Volume 17, Issue 6
  • ISSN 1569-2159
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9862
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Coverage of migration in the media intensified during 2015 against the backdrop of a largescale European refugee crisis. Using corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis, we explore the representation of refugees, asylum seekers, immigrants and migrants from September to November 2015, in UK and Irish newspapers. Data was collected from , using the Baker et al. (2008) RASIM framework. Using corpus linguistic techniques, we identify how these groups are represented, before drawing on CDA to examine the data sets further. Frequency lists of the UK and Irish corpora were compared across variety followed by more detailed diachronic analysis of the most frequently occurring items. The extent to which the issue of migration is refracted through a discourse of terrorism in Irish and UK coverage is compared through cluster analyses and a close CDA analysis of randomised downsamples of the Irish and UK sub-corpora drawing in particular on the DHA approach.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Allen, William L.
    2016A Decade of Migration in the British Press. Migration Observatory report, COMPAS, University of Oxford, UK. Available fromwww.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anthony, Laurence
    2014AntConc(Version 3.4.3) [Computer Software]. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Available fromwww.laurenceanthony.net/.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baker, Paul, Gabrielatos, Costas, Khosravinik, Majid, Krzyzanowski, Michal, McEnery, Tony and Wodak, Ruth
    2008 “A useful methodological synergy? Combining critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics to examine discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press”. Discourse and Society19: 273–306. doi:  10.1177/0957926508088962
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926508088962 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baker, Paul and McEnery, Tony
    2005 “A corpus-based approach to discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in UN and newspaper texts”. Journal of Language and Politics4 (2): 197–226. doi:  10.1075/jlp.4.2.04bak
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.4.2.04bak [Google Scholar]
  5. Berry, Mike, Garcia-Blanco, Inaki, Moore, Kerry
    2015 “Press Coverage of the Refugee and Migrant Crisis in the EU: A Content Analysis of Five European Countries. Report prepared for the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (December 2015)”. Available fromwww.unhcr.org/56bb369c9.pdf.
  6. Blinder, Scott and Allen, William
    2016 “UK Public Opinion toward Immigration: Overall Attitudes and Level of Concern”. Available fromwww.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/resources/briefings/uk-public-opinion-toward-immigration-overall-attitudes-and-level-of-concern/.
  7. Bloemmart, Jan
    (ed) 1999Language Ideological Debates. Berlin: de Gruyter. doi:  10.1515/9783110808049
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110808049 [Google Scholar]
  8. Burroughs, Elaine
    2015 “Discursive representations of “illegal immigration” in the Irish newsprint media: The domination and multiple facets of the “control argumentation”. Discourse and Society26 (2): 165–183. doi:  10.1177/0957926514556029
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926514556029 [Google Scholar]
  9. Breen, Michael J., Haynes, Amanda and Devereux, Eoin
    2006 “Fear, framing and foreigners: The othering of immigrants in the Irish print media”. International Journal of Critical Psychology, 16: 100–121.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Brennan, Cianan
    2017 “Higgins compares today’s refugees with those who left Ireland during the Famine”. The Journal.ie, October 9th. Available fromwww.thejournal.ie/michael-d-higgins-famine-australia-3637130-Oct2017/
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Céu Pinto Arena, Maria
    2017 “Islamic Terrorism in the West and International Migrations: The “Far” or “Near” Enemy Within? What is the Evidence?” EU Working Papers, European University Institute Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies. Available fromcadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/46604/RSCAS_2017_28.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. doi:  10.2139/ssrn.2976407
    https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2976407 [Google Scholar]
  12. Charteris-Black, Jonathan
    2006 “Britain as a container: Immigration metaphors in the 2005 election campaign”. Discourse and Society17: 563–581. doi:  10.1177/0957926506066345
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926506066345 [Google Scholar]
  13. Connor, Philip
    2016 “Number of refugees to Europe surges to record 1.3 million in 2015”. Pew Research Center. Available fromwww.pewglobal.org/2016/08/02/number-of-refugees-to-europe-surges-to-record-1-3-million-in-2015/.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Crisp, Jeff
    2017 “Refugees: the Trojan horse of terrorism?” Open Democracy. Available fromhttps://www.opendemocracy.net/can-europe-make-it/jeff-crisp/refugees-trojan-horse-of-terrorism.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. CSO Ireland. Census
    CSO Ireland. Census 2011 “Profile 6 Migration and Diversity – A profile of diversity in Ireland 2011”. Available fromwww.cso.ie/en/media/csoie/census/documents/census2011profile6/Profile_6_Migration_and_Diversity_entire_doc.pdf.
  16. Don, Zuraidah M. and Lee, Charity
    2014 “Representing immigrants as illegals, threats and victims in Malaysia: Elite voices in the media”. Discourse and Society25 (6): 687–705. doi:  10.1177/0957926514536837
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926514536837 [Google Scholar]
  17. Eurostat [Google Scholar]
  18. ESRI
    ESRI 2016 “Irish attitudes to immigrants become more negative”. Available fromhttps://www.esri.ie/news/irish-attitudes-to-immigrants-become-more-negative/.
