Volume 19, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1569-2159
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9862
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The analysis of the different ideological constructions around the languages of Spain shows two main metaphors that support the linguistic conflict experienced in the last three or four decades: the container metaphor (languages conceived as entities that are completely independent of each other) and the ecological metaphor (each language occupies a specific niche for historical reasons). The study of complexity provides a new metaphor as a new solution for this conflict, i.e. the eco-biosociological metaphor, which is based on the assumption that what is human cannot be explained exclusively by biological factors, but instead by communicative action in cooperation with others above all. To illustrate the first two metaphors, in this paper we consider the linguistic position of two new parties: En Marea and En Comú-Podem.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Bastardas, Albert
    2013 “Sociolinguistics: Towards a Complex Ecological View.” InComplexity Perspectives on Language, Communication and Society, ed. byÀngels Massip, and Albert Bastardas, 35–60. Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. 10.1007/978‑3‑642‑32817‑6_3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32817-6_3 [Google Scholar]
  2. Blommaert, Jan
    2001 “The Asmara Declaration as a Sociolinguistic Problem: Reflections on Scholarship and Linguistic Rights.” Journal of Sociolinguistics5 (1): 131–155. 10.1111/1467‑9481.00142
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00142 [Google Scholar]
  3. Blommaert, Jan, and Jef Verschueren
    2012 “El papel de las lenguas en las ideologías nacionalistas europeas.” InIdeologías Lingüísticas. Práctica y Teoría, ed. byBambi B. Schieffelin, Kathrin A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity, 245–273. Madrid: Catarata.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Branchadell, Albert
    2017 “Post-secession Duties: about the Equal Recognition of Languages in an Independent Catalonia.” InThe Catalan Process. Sovereignty, Self-Determination and Democracy in the 21st Century, ed. byPeter A. Kraus, and Joan Vergés, 175–193. Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya. Institut d’Estudis d’Autogovern.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Calvet, Jean-Louis, and Lía Varela
    2000 “XXIe Siècle: Le Crépuscule des Langues? Critique du Discours Politico-linguisticament Correct.” Estudios de Sociolingüística1 (2): 47–64.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dávila Yáñez, Ximena, and Humberto Maturana
    2008Habitar Humano en Seis Ensayos de Biología-cultural. Santiago de Chile: J. C. Sáez.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. del Valle, José
    2000 “Monoglossic Policies for a Heteroglossic Culture: Misinterpreted Multilingualism in Modern Galicia.” Language & Communication20: 105–132. 10.1016/S0271‑5309(99)00021‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5309(99)00021-X [Google Scholar]
  8. 2013 “Language, Politics and History: An Introductory Essay.” InA Political History of Spanish, ed. byJosé del Valle, 3–20. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511794339.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511794339.002 [Google Scholar]
  9. Gal, Susan
    2012 “Multiplicidad y controversia entre ideologías. Comentario.” InIdeologías Lingüísticas. Práctica y Teoría, ed. byBambi B. Schieffelin, Kathrin A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity, 404–424. Madrid: Catarata.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Generalitat de Catalunya
    Generalitat de Catalunya 2015Competències Bàsiques de l’Àmbit Linguistic. Llengua Catalana i Llengua Castellana. Identificació i Desplegament a l’Educació Primària. Departament d’Ensenyament (downloaded on1 July 2016fromwww.gencat.cat/ensenyament).
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Generalitat de Catalunya
    Generalitat de Catalunya 2018El Model Lingüístic del Sistema Educatiu de Catalunya. L’Aprenentatge i l’Ús de les Llengües en un Context Educatiu Multilingüe i Multicultural. Departament d’Ensenyament (downloaded on7 January 2019fromensenyament.gencat.cat).
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Harris, Roy
    2001Saussure and his Interpreters. Edinburg: Edinburg University Press. 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748613083.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748613083.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  13. Heller, Monica
    2002 “L’Écologie et la Sociologie du Language.” InL’Écologie des langues/Ecology of Languages, ed. byAnnette Boudreau, Lise Dubois, Jacques Maurais, and Grant McConnell, 175–191. Paris: L’Harmattan.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 2011Paths to Post-Nationalism. A Critical Ethnography of Language and Identity. New York: Oxford Univeristy Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746866.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746866.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  15. Kraus, Peter A.
