1887
Volume 20, Issue 5
  • ISSN 1569-2159
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9862
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study examines the impact of fake news discourse on perceptions of news media credibility. If participants are told they have been exposed to fake news, does this lead them to trust information institutions less, including the news media? Study 1 ( = 188) found that news media credibility decreased when participants were told they saw fake news, while news credibility did not change when participants were told they saw real news. Study 2 ( = 400) found that those who saw fake news – and were told they saw a fake news post – decreased their trust in the news media while those who saw fake news and were not debriefed did not change their perceptions of the news media. This shows that the social impact of fake news is not limited to its direct consequences of misinforming individuals, but also includes the potentially adverse effects of discussing fake news.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.21029.tan
2021-07-16
2021-12-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Allcott, Hunt, and Matthew Gentzkow
    2017 “Social media and fake news in the 2016 election.” Journal of Economic Perspectives31 (2):211–236. doi:  10.1257/jep.31.2.211
    https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.31.2.211 [Google Scholar]
  2. Amazeen, Michelle, Emily Thorson, Ashley Muddiman, and Lucas Graves
    2018 “Correcting political and consumer misperceptions: The effectiveness and effects of rating scale versus contextual correction formats.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly95 (1):28–48. doi:  10.1177/1077699016678186
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1077699016678186 [Google Scholar]
  3. Appelman, Alyssa, and S. Shyam Sundar
    2015 “Measuring message credibility.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly93 (1):59–79. doi:  10.1177/1077699015606057
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1077699015606057 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bakir, Vian, and Andrew McStay
    2018 “Fake news and the economy of emotions.” Digital Journalism6 (2):154–175. doi:  10.1080/21670811.2017.1345645
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1345645 [Google Scholar]
  5. Ball, James
    2018 Distrust of social media is dragging traditional journalism down. The Guardian. AccessedOctober 4, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Barthel, Michael, Amy Mitchell, and Jesse Holcomb
    2016 Many Americans believe fake news is sowing confusion. Pew Research Center. AccessedMarch 17, 2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bennett, W. Lance, and Steven Livingston
    2018 "The disinformation order: Disruptive communication and the decline of democratic institutions." European Journal of Communication33 (2):122-139. doi:  10.1177/0267323118760317.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323118760317 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bucy, Erik P., Paul D’Angelo, and Nichole M. Bauer
    2014 “Crisis, credibility, and the press: A priming model of news evaluation.” The International Journal of Press/Politics19 (4):453–475. doi:  10.1177/1940161214541682
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161214541682 [Google Scholar]
  9. Cheruiyot, David, and Raul Ferrer-Conill
    2018 ““Fact-Checking Africa:” Epistemologies, data and the expansion of journalistic discourse.” Digital Journalism6 (8):964–975. doi:  10.1080/21670811.2018.1493940
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2018.1493940 [Google Scholar]
  10. Chua, Melanie
    2013 How should the Singapore government regulate online news sites?Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. AccessedFebruary 14, 2015.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chua, Lee Hoong
    1998Walking the tightrope, press freedom and professional standards in Asia. Edited byAsad Latiff. Singapore: AMIC.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chung, Chung Joo, Yoonjae Nam, and Michael A. Stefanone
    2012 “Exploring online news credibility: The relative influence of traditional and technological factors.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication17 (2):171–186. doi:  10.1111/j.1083‑6101.2011.01565.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2011.01565.x [Google Scholar]
  13. Department of Statistics
    Department of Statistics 2018 Population trends 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ecker, Ullrich, Stephan Lewandowsky, O. Fenton, and K. Martin
    2014 “Do people keep believing because they want to? Preexisting attitudes and the continued influence of misinformation.” Memory and Cognition42 (2):292–304. doi:  10.3758/s13421‑013‑0358‑x
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-013-0358-x [Google Scholar]
  15. Egelhofer, Jana Laura, and Sophie Lecheler
    2019 “Fake news as a two-dimensional phenomenon: a framework and research agenda.” Annals of the International Communication Association43 (2):97–116. doi:  10.1080/23808985.2019.1602782
    https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.2019.1602782 [Google Scholar]
  16. Frayer, Lauren
    2018 Viral Whatsapp messages are triggering mob killings in India. NPR. AccessedAugust 29, 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gaziano, Cecilie, and Kristin McGrath
    1986 “Measuring the concept of credibility.” Journalism Quarterly63 (3):451–462. doi:  10.1177/107769908606300301
    https://doi.org/10.1177/107769908606300301 [Google Scholar]
  18. Graves, Lucas, and Federica Cherubini
    2016 The rise of fact-checking sites in Europe. AccessedAugust 15, 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Heider, F.
