1887
image of Protest graffiti, social movements and changing participation frameworks
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

As a type of written discourse without guaranteed readership and response, protest graffiti nonetheless projects a participation framework in which protesters address different participants, including not only the government but also other potential ‘participants’ in the social/cultural/political context. This paper studies a dataset of graffiti associated with a protest movement in Macao, China. A survey of the longitudinal data reveals that the contents and visual representation of the graffiti have changed to reflect evolving participation frameworks which are in response to different stages of social movements. While graffiti in earlier stages tends to be more accusatory and anti-governmental, graffiti in later stages shows a shift of protesters’ position more in alignment with patriotism and allegiance to authority. Instead of presenting views competing with mainstream political discourse, our data, with their multimodal resources, draw heavily on Chinese cultural discourses which are supposedly shared among the protesters and addressees in this context.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.20036.zha
2020-12-21
2021-05-12
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aboelezz, Mariam
    2014 “The Geosemiotics of Tahrir Square: A Study of the Relationship between Discourse and Space.” Journal of Language and Politics13(4): 599–622. 10.1075/jlp.13.1.02abo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.13.1.02abo [Google Scholar]
  2. Bell, Allan
    1984 “Language Style as Audience Design.” Language in Society13(2): 145–204. 10.1017/S004740450001037X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740450001037X [Google Scholar]
  3. 1990 “Audience and Referee Design in New Zealand Media Language.” InNew Zealand Ways of Speaking English, ed. byAllan Bell, and Janet Holmes, 165–194. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Blommaert, Jan
    2013Ethnography, Superdiversity and Linguistic Landscapes: Chronicles of Complexity. Toronto: Multilingual matters. 10.21832/9781783090419
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783090419 [Google Scholar]
  5. Chang, Hsiao-Chuan
    2013 “Housing Affordability in Macao: Evidence and Policy.” China Economic Journal6(1): 46–56. 10.1080/17538963.2013.831235
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17538963.2013.831235 [Google Scholar]
  6. Christiansen, Jonathan
    2009 “Four Stages of Social Movements.” Research Starters, 1–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Flesher Fominaya, Cristina
    2010 “Collective Identity in Social Movements: Central Concepts and Debates.” Sociology Compass4 (6): 393–404. 10.1111/j.1751‑9020.2010.00287.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2010.00287.x [Google Scholar]
  8. Goffman, Erving
    1981Forms of Talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Goodwin, Jeff, and James M. Jasper
    2015 “Editors’ Introduction”. InThe Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts, ed. byJeff Goodwin, and James M. Jasper, 5–8. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gross, Daniel, and Timothy Gross
    1993 “Tagging: Changing Visual Patterns and the Rhetorical Implications of a New Form of Graffiti.” A Review of General Semantics50(3): 251–264.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hanauer, David I.
    2004 “Silence, Voice and Erasure: Psychological Embodiment in Graffiti at the Site of Prime Minister Rabin’s Assassination.” The Arts in Psychotherapy31: 29–35. 10.1016/j.aip.2004.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2004.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  12. 2011 “The Discursive Construction of the Separation Wall at Abu Dis: Graffiti as Political Discourse.” Journal of Language and Politics10(3): 301–321. 10.1075/jlp.10.3.01han
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.10.3.01han [Google Scholar]
  13. 2015 “Occupy Baltimore: A Linguistic Landscape Analysis of Participatory Social Contestation in an American City.” InConflict, Exclusion and Dissent in the Linguistic Landscape, ed. byRani Rubdy, and Selim Ben Said, 207–222. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137426284_10
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137426284_10 [Google Scholar]
  14. Haugh, Michael
    2013 “Im/politeness, Social Practice and the Participation Order.” Journal of Pragmatics58: 52–72. 10.1016/j.pragma.2013.07.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.07.003 [Google Scholar]
  15. Karlander, David
    2019 “A Semiotics of Nonexistence? Erasure and Erased Writing under Anti-graffiti Regimes.” Linguistic Landscape5(2):198–216. 10.1075/ll.18023.kar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ll.18023.kar [Google Scholar]
