015 “Mobilization of Images: Effects of TV Screen and Mediated Instant Grievances in the Umbrella Movement.” Chinese Journal of Communication8 (4): 338–355. doi: 10.1080/17544750.2015.1086398
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17544750.2015.1086398 [Google Scholar]
  34. Tilly, Charles
    2004Social Movements, 1786-2004. Boulder: Paradigm.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Van Dijk, Teun A.
    1988News as Discourse. New Jersey: LEA.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Wahl-Jorgensen, Karin
    2007Journalists and the Public: Newsroom Culture, Letters to the Editor, and Democracy. Cresskill: Hampton.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.15.5.05lee
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.15.5.05lee
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): newspaper discourses , opinion polling , Public opinion , selectivity and Umbrella Movement
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error