1887
image of Neoliberal feminism in contemporary South Korean popular music
  • ISSN 1569-2159
  • E-ISSN 1569-9862
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper examines how South Korean popular music (K-pop) promotes neoliberal feminism by a discourse of resilience. In a therapeutic narrative of overcoming obstacles and achieving goals, K-pop videos deliver a hegemonic message that individuals have to be responsible for their success and well-being rather than blaming external, institutional conditions. While ostensibly promoting female empowerment, the videos update and reinforce patriarchal gender norms and expectations. To substantiate this point, I analyze music videos of the most successful K-pop group, Girls’ Generation’s “Into the New World” (2007) and “All Night” (2017) to investigate how they promote resilience discourse along with neoliberal positive psychology as a hegemonic ideal of female subjectivity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.18058.kim
2019-06-12
2019-06-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adorno, Theodor W.
    1975 “Culture industry reconsidered.” New German Critique6(Autumn): 12–19. 10.2307/487650
    https://doi.org/10.2307/487650 [Google Scholar]
  2. Ahmed, Sara
    2004 “Affective economies.” Social Text22(2): 117–139. 10.1215/01642472‑22‑2_79‑117
    https://doi.org/10.1215/01642472-22-2_79-117 [Google Scholar]
  3. Ahn, Shin-Hyun
    2011 “Girls’ Generation and the New Korean Wave.” SERI Quarterly4(4): 81–86.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ahmed, Sara
    2010The promise of happiness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. 10.1215/9780822392781
    https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822392781 [Google Scholar]
  5. Baker, Joanne
    2010 “Claiming volition and evading victimhood: Post-feminist obligations for young women.” Feminism & Psychology20(2): 186–204. 10.1177/0959353509359142
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0959353509359142 [Google Scholar]
  6. Banet-Weiser, Sarah
    2014 “Am I pretty or ugly? Girls and the market for self-esteem.” Girlhood Studies7(1): 83–101. 10.3167/ghs.2014.070107
    https://doi.org/10.3167/ghs.2014.070107 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.
    2015 “The agency line: A neoliberal metric for appraising young women’s sexuality.” Sex Roles73(7–8): 279–291. 10.1007/s11199‑015‑0452‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-015-0452-6 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bethmann, Dirk, and Robert Rudolf
    2018 “Happily ever after? Intrahousehold bargaining and the distribution of utility within marriage.” Review of Economics of the Household16(2): 347–376.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Binkley, Sam
    2011 “Happiness, positive psychology and the program of neoliberal governmentality.” Subjectivity4(4): 371–394. 10.1057/sub.2011.16
    https://doi.org/10.1057/sub.2011.16 [Google Scholar]
  10. Brassett, James, Stuart Croft, and Nick Vaughan-Williams
    2013 “Introduction: An agenda for resilience research in politics and international relations.” Politics33(4): 221–228. 10.1111/1467‑9256.12032
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9256.12032 [Google Scholar]
  11. Brown, Wendy
    2003 “Neo-liberalism and the End of Liberal Democracy.” Theory & Event7(1). muse.jhu.edu/article/48659. 10.1353/tae.2003.0020
    https://doi.org/10.1353/tae.2003.0020 [Google Scholar]
  12. 2006 “American nightmare: Neoliberalism, neoconservatism, and de-democratization.” Political Theory34(6): 690–714. 10.1177/0090591706293016
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0090591706293016 [Google Scholar]
  13. 2015Undoing the demos: Neoliberalism’s stealth revolution. New York: Zone Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cabanas, Edgar, and Eva Illouz
    2017 “The making of a ‘happy worker’: Positive psychology in neoliberal organizations.” InBeyond the cubicle: Job insecurity, intimacy and the flexible self, edited byA. J. Pugh, 25–49. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Campbell, Elaine
    2010 “The emotional life of governmental power.” Foucault Studies9(September): 35–53. 10.22439/fs.v0i9.3057
    https://doi.org/10.22439/fs.v0i9.3057 [Google Scholar]
  16. Canclini, Néstor García
    1995Hybrid cultures: Strategies for entering and leaving modernity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chandler, David
    2013 “International statebuilding and the ideology of resilience.” Politics33(4): 276–286. 10.1111/1467‑9256.12009
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9256.12009 [Google Scholar]
  18. D’Aoust, Anne-Marie
    2014 “Ties that bind? Engaging emotions, governmentality and neoliberalism: Introduction to the special issue.” Global Society28(3): 267–276. 10.1080/13600826.2014.900743
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13600826.2014.900743 [Google Scholar]
  19. Davies, William