  16. Kasanga, Luanga A.
    2014 “The Linguistic Landscape: Mobile Signs, Code Choice, Symbolic Meaning and Territoriality in the Discourse of Protest.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language230: 19–44. 10.1515/ijsl‑2014‑0025
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl-2014-0025 [Google Scholar]
  17. Kim, Sungwoo, and In Chull Jang
    2020 “A Trajectory of a Mediational Means in Protest: The Hand Placard in South Korea’s Candlelight Protests.” Social Semiotics. OnlineFirst. doi:  10.1080/10350330.2020.1730555
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10350330.2020.1730555 [Google Scholar]
  18. Levinson, Stephen C.
    1988 “Putting Linguistics on a Proper Footing: Explorations in Goffman’s Concepts of Participation.” InErving Goffman: Exploring the Interaction Order, ed. byPaul Drew, and Anthony Wootton, 161–227. Oxford, UK: Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lou, Jackie, and Adam Jaworski
    2016 “Itineraries of Protest Signage: Semiotic Landscape and the Mythologizing of the Hong Kong Umbrella Movement.” Journal of Language and Politics15 (5): 612–645. 10.1075/jlp.15.5.06lou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.15.5.06lou [Google Scholar]
  20. Martín Rojo, Luisa
    2014 “Occupy: The Spatial Dynamics of Discourse in Global Protest Movements.” Journal of Language and Politics13(4): 583–598. 10.1075/jlp.13.4.01mar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.13.4.01mar [Google Scholar]
  21. McCarthy, John D., and Mayer N. Zald
    2015 “Social Movement Organizations.” InThe Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts, ed. byJeff Goodwin, and James M. Jasper, 159–174. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Scollon, Ron
    2001Mediated Discourse: The Nexus of Practice. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Scollon, Ron, and Suzie W. Scollon
    2004Nexus Analysis: Discourse and the Emerging Internet. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203694343
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203694343 [Google Scholar]
  24. Seloni, Lisya, and Yusuf Sarfati
    2017 “Linguistic Landscape of Gezi Park Protests in Turkey: A Discourse Analysis of Graffiti.” Journal of Language and Politics16 (6): 782–808. 10.1075/jlp.15037.sel
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.15037.sel [Google Scholar]
  25. Shavit, Nimrod, and Benjamin H. Bailey
    2015 “Between the Procedural and the Substantial: Democratic Deliberation and the Interaction Order in ‘Occupy Middletown General Assembly’.” Symbolic Interaction38(1): 103–126. 10.1002/symb.141
    https://doi.org/10.1002/symb.141 [Google Scholar]
  26. Sheng, Ni, U-Wa Tang, and Adam Grydehøj
    2017 “Urban Morphology and Urban Fragmentation in Macau, China: Island City Development in the Pearl River Delta Megacity Region.” Island Studies Journal12(2): 199–212. 10.24043/isj.25
    https://doi.org/10.24043/isj.25 [Google Scholar]
  27. Steinberg, Rebecca Lila
    2014 “The Occupy Assembly: Discursive Experiments in Direct Democracy.” Journal of Language and Politics13(4): 702–731. 10.1075/jlp.13.4.06ste
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.13.4.06ste [Google Scholar]
  28. Waldner, Lisa K., and Betty A. Dobratz
    2013 “Graffiti as a Form of Contentious Political Participation.” Sociology Compass7(5): 377–389. 10.1111/soc4.12036
    https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12036 [Google Scholar]
  29. Wee, Lionel
    2016 “Situating Affect in Linguistic Landscapes.” Linguistic Landscape2(2): 105–126. 10.1075/ll.2.2.01wee
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ll.2.2.01wee [Google Scholar]
  30. Zaimakis, Yiannis
    2015 “Welcome to the Civilization of Fear’: On Political Graffiti Heterotopias in Greece in Times of Crisis.” Visual Communication14(4): 373–396. 10.1177/1470357215593845
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1470357215593845 [Google Scholar]
  31. Zhang, Hong, and Brian Hok-Shing Chan
    2017 “The Shaping of a Multilingual Landscape by Shop Names: Tradition versus Modernity.” Language and Intercultural Communication17(1): 26–44. 10.1080/14708477.2017.1261674
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2017.1261674 [Google Scholar]
  32. 2020 “Differentiating Graffiti in Macao: Activity Types, Multimodality and Institutional Appropriation.” To appear inVisual Communication. doi: 10.1177/1470357220966737
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1470357220966737 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.20036.zha
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.20036.zha
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error