Volume 21, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1569-2159
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9862
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This study gives a corpus-assisted discourse study of the representations of 2019 Hong Kong protests in the . With the corpus-analytic tools Wmatrix and Wordsmith, it examines both the dominant patterns in its representations and the specific strategies used. The findings suggest that while NYT still draws on the traditional patterns in its representations of Hong Kong protests, it deviates from the protest paradigm in its representations of concerned parties. Meanwhile, emotion discourse has emerged as a distinct strategy in its representations. This is most revealing in the emotion of fear, and a close analysis of its use in its context has revealed its role in the construction of concerned parties and the distrust of Hong Kong people towards the Chinese government.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Altheide, David
    2003 “Notes towards a politics of fear.” Journal for Crime, Conflict and the Media1 (1): 37–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2006Terrorism and the Politics of Fear. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 10.1177/1532708605285733
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1532708605285733 [Google Scholar]
  3. Altheide, David, and R. Sam Michalowski
    1999 “Fear in the news: A discourse of control.” Sociological Quarterly40 (3): 475–503. 10.1111/j.1533‑8525.1999.tb01730.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1999.tb01730.x [Google Scholar]
  4. Baker, Paul
    2006Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis. London and New York: Continuum. 10.5040/9781350933996
    https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350933996 [Google Scholar]
  5. Baker, Paul, Costas Gabrielatos, Majid KhosraviNik, Michał Krzyżanowski, Tony McEnery, and Ruth Wodak
    2008 “A useful methodological synergy? Combining critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics to examine discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press.” Discourse & Society19 (3): 273–306. 10.1177/0957926508088962
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926508088962 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bednarek, Monika
    2008Emotion Talk across Corpora. London: Palgrave. 10.1057/9780230285712
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230285712 [Google Scholar]
  7. 2016 “Investigating evaluation and news values in news items that are shared through social media.” Corpora11 (2): 227–257. 10.3366/cor.2016.0093
    https://doi.org/10.3366/cor.2016.0093 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bhatia, Aditi
    2015 “Construction of discursive illusions in the ‘Umbrella Movement’.” Discourse & Society26 (4): 407–427. 10.1177/0957926515576635
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926515576635 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bondi, Marina
    2007 “Key-words and emotions: A case study of the Bloody Sunday inquiry.” InDiscourse and Contemporary Social Change, edited byNorman Fairclough, Guiseppina Cortese and Patrizia Ardizzone, 407–432. Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chan, Debby, and Ngai Pun
    2020 “Economic power of the politically powerless in the 2019 Hong Kong pro-democracy movement.” Critical Asian Studies52 (1): 33–43. 10.1080/14672715.2019.1708019
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14672715.2019.1708019 [Google Scholar]
  11. Cheng, Winnie
    2013 “Corpus-based linguistic approaches to critical discourse analysis.” InThe Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, edited byCarol Chapelle, 1353–1360. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cheng, Winnie, and Phoenix Lam
    2013 “Western Perceptions of Hong Kong Ten Years On: A Corpus-driven Critical Discourse Study.” Applied Linguistics34 (2):173–190. 10.1093/applin/ams038
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/ams038 [Google Scholar]
  13. Fairclough, Norman
    1995Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. London and New York: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Flowerdew, John, and Rodney Jones
    2016 “Occupy Hong Kong: Historicizing Protest.” Journal of Language and Politics15 (5): 521–528. 10.1075/jlp.15.5.01flo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.15.5.01flo [Google Scholar]
  15. Galtung, Johan, and Mari Holmboe Ruge
    1965 “The structure of foreign news: The presentation of the Congo, Cuba and Cyprus crises in four Norwegian newspapers.” Journal of Peace Research2 (1): 64–90. 10.1177/002234336500200104
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002234336500200104 [Google Scholar]
  16. Gitlin, Todd
    1980The Whole World is Watching. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Haarman, Louann, and Linda Lombardo