  19. Fairclough, Norman
    1995Media Discourse. London: Hodder Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 2015Language and Power (3rd ed.) London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Funk, Marco and Parkes, Roderik
    2016 “Refugees versus terrorists”. European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS)Available fromwww.europarl.europa.eu/greece/resource/static/files/refugees-versus-terrorists.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gabrielatos, Costas and Baker, Paul
    2008 “Fleeing, sneaking, flooding. A Corpus analysis of discursive constructions of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK Press, 1996–2005”. Journal of English Linguistics36 (1): 5–38. doi:  10.1177/0075424207311247
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424207311247 [Google Scholar]
  23. Hall, Stuart, Critcher, Chas, Jefferson, Tony, Clarke, John, Roberts, Brian
    1978Policing the Crisis. Mugging, the State and Law and Order. London: MacMillan Press. doi:  10.1007/978‑1‑349‑15881‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-15881-2 [Google Scholar]
  24. Honohan, Iseult and Rougier, Nathalie
    2016Tolerance and Diversity in Ireland, North and South. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Khosravinik, Majid
    2009 “The representation of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in British newspapers during the Balkan conflict (1999) and the British general election (2005)”. Discourse and Society20: 477–498. doi:  10.1177/0957926509104024
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926509104024 [Google Scholar]
  26. 2010 “The representation of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in British newspapers: A critical discourse analysis”. Journal of Language and Politics9 (1): 1–28. doi:  10.1075/jlp.9.1.01kho
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.9.1.01kho [Google Scholar]
  27. Krzyzanowski, Michal and Wodak, Ruth
    2009The Politics of Exclusion. Debating Migration in Austria. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lahav, Gallya
    2004Immigration and Politics in the New Europe: Reinventing Borders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:  10.1017/CBO9780511558887
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558887 [Google Scholar]
  29. Mac Éinrí, Piaras and White, Allen
    2008 “Immigration into the Republic of Ireland: A bibliography of recent research”. Irish Geography41 (2): 151–179. doi:  10.1080/00750770802076943
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00750770802076943 [Google Scholar]
  30. Munck, Ronaldo
    2011 “Ireland in the World, the World in Ireland”. InGlobalization, Migration and Social Transformation: Ireland in Europe and the World, ed. byBryan Fanning and Ronaldo Munck, 3–21. Farnham: Ashgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. O’Boyle, Neil, Rogers, Jim, Preston, Paschal, and Fehr, Frankziska
    2014 “‘New Irish’ in the News”. Irish Communication Review14 (1), 3–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. O’Brien, Carl
    2015 “Attitudes on immigration harden since crash, poll suggests”. The Irish Times, April 30th. Available fromwww.irishtimes.com/news/social-affairs/attitudes-on-immigration-harden-since-crash-poll-suggests-1.2194158.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Office for National Statistics (ONS)
    Office for National Statistics (ONS). Available fromhttps://www.ons.gov.uk/
  34. O’Regan, Veronica
    2014 “German Media Perceptions of Ireland since the Bailout: From ‘Problem Child’ to ‘Model Pupil’?”. InIreland and the Irish in Germany – Reception and Perception, ed. byClaire O’Reilly and Veronica O’Regan, 147–181. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Parker, Samuel
    2015 “‘Unwanted invaders’: The representation of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK and Australian print media”. eSharp 23, Myth and Nation. Available fromorca.cf.ac.uk/79108/1/ESharp%20Article%20SP.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Pugh, Michael
    2004 “Drowning not waving: Boat people and humanitarianism at sea”. Journal of Refugee Studies17: 50–69. doi:  10.1093/jrs/17.1.50
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/17.1.50 [Google Scholar]
  37. Rasinger, Sebastian M.
    2010 “‘Lithuanian migrants send crime rocketing’: representation of ‘new’ migrants in regional print media”. Media, Culture & Society32 (6): 1021–1030. doi:  10.1177/0163443710380311
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443710380311 [Google Scholar]
  38. Reisigl, Martin and Wodak, Ruth
    2009 “The discourse-historical approach (DHA)”. InMethods of Critical Discourse Analysis, 2nd ed., ed. byRuth Wodak and Michael Meyer, 87–121. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Ryan, Philip
    2015 “Irish People understand plight of refugees due to Great Famine”. Irish Independent, September 24th. Available fromhttps://www.independent.ie/irish-news/politics/irish-people-understand-plight-of-refugees-due-to-great-famine-taoiseach-31555931.html.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Slattery, Laura
    2015 “Irish Times’ daily readership up 10% to 427,000”. The Irish Times, August 14th. Available fromhttps://www.irishtimes.com/business/media-and-marketing/irish-times-daily-readership-up-10-to-427-000-1.2316476.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Taylor, Charlotte
    2014 “Investigating the representation of migrants in the UK and Italian press: A cross-linguistic corpus-assisted discourse analysis”. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics19 (3): 368–400. doi:  10.1075/ijcl.19.3.03tay
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.19.3.03tay [Google Scholar]
  42. Threadgold, Terry
    2009 “The Media and Migration in the United Kingdom, 1999 to 2009”. Washington DC, Migration Policy Institute. Available fromhttps://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/TCM-UKMedia.pdf.
  43. van Leeuwen, Theo
    1996 “The representation of social actors”. InTexts and Practices: Readings in Critical Discourse Analysised. byCarmen R. Caldas-Coulthard and Malcolm Coulthard, 32–70. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. van Dijk, Teun A.
    1991Racism and the Press. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 1993 “Principles of critical discourse analysis”. Discourse and Society4 (2): 249–283. doi:  10.1177/0957926593004002006
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926593004002006 [Google Scholar]
  46. 2001 “Multidisciplinary CDA: A plea for diversity”. InMethods of Critical Discourse Analysised. byRuth Wodak, and Michael Meyer, 95–121. London: Sage. doi:  10.4135/9780857028020.d7
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9780857028020.d7 [Google Scholar]
  47. Wike, Richard, Stokes, Bruce, and Simmons, Katie
    . “Negative views of minorities, refugees common in EU”. Pew Research Center. Available fromwww.pewglobal.org/2016/07/11/negative-views-of-minorities-refugees-common-in-eu/.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Wodak, Ruth
    2001 “The discourse-historical approach”. InMethods of Critical Discourse Analysised. byRuth Wodak, and Michael Meyer, 63–95. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error