    2015The happiness industry: How the government and big business sold us well-being. London: Verso Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Dawney, Leila
    2013 “The Interruption: Investigating Subjectivation and Affect.” Environment and Planning D: Society and Space31(4): 628–44. 10.1068/d9712
    https://doi.org/10.1068/d9712 [Google Scholar]
  21. Dean, Mitchell
    2010Governmentality: Power and rule in modern society. London: SAGE.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Drake, Philip, and Andy Miah
    2010 “The cultural politics of celebrity.” Cultural Politics6(1): 49–64. 10.2752/175174310X12549254318746
    https://doi.org/10.2752/175174310X12549254318746 [Google Scholar]
  23. Duffield, Mark
    2012 “Challenging environments: Danger, resilience and the aid industry.” Security Dialogue43(5): 475–492. 10.1177/0967010612457975
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0967010612457975 [Google Scholar]
  24. Edelman, Murray
    1988Constructing the political spectacle. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Eisenstein, Zillah
    2013 “‘Leaning in’ in Iraq: Women’s rights and war?’” Al Jazeera, March23. https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/03/2013323141149557391.html
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Evans, Brad, and Julian Reid
    2013 “Dangerously exposed: The life and death of the resilient subject.” Resilience1(2): 83–98. 10.1080/21693293.2013.770703
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21693293.2013.770703 [Google Scholar]
  27. Fairclough, Norman
    1985 “Critical and descriptive goals in discourse analysis.” Journal of Pragmatics9(6): 739–63. 10.1016/0378‑2166(85)90002‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(85)90002-5 [Google Scholar]
  28. Fairclough, Norma
    1995Critical Discourse Analysis: The critical study of language. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Fairclough, Norman and Ruth Wodak
    1997 “Critical discourse analysis.” InDiscourse as a Social Interaction, edited byTeun A. van Dijk, 258–284. London: SAGE.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Foucault, Michel
    1988 “The political technology of individuals.” InTechnologies of the self: A seminar with Michel Foucault, edited byL. H. Martin, H. Gutman, and P. H. Hutton, 145–161. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 1991 “Governmentality.” InThe Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality, edited byGordon, G. and P. Miller, 87–104. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 2008The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978–1979. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Frederickson, Barbara
    2009Positivity: Groundbreaking research reveals how to embrace the hidden strength of positive emotions, overcome negativity, and thrive. New York: Three Rivers Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Harris, Anita
    2004Future girl: Young women in the twenty-first century. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. James, Robin
    2015Resilience & melancholy: Pop music, feminism, neoliberalism. Alresford, UK: Zero Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Jameson, Fredric
    2004 “Politics of utopia.” New Left Review25(January): 35–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Joseph, Jonathan
    2013 “Resilience as embedded neoliberalism: a governmentality approach.” Resilience1(1): 38–52. 10.1080/21693293.2013.765741
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21693293.2013.765741 [Google Scholar]
  38. Kim, Gooyong
    2017 “K-pop Female Idols: Culture Industry, Neoliberal Social Policy, and Governmentality in Korea.” InRoutledge Handbook of Global Cultural Policy, edited byVictoria Durrer, Toby Miller, and Dave O’Brien, 520–537. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 2018 “K-pop Female Idols as Cultural Genre of Patriarchal Neoliberalism: A Gendered Nature of Developmentalism and the Structure of Feeling/Experience in Contemporary Korea.” Telos184(Fall): 185–207.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kress, Gunther R., and Theo Van Leeuwen
    2006Reading images: The grammar of visual design, 2nd Edition. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203619728
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203619728 [Google Scholar]
  41. Lemke, Jay L.
    1995Textual politics: Discourse and social dynamics. London: Taylor & Francis.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 2012 “Multimedia and discourse analysis.” InThe Routledge handbook of discourse analysis, edited byGee, James Paul, and Michael Handford, 79–89. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Lentzos, Filippa, and Nikolas Rose
    2009 “Governing insecurity: contingency planning, protection, resilience.” Economy and Society38(2): 230–254. 10.1080/03085140902786611
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03085140902786611 [Google Scholar]