    eds. 2009Evaluation and Stance in War News. London: Continuum
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hardt-Mautner, Gerlinde
    1995 ““Only connect”: Critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics.” InUCREL Technical Paper 6. Lancaster: Lancaster University.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Herman, Edward S., and Noam Chomsky
    1988Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York: Pantheon Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hertog, James K., and Douglas M. McLeod
    1995 “Anarchists wreak havoc in downtown Minneapolis: A multi-level study of media coverage of radical protest.” Journalism and Communication Monographs151: 1–48.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. L’Hôte, Emilie
    2010 “New Labour and globalization: Globalist discourse with a twist?” Discourse & Society21 (4): 355–376. 10.1177/0957926510366212
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926510366212 [Google Scholar]
  22. Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson
    2003Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226470993.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226470993.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  23. Lee, Chin-Chuan, Joseph Man Chan, Zhongdong Pan, and Clement Y. K. So
    2002Global Media Spectacle: News War over Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lee, Chin-Chuan, Zhongdang Pan, Joseph Man Chan, and Clement Y. K. So
    2001 “Through the eyes of US media: Banging the democracy drum in Hong Kong.” Journal of Communication51 (2): 345–365. 10.1111/j.1460‑2466.2001.tb02884.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2001.tb02884.x [Google Scholar]
  25. Lee, Junghi, and Robert L. Craig
    1992 “News as an ideological framework: Comparing US newspapers’ coverage of labor strikes in South Korea and Poland.” Discourse & Society3 (3): 341–363. 10.1177/0957926592003003004
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926592003003004 [Google Scholar]
  26. Li, Cho Kiu
    2019 “The Cultural Politics of Fear: The Collective Fear of Communism in Cold War and Post-Cold War Hong Kong (1967–2018).” Unpublishwed PhD thesis, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Liu, Ming
    2017 ““Contesting the Cynicism of Neoliberalism”: A corpus-assisted discourse study of press representations of the Sino-US currency dispute.” Journal of Language and Politics16 (2): 242–263. 10.1075/jlp.15010.liu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.15010.liu [Google Scholar]
  28. Liu, Ming, and Cong Jiang
    2019 “Constant fear, but lingering nostalgia: British press representations of post-colonial Hong Kong 20 years on.” Discourse & Communication13 (6):630–646. 10.1177/1750481319868852
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481319868852 [Google Scholar]
  29. Liu, Ming, and Jiali Zhong
    2020 “Between national and local: Identity representations of post-colonial Hong Kong in a local English newspaper.” Discourse, Context & Media36: 100401. 10.1016/j.dcm.2020.100401
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2020.100401 [Google Scholar]
  30. Martin, Michael F.
    2007Hong Kong: Ten years after the handover. Washington D.C.: CRS Report for Congress.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Mautner, Gerlinde
    2016 “Checks and balances: How corpus linguistics can contribute to CDA.” InMethods of Critical Discourse Studies, edited byRuth Wodak and Charles F. Meyer, 154–179. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. McLeod, Douglas M.
    2007 “News coverage and social protest: How the media’s protect paradigm exacerbates social conflict.” J. Disp. REsOL.: 185.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Morley, John, and Paul Bayley
    eds. 2009Corpus-Assisted Discourse Studies on the Iraq Conflict: Wording the War. New York and London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Pan, Xiaping
    2002 “Consensus behind disputes: A critical discourse analysis of the media coverage of the right-of-abode issue in postcolonial Hong Kong.” Media, Culture & Society24 (1): 49–67. 10.1177/016344370202400103
    https://doi.org/10.1177/016344370202400103 [Google Scholar]
  35. Pantti, Mervi
    2010a “Disaster news and public emotions.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Emotions and Mass Media, edited byKatrin Doveling, Christian von Scheve and Elly A. Konijn, 221–236. London and New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203885390.ch13
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203885390.ch13 [Google Scholar]
  36. 2010b “The value of emotion: An examination of television journalists’ notions on emotionality.” European Journal of Communication25 (2): 168–181. 10.1177/0267323110363653
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323110363653 [Google Scholar]
