Volume 21, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1569-2159
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9862
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Protests and social movements have become part of Hong Kong’s local politics since the 1970s. However, protests against the proposed extradition bill in 2019‒20 turned out to be the most violent political mass movement in Hong Kong after its return to the People’s Republic of China in 1997. It not only drew wide international attention but also evoked another round of “news war” over Hong Kong (Lee et al. 2002). This special issue collects six articles which address the representations of the protests in Hong Kong by different parties on different media platforms. Adopting a critical discourse analysis approach, these studies examine discursive strategies employed in media representations of the protests and the ideologies and power struggles at play. It aims to present different perspectives towards the issue and shed light on the complex relations between language, media and politics in the representations of the Hong Kong protests.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. BBC News
    BBC News. “The Hong Kong Protests Explained in 100 and 500 Words.” November 28, 2019. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-49317695
  2. Baker, Paul
    2006Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis. London: Continuum. 10.5040/9781350933996
    https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350933996 [Google Scholar]
  3. Baker, Paul, Costas Gabrielatos, Majid Khosravinik, Michał Krzyzanowski, Tony McEnery, and Ruth Wodak
    2008 “A Useful Methodological Synergy? Combining Critical Discourse Analysis and Corpus Linguistics to Examine Discourses of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the UK Press.” Discourse and Society19 (3): 273–306. doi:  10.1177/0957926508088962
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926508088962 [Google Scholar]
  4. Boykoff, Jules
    2006 “Framing Dissent: Mass-media Coverage of the Global Justice Movement.” New Political Science28 (2): 201–228. doi:  10.1080/07393140600679967
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07393140600679967 [Google Scholar]
  5. Boyle, Michael P., Douglas M. McLeod, and Cory. L. Armstrong
    2012 “Adherence to the Protest Paradigm: The Influence of Protest Goals and Tactics on News Coverage in US and International Newspapers.” The International Journal of Press/Politics17 (2): 127–144. doi:  10.1177/1940161211433837
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161211433837 [Google Scholar]
  6. Button, Mark, Tim John, and Nigel Brearley
    2002 “New Challenges in Public Order Policing: The Professionalisation of Environmental Protest and the Emergence of the Militant Environmental Activist.” International Journal of the Sociology of Law30(1): 17–32. doi:  10.1016/S0194‑6595(02)00017‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0194-6595(02)00017-5 [Google Scholar]
  7. Cammaerts, Bart
    2012 “Protest Logics and the Mediation Opportunity Structure.” European Journal of Communication27 (2): 117–134. doi:  10.1177/0267323112441007
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323112441007 [Google Scholar]
  8. 2013 “The Mediation of Insurrectionary Symbolic Damage: The 2010 UK Student Protests.” The International Journal of Press/Politics18 (4): 525–548. doi:  10.1177/1940161213496283
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161213496283 [Google Scholar]
  9. Cammaerts, Bart, Alice Mattoni, and Patrick McCurdy
    (Eds.) 2013Mediation and Protest Movements. Bristol: Intellect Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cheng, Joseph Yu-shek
    2014 “The Emergence of Radical Politics in Hong Kong: Causes and Impact.” The China Review14 (1): 199–232. doi:  10.1142/9789811203190_0023
    https://doi.org/10.1142/9789811203190_0023 [Google Scholar]
  11. Cheng, Winnie, and Phoenix Lam
    2010 “Media Discourses in Hong Kong: Change in Representation of Human Rights.” Text & Talk30 (5): 507–527. doi:  10.1515/text.2010.025
    https://doi.org/10.1515/text.2010.025 [Google Scholar]
  12. Chiu, Stephen Wing Kai, and Tai Lok Lui
    2000The Dynamics of Social Movements in Hong Kong: Real and Financial Linkages and the Prospects for Currency Union (Vol.1). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chouliaraki, Lilie
    2013 “Re-Mediation, Inter-Mediation, Trans-Mediation.” Journalism Studies14 (2): 267–283. doi:  10.1080/1461670X.2012.718559
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2012.718559 [Google Scholar]
  14. Chung, Hiu-Fung
    2020 “Changing Repertoires of Contention in Hong Kong: A Case Study on the Anti-Extradition Bill Movement.” China Perspectives3: 57–63. doi:  10.4000/chinaperspectives.10476
    https://doi.org/10.4000/chinaperspectives.10476 [Google Scholar]
  15. Cottle, Simon
    2008 “Reporting Demonstrations: The Changing Media Politics of Dissent.” Media, Culture and Society30 (6): 853–872. doi:  10.1177/0163443708096097
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443708096097 [Google Scholar]
  16. Fairclough, Norman
    1995Media Discourse. London: Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 2003Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203697078
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203697078 [Google Scholar]
  18. Fang, Yew-Jin
    1994 “‘Riots’ and Demonstrations in the Chinese Press: A Case Study of Language and Ideology”. Discourse and Society5 (4): 463–48. https://www.jstor.org/stable/42887947. 10.1177/0957926594005004003
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926594005004003 [Google Scholar]
  19. Flowerdew, John, and Rodney Jones
    2016 “Occupy Hong Kong: Historicizing Protest.” Journal of Language and Politics15 (5):521–528. 10.1075/jlp.15.5.01flo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.15.5.01flo [Google Scholar]
  20. Fowler, Roger
    1991Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gamson, William A.
