Volume 19, Issue 4
  • ISSN 1569-2159
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9862
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Politicians often quote opponents in political debates so as to highlight contradictions between the opponents’ prior statements and their current political actions, thus construing their political character negatively. From a dialogic perspective, reported speech, alternatively termed “extra-vocalisation”, can be defined as a tool used by speakers to deny alternative points of view and justify their own positions, while simultaneously positioning the audience in agreement with the speaker’s own views. Drawing on this notion of extra-vocalisation, the current study analyses a Japanese political debate to show how politicians use different types of voice to validate their own political ideologies and devalue opposing views. In doing so, the study also identifies the relevant linguistic resources of Japanese in order to show how dialogic positioning via extra-vocalisation is manifested in Japanese, and highlight the fact each language provides its own resources to convey such meanings.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Antaki, Charles, and Ivan Leudar
    2001 “Recruiting the Record: Using Opponents’ Exact Words in Parliamentary Argumentation.” Text21 (4): 467–88. 10.1515/text.2001.008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/text.2001.008 [Google Scholar]
  2. Benoit, William L., Glenn J. Hansen, and Rebecca M. Verser
    2003 “A meta-analysis of the effects of viewing U.S. presidential debates.” Communication Monographs70: 335–350. 10.1080/0363775032000179133
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0363775032000179133 [Google Scholar]
  3. Benoit, William Lyon
    2014Political Election Debates: Informing Voters about Policy and Character. Lexington: Lexington Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Clark, Herbert H., and Richard Gerrig
    1990 “Quotations as demonstrations.” Language66: 764–805. 10.2307/414729
    https://doi.org/10.2307/414729 [Google Scholar]
  5. Chilton, Paul
    2004Analyzing Political Discourse: Theory and Practice. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203561218
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203561218 [Google Scholar]
  6. Gruber, Helmut
    2015a “Policy-Oriented Argumentation or Ironic Evaluation: A Study of Verbal Quoting and Positioning in Austrian Politicians’ Parliamentary Debate Contributions.” Discourse Studies17 (6): 682–702. 10.1177/1461445615602377
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445615602377 [Google Scholar]
  7. 2015b “Establishing Intertextual References in Austrian Parliamentary Debates. A Pilot Study”. InFollow-Ups in Political Discourse. Explorations across Contexts and Discourse Domains, edited byWeizman, Elda and Anita Fetzer, 15–49. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. 10.1075/dapsac.60.02gru
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.60.02gru [Google Scholar]
  8. Fairclough, Isabela, and Norman Fairclough
    2012Political Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Finlayson, Alan
    2007 “From beliefs to arguments: interpretative methodology and rhetorical political analysis.” British Journal of Politics and International Relations9 (4): 545–63. 10.1111/j.1467‑856x.2007.00269.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-856x.2007.00269.x [Google Scholar]
  10. Feldman, Ofer, Ken Kinoshita, and Peter Bull
    2015 “Culture or communicative conflict? The analysis of equivocation in broadcast Japanese political interviews.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology34: 65–89. 10.1177/0261927X14557567
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X14557567 [Google Scholar]
  11. Hyland, Ken
    1999 “Academic attribution: Citation and the construction of disciplinary knowledge.” Applied Linguistics20 (3): 341–367. 10.1093/applin/20.3.341
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/20.3.341 [Google Scholar]
  12. Inako, Ayumi
    2015 “Affiliating in crisis: a linguistic perspective on community formation on Twitter after the nuclear accident in Japan in 2011.” PhD diss., The University of Technology, Sydney.
  13. Isshiki, Maiko
    2011 “nihongo no hojodooshi ‘-te shimau’ no bunpooka: shukanka, kanshukanka o chuushin ni [Japanese grammaticalisation of an auxiliary verb, te shimaui: Focusing on subjectivity and intersubjectivity].” Nihonkenkyuu15: 201–221.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kuo, Sai-Hua
    2001 “Reported Speech in Chinese Political Discourse.” Discourse Studies3 (2): 181–202. 10.1177/1461445601003002002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445601003002002 [Google Scholar]
  15. Leech, Geoffrey Neil, and Mick Short
    1981Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Martin, Samuel Elmo
    1975A Reference Grammar of Japanese. Tokyo: Tuttle Language Library.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Maynard, Senko K.
    1994 “Images of involvement and integrity: Rhetorical style of a Japanese politician.” Discourse and Society5(2): 233–261. 10.1177/0957926594005002005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926594005002005 [Google Scholar]
  18. 1997Danwa bunseki no kanoosee – riron, hoohoo, nihongo no hyoogensee [Discourse analysis: theory, method and Japanese expressivity]. Tokyo: Kuroshio Publisher.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 1999 ‘‘Grammar, with attitude: On the expressivity of certain da sentences in Japanese.’’ Linguistics37 (2): 215–250. 10.1515/ling.37.2.215
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.37.2.215 [Google Scholar]
  20. Shibata, Masaki
    2018 “Why is Toru Hashimoto called “a Japanese version of Trump” or “Hitler”?: Linguistic examination of the Hashimoto’s attack on his opponents.” Japanese Journal of Political Science19 (1): 23–40. 10.1017/S1468109917000202
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1468109917000202 [Google Scholar]
  21. Shibamoto-Smith, Janet S.
    (2011) “Honorifics, ‘politeness’ and power in Japanese political debate.” Journal of Pragmatics43: 3707–3791. 10.1016/j.pragma.2011.09.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.09.003 [Google Scholar]
  22. Sunagawa, Yuriko
    1988 “Inyoobun ni okeru ba no nijuusee nit suite [the duality of place in citation].” Nihongogaku7 (9): 14–29.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Suto, Kinuko and Christopher Barnard
    2013 “Nominalisation and nouniness as meaning strategies in Japanese political manifestos.” InSystemic Functional Perspectives of Japanese: Descriptions and Applications, edited. byElizabeth A. Thomson, and William S. Armour, 173–209. Sheffield: Equinox Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Tannen, Deborah
    2007Talking Voices: Repetition, Dialogue, and Imagery in Conversational Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511618987
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618987 [Google Scholar]
  25. Thompson, Geoff
    1996 “Voices in the Text: discourse perspectives on language Reports”. Applied Linguistics17: 501–30. 10.1093/applin/17.4.501
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/17.4.501 [Google Scholar]
  26. Van Dijk, Teun A.
    1998 “What is political discourse analysis?” InPolitical linguistics, edited byBlommaert, Jan and Chris Bulcaen, 11–52. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. White, Peter Robert
    1998 “Telling Media Tales.” PhD diss., The University of Sydney.
  28. Wodak, Ruth
    2009aThe discourse of politics in Action. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 2009b “Language and politics” InEnglish language: Description, variation and context, edited byCulpeper, Jonathan, Paul Kerswill, Ruth Wodak, Anthony McEnery, and Francis Katamba, 576–593. London: Palgrave. 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑07789‑9_35
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-07789-9_35 [Google Scholar]
  30. Yonezawa, Yoko
    2016 “Nexus of Language and Culture: A Study of Second Person Reference Terms in Japanese with Special Focus on Anata ‘You’.” PhD diss., Australian National University.

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error