  37. Prentice, Sheryl, Paul J. Taylor, Paul Rayson, Andrew Hoskins, and Ben O’Loughlin
    2011 “Analyzing the semantic content and persuasive composition of extremist media: A case study of texts produced during the Gaza conflict.” Information Systems Frontiers13 (1): 61. 10.1007/s10796‑010‑9272‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-010-9272-y [Google Scholar]
  38. Purbrick, Martin
    2019 “A report of the 2019 Hong Kong protests.” Asian Affairs50 (4):465–487. 10.1080/03068374.2019.1672397
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03068374.2019.1672397 [Google Scholar]
  39. Rayson, Paul
    2008 “From key words to key semantic domains.” International Journal of Corpus Linguistics13 (4):519–549. 10.1075/ijcl.13.4.06ray
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.13.4.06ray [Google Scholar]
  40. Reisigl, Martin, and Ruth Wodak
    2016 “The discourse-historical approach.” InMethods of Critical Discourse Analysisedited byRuth Wodak and Michael Meyer, 23–61. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Richards, Barry, and Gavin Rees
    2011 “The management of emotion in British journalism.” Media, Culture & Society33 (6): 851–867. 10.1177/0163443711411005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443711411005 [Google Scholar]
  42. Schudson, Michael
    1978Discovering the News. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 2001 “The objectivity norm in American journalism.” Journalism2 (2): 149–170. 10.1177/146488490100200201
    https://doi.org/10.1177/146488490100200201 [Google Scholar]
  44. Shi, Wei
    2019 “Ten Years and the politics of fear in post-Umbrella Hong Kong.” Continuum33 (1):105–118. 10.1080/10304312.2018.1541164
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10304312.2018.1541164 [Google Scholar]
  45. Shoemaker, Pamela J.
    1984 “Media treatment of deviant political groups.” Journalism Quarterly61 (1): 66–82. 10.1177/107769908406100109
    https://doi.org/10.1177/107769908406100109 [Google Scholar]
  46. Shoemaker, Pamela J., and Stephen D. Reese
    1996Mediating the Message: Theories of Influences on Media Content. White Plains, NY: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Stenvall, Maija
    2007 “‘Fear of terror attack persists’: Constructing fear in reports on terrorism by international news agencies.” InDiscourse, War and Terrorism, edited byAdam Hodges and Chad Nilep, 205–221. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/dapsac.24.14ste
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.24.14ste [Google Scholar]
  48. 2008 “On emotions and the journalistic ideals of factuality and objectivity–Tools for analysis.” Journal of Pragmatics40 (9): 1569–1586. 10.1016/j.pragma.2008.04.017
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2008.04.017 [Google Scholar]
  49. 2014 “Presenting and representing emotions in news agency reports: On journalists’ stance on affect vis-à-vis objectivity and factuality.” Critical Discourse Studies11 (4): 461–481. 10.1080/17405904.2013.866588
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17405904.2013.866588 [Google Scholar]
  50. Teubert, Wolfgang, and Ramesh Krishnamurthy
    2007Corpus Linguistics: Critical Concepts in Linguistics. London and New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. van Dijk, Teun A.
    1998Ideology: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Van Dijk, Teun A.
    2006 “Ideology and discourse analysis.” Journal of Political Ideologies11 (2): 115–140. 10.1080/13569310600687908
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13569310600687908 [Google Scholar]
  53. Wahl-Jorgensen, Karin
    2013 “The strategic ritual of emotionality: A case study of Pulitzer Prize-winning articles.” Journalism14 (1): 129–145. 10.1177/1464884912448918
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884912448918 [Google Scholar]
  54. 2016 “Emotion and digital journalism.” InThe SAGE Handbook of Digital Journalism, edited byTamara Witschge, C. W. Anderson, David Domingo and Alfred Hermida, 128–143. Los Angeles: Sage. 10.4135/9781473957909.n9
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781473957909.n9 [Google Scholar]
  55. Wodak, Ruth
    2015The Politics of Fear: What Right-wing Populist Discourses Mean. London: Sage. 10.4135/9781446270073
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446270073 [Google Scholar]
  56. 2016 “The discourse-historical approach.” InMethods of Critical Discourse Analysis, edited byRuth Wodak and Michael Meyer, 23–61. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Wodak, Ruth, and Michael Meyer
    2016 “Critical discourse studies: History, agenda, theory and methodology.” InMethods of Critical Discourse Studies, edited byRuth Wodak and Michael Meyer, 1–22. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): corpus-assisted discourse study; emotion; fear; Hong Kong; protests
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error