1887
image of The language of exclusion
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

It has been argued that far-right populist parties (FRPP) distinguish themselves from other parties on the right of the political spectrum through their strong association with nationalism, anti-elitism, authoritarianism and historical mythologizing. These features typically manifest in discourse that attempts to justify exclusionist immigration and asylum policies by presenting Islam as an existential threat to predominantly white societies. This paper seeks to establish whether a conservative party that has never been considered populist could possess the same features as an FRPP by comparing three selected discursive texts – one from mainstream conservative party leader John Howard and two from prominent European FRPP leaders. The analysis revealed that the key difference between the three leaders was Howard’s failure to satisfy the authoritarianism criterion, which was interpreted as a decisive factor in his party’s moderate guise. This suggests that some mainstream parties may be more ideologically extremist than they are perceived to be.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.19071.tal
2020-11-10
2020-11-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Alduy, Cecile and Stéphane Wahnich
    2015Marine Le Pen Prise aux Mots. Décryptage du Nouveau Discours Frontiste. Paris: Seuil.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Boukala, Salomi
    2020 “The End of EU-topia and the Politics of Hate: Totalitarianism and the Mainstreaming of Far-Right Discourse in the Greek Political Scene.” InEurope at the Crossroads: Confronting Populist, Nationalist, and Global Challenges, edited byPieter Bevelander and Ruth Wodak, 135–158. Nordic Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brett, Judith
    2007 “Exit Right: The Unravelling of John Howard.” Quarterly Essay28: 1–96.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Caron, Jean-François
    2013 “Understanding and interpreting France’s National Identity: The Meanings of Being French.” National Identities15(3): 223–237. 10.1080/14608944.2013.779645
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14608944.2013.779645 [Google Scholar]
  5. Chira, Susan
    2017 “Marine Le Pen’s Canny Use of Gender in Her Campaign.” New York Times, May4 2017 https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/04/world/europe/le-pens-campaign-strategy-shift-strong-but-soft.html
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chisari, Maria
    2012 “The History and Values of Australian Citizenship Testing.” InNew Voices, New Visions: Challenging Australian Identities and Legacies, edited byCatriona Elder, and Keith Moore, 137–151. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Eyerman, Ron
    2011 “The End of Tolerance: The Murders of Pim Fortuyn and Theo van Gogh.” InThe Cultural Sociology of Political Assassination. Cultural Sociology, edited byRon Eyerman, 111–144. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230337879_5
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230337879_5 [Google Scholar]
  8. Fairclough, Norman
    1995Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Fozdar, Farida, Brian Spittles, and Lisa Hartley
    2015 “Australia Day, Flags on Cars and Australian Nationalism.” Journal of Sociology51(2): 317–336. 10.1177/1440783314524846
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783314524846 [Google Scholar]
  10. Freeden, Michael
    2003Ideology: A very short introduction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/actrade/9780192802811.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/actrade/9780192802811.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  11. Howard, John
    2006 “Address to the National Press Club Great Hall.” PM Transcripts. https://pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au/release/transcript-22110
  12. Krzyżanowski, Michał
    2014 “Values, imaginaries, and templates of journalistic practice: A Critical Discourse Analysis.” Social Semiotics24(3): 345–365. 10.1080/10350330.2014.930607
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10350330.2014.930607 [Google Scholar]
  13. 2018 “‘We Are a Small Country That Has Done Enormously Lot’: The ‘Refugee Crisis’ and the Hybrid Discourse of Politicizing Immigration in Sweden.” Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies16(1–2): 97–117. 10.1080/15562948.2017.1317895
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2017.1317895 [Google Scholar]
  14. 2018a “Discursive Shifts in Ethno-Nationalist Politics: On Politicization and Mediatization of the ‘Refugee Crisis’ in Poland.” Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies16(1–2): 76–96. 10.1080/15562948.2017.1317897
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2017.1317897 [Google Scholar]
  15. Krzyżanowski, Michał, and Per Ledin
    2017 “Uncivility on the Web: Populism in/and the Borderline Discourses of Exclusion.” Journal of Language & Politics16(4): 556–581. 10.1075/jlp.17028.krz
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.17028.krz [Google Scholar]
  16. Le Pen, Marine
    2015 “Discours de Marine Le Pen (Vendredi 1er mai 2015).” Rassemblement National. https://www.rassemblementnational.fr/discours/discours-de-marine-le-pen-vendredi-1er-mai-2015
  17. Mondon, Aurelien, and Aaron Winter
    2019 “Mapping and Mainstreaming Islamophobia: Between the illiberal and liberal.” InThe Routledge International Handbook of Islamophobia, edited byIrene Zempi, and Imran Awan, 58–70. Abingdon: Routledge. 10.4324/9781351135559‑6