    1958The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York, NY: Wiley. 10.1037/10628‑000
    https://doi.org/10.1037/10628-000 [Google Scholar]
  20. Hess, Kristy, and Lisa Waller
    2017Local journalism in a digital world. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑50478‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-50478-4 [Google Scholar]
  21. Ingram, Matthew
    2018 Most Americans say they have lost trust in the media. Columbia Journalism Review. AccessedOctober 31, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kang, Hyunjin, Keunmin Bae, Shaoke Zhang, and S. Shyam Sundar
    2011 “Source cues in online news: Is the proximate source more powerful than distal sources?” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly88 (4):719–736. doi:  10.1177/107769901108800403
    https://doi.org/10.1177/107769901108800403 [Google Scholar]
  23. Kohring, Matthias, and Jörg Matthes
    2007 “Trust in news media: Development and validation of a multidimensional scale.” Communication Research34 (2):231–252. doi:  10.1177/0093650206298071
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650206298071 [Google Scholar]
  24. Ladd, Jonathan
    2011Why Americans hate the media and how it matters. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 10.2307/j.ctt7spr6
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt7spr6 [Google Scholar]
  25. Lazer, David M. J., Matthew A. Baum, Yochai Benkler, Adam J. Berinsky, Kelly M. Greenhill, Filippo Menczer, Miriam J. Metzger, Brendan Nyhan, Gordon Pennycook, David Rothschild, Michael Schudson, Steven A. Sloman, Cass R. Sunstein, Emily A. Thorson, Duncan J. Watts, and Jonathan L. Zittrain
    2018 “The science of fake news.” Science359 (6380):1094. 10.1126/science.aao2998
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aao2998 [Google Scholar]
  26. Lewis, J. David, and Andrew Weigert
    1985 “Trust as a social reality.” Social Forces63 (4):967–985. doi:  10.2307/2578601
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2578601 [Google Scholar]
  27. Lim, Adrian
    2019 “Parliament: Fake news law covers closed platforms like chat groups and social media groups, says Edwin Tong.” The Straits Times. https://www.straitstimes.com/politics/parliament-fake-news-law-covers-closed-platforms-like-chat-groups-and-social-media-groups
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Luhmann, N.
    1979Trust and Power. New York, NY: Wiley.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Mantzarlis, Alexios
    2015 Will verification kill fact-checking?Poynter. Retrieved fromhttps://bit.ly/2GsyBTA
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Meade, Amanda
    2018 Australia’s trust in media at record low as ‘fake news’ fears grow, survey finds. The Guardian. AccessedOctober 4, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Metzger, Miriam J., Andrew J. Flanagin, Keren Eyal, Daisy R. Lemus, and Robert M. McCann
    2003 “Credibility for the 21st century: Integrating perspectives on source, message, and media credibility in the contemporary media environment.” Annals of the International Communication Association27 (1):293–335. doi:  10.1080/23808985.2003.11679029
    https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.2003.11679029 [Google Scholar]
  32. Meyer, Philip
    1988 “Defining and measuring credibility of newspapers: Developing an index.” Journalism Quarterly65 (3):567–588. doi:  10.1177/107769908806500301
    https://doi.org/10.1177/107769908806500301 [Google Scholar]
  33. Mezulis, Amy H., Lyn Y. Abramson, Janet S. Hyde, and Benjamin L. Hankin
    2004 “Is there a universal positivity bias in attributions? A meta-analytic review of individual, developmental, and cultural differences in the self-serving attributional bias.” Psychological Bulletin130 (5):711–747. doi:  10.1037/0033‑2909.130.5.711
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.130.5.711 [Google Scholar]
  34. Nelson, Jacob L., and Harsh Taneja
    2018 “The small, disloyal fake news audience: The role of audience availability in fake news consumption.” New Media & Society20 (10):3720–3737. doi:  10.1177/1461444818758715
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444818758715 [Google Scholar]
  35. Ng, Huiwen
    2018 “4 in 5 Singaporeans confident in spotting fake news but 90 per cent wrong when put to the test: Survey.” The Straits Times, September27. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/4-in-5-singaporeans-confident-in-spotting-fake-news-but-90-per-cent-wrong-when-put-to-the
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Nugent, Ciara
    2018 France is voting on a law banning fake news. Here’s how it could work. Time. AccessedAugust 15, 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Owens, Simon
    2019 Why the “Trump Bump” didn’t deliver much revenue to news publishers. Medium. AccessedOctober 31, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Pennycook, Gordon, T. D. Cannon, and D. G. Rand
    2018 “Prior exposure increases perceived accuracy of fake news.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General147 (12):1865–1880. doi:  10.1037/xge0000465