    2015 “Language Policy and Catalan Independence.” InCatalonia in Spain and Europe. Is There a Way to Independence?ed. byNagel Klaus-Jürgen, and Stephan Rixen, 120–140. Baden-Baden: Nomos. 10.5771/9783845258256‑128
    https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845258256-128 [Google Scholar]
  16. Lagarde, Christian
    2015 “¿Se nutre el conflicto lingüístico de una base conceptual y de una política lingüística conflictivas? Reflexiones acerca del caso catalán”. InPolíticas Lingüísticas en Democracias Multilingües, ed. byJorge Cagiao y Conde, and Juan Jiménez-Salcedo, 90–104. Madrid: Catarata.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Larsen-Freeman, Diane, and Lynne Cameron
    2008Complex Systems and Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Maturana, Humberto, and Fernando Varela
    1991The Tree of Knowledge. The Biological Roots of Human Understanding. Boston: Shambhala Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Maturana, Humberto
    1996La Realidad: ¿Objetiva o Construida?vol.2. Barcelona/ México DF: Anthropos/ Universidad Iberoamericana.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Monteagudo, Henrique
    2013 “Spanish and other languages of Spain in the Second Republic.” InA Political History of Spanish. The Making of a Language, ed. byJosé del Valle, 100–122. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511794339.010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511794339.010 [Google Scholar]
  21. Montesano Montessori, Nicolina, and Esperanza Morales-López
    2015 Multimodal Narrative as an Instrument for Social Change: Reinventing Democracy in Spain – the Case of 15M. Critical Approaches to Discourse Analysis Across Disciplines (CADAAD)7 (2): 200–221.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 2019 “The Articulation of ‘the People’ in the Discourse of Podemos.” InImagining the Peoples of Europe, ed. byJan Zienkowski, and Ruth Breeze, 123–147. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/dapsac.83.06mon
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.83.06mon [Google Scholar]
  23. Morales-López, Esperanza
    2017 “Cognitive Frames, Imaginaries and Discursive Constructions: Post 15M’s Discourses with Reference to Eco-social Alternatives.” InDeveloping New Identities in Social Conflicts: Constructivist Perspectives on Discourse Studies, ed. byEsperanza Morales-López, and Alan Floyd, Alan, 249–272. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/dapsac.71.12mor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.71.12mor [Google Scholar]
  24. 2019 “Discourse analysis: Constructivist perspective and transdisciplinarity.” InApplications of Complexity Theory in Language and Communication Sciences, ed. byAlbert Bastardas-Boada, Àngels Massip-Bonet, and Gemma Bel-Enguix, 187–205. Berlin: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑04598‑2_11
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-04598-2_11 [Google Scholar]
  25. Moreno Cabrera, Juan Carlos
    2015Los Dominios del Español. Guía del Imperialismo Lingüístico Panhispánico. Madrid: Síntesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. O’Rourke, Bernardette, Pujolar, Joan, and Fernando Ramallo
    2015 “New Speakers of Minority Languages: The Challenging Opportunity – Foreword.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language231: 1–20. doi:  10.1515/ijsl‑2014‑0029
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl-2014-0029 [Google Scholar]
  27. Peled, Yael
    2012 “Marching forward into the past. Monolingual multilingualism in contemporary political theory”. InStandard Languages and Multilingualism in European History, ed. byMatthias Hüning, Ulrike Vogl and Oliver Moliner, 71–96. Amsterdam / Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/mdm.1.05pel
    https://doi.org/10.1075/mdm.1.05pel [Google Scholar]
  28. Pradilla Cardona, Miguel Ángel
    2017 “El Model Lingüístic Educatiu a Catalunya al Segle XXI. De l’Estabilitat a la Resistència”. Revista Valenciana de FilologiaI: 223–239. 10.28939/rvf.v1i1.28
    https://doi.org/10.28939/rvf.v1i1.28 [Google Scholar]
  29. Pujante, David, and Esperanza Morales-López
    2013 “Discurso (discurso político), constructivismo y retórica: los eslóganes del 15-M”. Language, Discourse, & Society2 (2): 32–59. Reprinted inDeveloping New Identities in Social Conflicts: Constructivist Perspectives on Discourse Studies, ed. byEsperanza Morales-López, and Alan Floyd, 227–247. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Schieffelin, Bambi B., Woolard, Kathrin A., and Paul V. Kroskrity
    2012Ideologías Lingüísticas. Práctica y Teoría. Madrid: Catarata.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Sendra, Montserrat, and F. Xavier Vila
    2016 “L’Estatus de les Llengües a la República Catalana: una Breu Anàlisi del Desenvolupament del Debat.” Els Marges108: 33–50.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Verschueren, Jef
    2012Ideology in Language Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Vico, Giambattista
    1744The New Science. New York: Cornell University Press 1948.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Vila i Moreno, F. Xavier
    2004 “’Hem Guanyat l’Escola però hem Perdut el Pati’. Els Usos Lingüístics a les Escoles Catalanes.” Llengua, Societat i Comunicació1: 8–15.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. White, Hayden
    1973Metahistory. The Historical Imagination in the Ninetheenth Century Europe. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 2017 InDeveloping New Identities in Social Conflicts: Constructivist Perspectives, ed. byEsperanza Morales-López, and Alan Floyd, 1–15. John Benjamins: Amsterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Woolard, Kathrin A.
    1989Double Talk. Bilingualism and the Politics of Ethnicity in Catalonia. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 2012 “Introducción: Las ideologías lingüísticas como campo de investigación.” InIdeologías Lingüísticas. Práctica y Teoría, ed. byBambi B. Schieffelin, Kathrin A. Woolard, and Paul V. Kroskrity, 19–69. Madrid: Catarata.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 2016Singular and Plural. Ideologies of Linguistic Authority in 21st Century in Catalonia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190258610.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190258610.001.0001 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error