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351135559-6 [Google Scholar]
  18. National Press Club of Australia
    National Press Club of Australia. n.d. “Speakers.” AccessedMay 2 2019. https://www.npc.org.au/speakers
  19. Mellor, David, Di Bretherton, and Lucy Firth
    2007 “Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Australia: The Dilemma of Apologies, Forgiveness, and Reconciliation.” Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology13(1): 11–36. 10.1037/h0094022
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0094022 [Google Scholar]
  20. Mudde, Cas
    2007The Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511492037
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511492037 [Google Scholar]
  21. 2019 “The Far Right May Not Have Cleaned Up, but its Influence Now Dominates Europe.” The Guardian, May28 2019 https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/may/28/far-right-european-elections-eu-politics
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Mudde, Cas, and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser
    2018 “Studying Populism in Comparative Perspective: Reflections on the Contemporary and Future Research Agenda.” Comparative Political Studies51(13): 1667–1693. 10.1177/0010414018789490
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0010414018789490 [Google Scholar]
  23. Partij Voor de Vrijheid
    Partij Voor de Vrijheid 2017 “Verkiezingsprogramma PVV 2017 – 2021.” AccessedMay 2 2019. https://www.pvv.nl/visie.html
  24. Pels, Dick
    2005Een Zwak voor Nederland: Ideeën voor een Nieuwe Politiek. Amsterdam: Anthos.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Phillips, Janet
    2012 “The ‘Pacific Solution’ Revisited: A Statistical Guide to the Asylum Seeker Caseloads on Nauru and Manus Island.” Australian Department of Parliamentary Services Report.
  26. Polakow-Suransky, Sasha
    2017 “How Europe’s Far Right Fell in Love with Australia’s Immigration Policy.” The Guardian, October12 2017 https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/12/how-europes-far-right-fell-in-love-with-australias-immigration-policy
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Rassemblement National
    Rassemblement National (2017) “144 Engagements Présidentiels: Election Présidentielle.” AccessedMay 2 2019. https://www.rassemblementnational.fr/pdf/144-engagements.pdf
  28. Reisigl, Martin, and Ruth Wodak
    2001Discourse and Discrimination: Rhetorics of Racism and Antisemitism. London and New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rheindorf, Markus, and Ruth Wodak
    2018 “Borders, Fences and Limits – Protecting Austria from Refugees: Metadiscursive Negotiation of Meaning in the Current Refugee Crisis.” Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies16(1–2): 15–38. 10.1080/15562948.2017.1302032
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2017.1302032 [Google Scholar]
  30. Rovira Kaltwasser, Cristóbal, Paul Taggart, Paulina Ochoa Espejo, and Pierre Ostiguy
    2017The Oxford Handbook of Populism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198803560.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198803560.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  31. Rydgren, Jens
    2017 “The Radical Right: An Introduction.” InThe Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right, edited byJens Rydgren, 1–14. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Talay, Louis
    2019 “How Thierry Baudet Stole Geert Wilders’ Votes: A Discourse Historical Analysis of Baudet’s 2019 Provincial Elections Victory Speech.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of European Studies11(2): 45–59.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Traufetter, Gerald
    2008 “Islam Critic Wilders: A Missionary with Dark Visions.” Spiegel International, March27 2008 https://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/islam-critic-wilders-a-missionary-with-dark-visions-a-543627.html
    [Google Scholar]
  34. UNHCR
    UNHCR. n.d.Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. The UN Refugee Agency.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Van Leeuwen, Theo
    2007 “Legitimation in Discourse and Communication.” Discourse & Communication1(1): 91–112. 10.1177/1750481307071986
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481307071986 [Google Scholar]
  36. Versteeg, Peter
    2012 “The discovery of Dutch Identity: A Critical Exploration.” Dutch Reformed Theological Journal53(2): 59–66.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Wilders, Geert
  38. 2013 “Spreektekst Geert Wilders, Melbourne, Australië, Dinsdag 19 Februari 2013.” PVV. https://www.pvv.nl/36-fj-related/geert-wilders/6509-spreektekst-geert-wilders-melbourne-australie-dinsdag-19-februari-2013.html
  39. 2015 “Geschreven Tekst Geert Wilders bij Debat over Aanslag Parijs.” PVV. https://www.pvv.nl/36-fj-related/geert-wilders/8103-geschreven-tekst-geert-wilders-bij-debat-over-aanslag-parijs.html
  40. Wodak, Ruth
    2015The Politics of Fear. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 2020 “Analysing the Micropolitics of the Populist Far Right in the ‘Post Shame’ Era.” InEurope at the Crossroads: Confronting Populist, Nationalist, and Global Challenges, edited byPieter Bevelander, and Ruth Wodak, 63–92. Nordic Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.19071.tal
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: Islamophobia; national identity; exclusion; discourse analysis; ethnonationalism
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error