    https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000465 [Google Scholar]
  39. Pennycook, Gordon, and David G. Rand
    2018 “Lazy, not biased: Susceptibility to partisan fake news is better explained by lack of reasoning than by motivated reasoning.” Cognition. doi:  10.1016/j.cognition.2018.06.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.06.011 [Google Scholar]
  40. Shin, Jieun, and Kjerstin Thorson
    2017 “Partisan selective sharing: The biased diffusion of fact-checking messages on social media.” Journal of Communication67 (2):233–255. doi:  10.1111/jcom.12284
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12284 [Google Scholar]
  41. Soon, Carol, and Tarn How Tan
    2016 "The media freedom-credibility paradox." Media Asia43 (3-4):176-190. doi:  10.1080/01296612.2016.1276315.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01296612.2016.1276315 [Google Scholar]
  42. Spohr, Dominic
    2017 “Fake news and ideological polarization: Filter bubbles and selective exposure on social media.” Business Information Review34 (3):150–160. doi:  10.1177/0266382117722446
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0266382117722446 [Google Scholar]
  43. Tandoc, Edson
    2019 Singapore. Reuters Institute Digital News Report. AccessedJuly 19, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Tandoc, Edson, and Andrew Duffy
    2016 “Keeping up with the audiences: Journalistic role expectations in Singapore.” International Journal of Communication10 (2016):3338–3358. doi: 1932-8036/20160005
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Tandoc, Edson, Joy Jenkins, and Stephanie Craft
    2019 “Fake news as a critical incident in journalism.” Journalism Practice13 (6):673–689. doi:  10.1080/17512786.2018.1562958
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2018.1562958 [Google Scholar]
  46. Tandoc, Edson, Zheng Wei Lim, and Richard Ling
    2017 “Defining “fake news:” A typology of scholarly definitions.” Digital Journalism6 (2):137–153. doi:  10.1080/21670811.2017.1360143
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1360143 [Google Scholar]
  47. Thorson, Emily
    2016 “Belief echoes: The persistent effects of corrected misinformation.” Political Communication33 (3):460–480. doi:  10.1080/10584609.2015.1102187
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2015.1102187 [Google Scholar]
  48. Tsfati, Yariv, and Joseph N Cappella
    2003 "Do people watch what they do not trust? Exploring the association between news media skepticism and exposure." Communication Research30 (5):504-529. 10.1177/0093650203253371
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650203253371 [Google Scholar]
  49. Turcotte, Jason, Chance York, Jacob Irving, Rosanne M. Scholl, and Raymond J. Pingree
    2015 “News recommendations from social media opinion leaders: Effects on media trust and information seeking.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication20 (5):520–535. doi:  10.1111/jcc4.12127
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12127 [Google Scholar]
  50. Vargo, Chris, Lei Guo, and Michelle Amazeen
    2017 “The agenda-setting power of fake news: A big data analysis of the online media landscape from 2014 to 2016.” New Media & Society: 1461444817712086. doi:  10.1177/1461444817712086
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444817712086 [Google Scholar]
  51. Vaswani, Karishma
    2019 Concern over Singapore’s anti-fake news law. BBC News. AccessedJuly 17, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Verstraete, Mark, and Derek Bambauer
    2018 “Ecosystem of Distrust.” First Amendment Law Review16 (129):129–152.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Vosoughi, Soroush, Deb Roy, and Sinan Aral
    2018 “The spread of true and false news online.” Science359 (6380):1146–1151. 10.1126/science.aap9559
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aap9559 [Google Scholar]
  54. Wasserman, Herman
    2017 “Fake news from Africa: Panics, politics and paradigms.” Journalism: 1464884917746861. doi:  10.1177/1464884917746861
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884917746861 [Google Scholar]
  55. Wineburg, S., McGrew, S., Breakstone, J., & Ortega, T.
    (2016) Evaluating information: The cornerstone of civic online reasoning. Stanford Digital Repository. Retrieved frompurl.stanford.edu/fv751yt5934
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Young, Dannagal G., Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Shannon Poulsen, and Abigail Goldring
    2017 “Fact-checking effectiveness as a function of format and tone: Evaluating FactCheck.org and FlackCheck.org.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly95 (1):49–75. doi:  10.1177/1077699017710453
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1077699017710453 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.21029.tan
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.21029.tan
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): credibility; Facebook; fake news; journalism; social media; trust
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error