  44. Lewis, Lisa A.
    1990Gender politics and MTV: Voicing the difference. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Lin, Xi, and Robert Rudolf
    2017 “Does K-pop Reinforce Gender Inequalities? Empirical Evidence from a New Data Set.” Asian Women33(4): 27–54. 10.14431/aw.2017.12.33.4.27
    https://doi.org/10.14431/aw.2017.12.33.4.27 [Google Scholar]
  46. Marshall, P. David
    1997Celebrity and Power: Fame in Contemporary Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 2010 “The promotion and presentation of the self: celebrity as marker of presentational media.” Celebrity Studies1(1): 35–48. 10.1080/19392390903519057
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19392390903519057 [Google Scholar]
  48. McRobbie, Angela
    2013 “Feminism, the family and the new ‘mediated’ maternalism.” New Formations80(Winter): 119–137. 10.3898/newF.80/81.07.2013
    https://doi.org/10.3898/newF.80/81.07.2013 [Google Scholar]
  49. OECD https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264301108-en
  50. O’Halloran, Kay
    2004 “Visual semiosis in film.” InMultimodal Discourse Analysis, Systemic Functional Perspectives, edited byKay O’Halloran, 109–130. New York: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. O’Malley, Pat
    2010 “Resilient subjects: Uncertainty, warfare and liberalism.” Economy and Society39(4): 488–509. 10.1080/03085147.2010.510681
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03085147.2010.510681 [Google Scholar]
  52. Pelinka, Anton
    2007 “Language as a political category: The viewpoint of political science.” Journal of Language & Politics6(1): 129–43. 10.1075/jlp.6.1.09pel
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.6.1.09pel [Google Scholar]
  53. Reivich, Karen, and Andrew Shatte
    2002The resilience factor: 7 keys to finding your inner strength and overcoming life’s hurdles. Chicago: Broadway Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Rimke, Heidi Marie
    2000 “Governing citizens through self-help literature.” Cultural Studies14(1): 61–78. 10.1080/095023800334986
    https://doi.org/10.1080/095023800334986 [Google Scholar]
  55. Rojek, Chris
    2001Celebrity. London: Reaktion Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Rose, Nikolas
    1993 “Government, authority and expertise in advanced liberalism.” Economy and Society22(3): 283–299. 10.1080/03085149300000019
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03085149300000019 [Google Scholar]
  57. 1998Inventing our selves: Psychology, power, and personhood. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 1999aGoverning the soul: the shaping of the private self. London: Free Association Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 1999bPowers of freedom: Reframing political thought. New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511488856
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511488856 [Google Scholar]
  60. Rottenberg, Catherine
    2014 “The rise of neoliberal feminism.” Cultural studies28(3): 418–437. 10.1080/09502386.2013.857361
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09502386.2013.857361 [Google Scholar]
  61. 2017 “Neoliberal Feminism and the Future of Human Capital.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society42(2): 329–348. 10.1086/688182
    https://doi.org/10.1086/688182 [Google Scholar]
  62. Sandberg, Sheryl
    2013Lean in: Women, work, and the will to lead. New York: Random House.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Seligman, Martin
    2004Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: ATRIA Paperback.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 2012Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Seligman, Martin, Peter Railton, Roy F. Baumeister, and Chandra Sripada
    2016Homo prospectus. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Seligman, Martin, and John Tierney
    2017 “We aren’t built to live in the moment.” The New York Times, May19. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/19/opinion/sunday/why-the-future-is-always-on-your-mind.html
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Shouse, Eric
    2005 “Feeling, emotion, affect.” M/C Journal8(6). journal.media-culture.org.au/0512/03-shouse.php
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Stringer, Rebecca
    2014Knowing victims: Feminism, agency and victim politics in neoliberal times. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315880129
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315880129 [Google Scholar]
  69. Tan, Sabine
    2009 “A systemic functional framework for the analysis of corporate television advertisements.” InThe World Told and the World Shown, edited byVentola, E. and Guijarro, A. J. M., 157–182. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. van Dijk, Teun
    1990 “Discourse & Society: A new journal for a new research focus.” Discourse & Society1(1): 5–16. 10.1177/0957926590001001001
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926590001001001 [Google Scholar]
  71. van Dijk, Teun A.
    1993 “Principles of critical discourse analysis.” Discourse & Society4(2): 249–283. 10.1177/0957926593004002006
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926593004002006 [Google Scholar]
  72. Vrasti, Wanda
    2011 “‘Caring’ Capitalism and the Duplicity of Critique.” Theory & Event14(4). muse.jhu.edu/article/459121. 10.1353/tae.2011.0041
    https://doi.org/10.1353/tae.2011.0041 [Google Scholar]
  73. Walker, Jeremy, and Melinda Cooper
    2011 “Genealogies of resilience: From systems ecology to the political economy of crisis adaptation.” Security Dialogue42(2): 143–160. 10.1177/0967010611399616
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0967010611399616 [Google Scholar]
  74. Walsh-Dilley, Marygold, and Wendy Wolford
    2015 “(Un) Defining resilience: subjective understandings of ‘resilience’ from the field.” Resilience3(3): 173–182. 10.1080/21693293.2015.1072310
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21693293.2015.1072310 [Google Scholar]
  75. Zebrowski, Chris
    2013 “The nature of resilience.” Resilience1(3): 159–173. 10.1080/21693293.2013.804672
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21693293.2013.804672 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.18058.kim
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error