    1995 “Constructing Social Protest.” InSocial Movements and Culture, ed. byHank Johnston, and Bert Minneapolis Klandermans, 85–106. London: Rouledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gamson, William A., and Gadi Wolfsfeld
    1993 “Movements and Media as Interacting Systems.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science528 (1): 114–125. doi:  10.1177/0002716293528001009
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716293528001009 [Google Scholar]
  23. Gans, Herbert J.
    1979Deciding What’s News: A Study Of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek and Time. New York: Phantheon Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ghobrial, Bahaa G., and Karin G. Wilkins
    2015 “The Politics of Political Communication: Competing News Discourses of the 2011 Egyptian Protests.” International Communication Gazette, 77 (2): 129–150. doi:  10.1177/1748048514564027
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048514564027 [Google Scholar]
  25. Greer, Chris, and Eugene McLaughlin
    2010 “We Predict a Riot? Public Order Policing, New Media Environments and the Rise of the Citizen Journalist.” The British Journal of Criminology50 (6): 1041–1059. doi:  10.1093/bjc/azq039
    https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azq039 [Google Scholar]
  26. Haarman, Louann, and Linda Lombardo
    2009Evaluation and Stance in War News. London: Continuum
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hackett, Robert A., and Yuezhi Zhao
    1994 “Challenging a Master Narrative: Peace Protest and Opinion/Editorial Discourse in the US Press during the Gulf War.” Discourse and Society5 (4): 509–541. doi:  10.1177/0957926594005004005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926594005004005 [Google Scholar]
  28. Hallin, Daniel C., and Paolo Mancini
    2004Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511790867
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511790867 [Google Scholar]
  29. 2012Comparing Media Systems beyond the Western World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Hart, Christopher
    2014 “Construal Operations in Online Press Reports of Political Protests.” InContemporary Critical Discourse Studies, ed. byChristopher Hart, and Piotr Cap, 167–188. London: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Hertog, James K., and Douglas M. McLeod
    1995 “Anarchists Wreak Havoc in Downtown Minneapolis: A Multi-level Study of Media Coverage of Radical Protest.” Journalism and Communication Monographs (151): 1–48.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Jungherr, Andreas, Harald Schoen, and Pascal Jürgens
    2016 “The Mediation of Politics through Twitter: An Analysis of Messages Posted during the Campaign for the German Federal Election 2013.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication21 (1): 50–68. doi:  10.1111/jcc4.12143
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12143 [Google Scholar]
  33. Krzyżanowski, Michał
    2020 “Normalization and the Discursive Construction of ‘New’ Norms and ‘New’ Normality: Discourse in the Paradoxes of Populism and Neoliberalism.” Social Semiotics30 (4): 431–448. doi:  10.1080/10350330.2020.1766193
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10350330.2020.1766193 [Google Scholar]
  34. Krzyżanowski, Michał, Anna Triandafyllidou, and Ruth Wodak
    2018 “The Mediatization and the Politicization of the ‘Refugee Crisis’ in Europe.” Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies16 (1–2): 1–14. doi:  10.1080/15562948.2017.1353189
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2017.1353189 [Google Scholar]
  35. Ku, Agnes S.
    2007 “Constructing and contesting the ‘order’ imagery in media discourse: Implications for civil society in Hong Kong.” Asian Journal of Communication17 (2):186–200. 10.1080/01292980701306613
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01292980701306613 [Google Scholar]
  36. Ku, Agnes Shuk-mei
    2020 “New forms of youth activism – Hong Kong’s Anti-Extradition Bill movement in the local-national-global nexus.” Space and Polity24 (1): 111–117. doi:  10.1080/13562576.2020.1732201
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13562576.2020.1732201 [Google Scholar]
  37. Lee, Chin-Chuan, Joseph M. Chan, Zhongdang Pan, and Clement. Y. K. So
    2000 “National Prisms of a Global Media Event.” InMass Media and Society, ed. byJames Curran, and Michael Gurevitch, 295–309. London: Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Lee, Chin-Chuan, Joseph M. Chan, Zhongdang Pan, and Clement Y. K. So
    2002Global Media Spectacle: News War Over Hong Kong. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Lee, Francis L. F.
    2014 “Triggering the Protest Paradigm: Examining Factors Affecting News Coverage of Protests.” International Journal of Communication8 (22): 2725–2746.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 2018 “Internet Alternative Media, Movement Experience, and Radicalism: The Case of Post-Umbrella Movement Hong Kong.” Social Movement Studies17 (2): 219–233. doi:  10.1080/14742837.2017.1404448
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2017.1404448 [Google Scholar]
  41. 2020a “Social Media and the Spread of Fake News during a Social Movement: The 2019 Anti-ELAB Protests in Hong Kong.” Communication and the Public5 (3–4): 122–125. doi:  10.1177/2057047320969437
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2057047320969437 [Google Scholar]
  42. 2020b “Solidarity in the Anti-Extradition Bill Movement in Hong Kong.” Critical Asian Studies52 (1): 18–32. doi:  10.1080/14672715.2020.1700629
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14672715.2020.1700629 [Google Scholar]
  43. Lee, Francis L. F., and Joseph M. Chan
    2011Media, Social Mobilisation and Mass Protests in Post-colonial Hong Kong. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Lee, Francis L. F., Edmund W. Cheng, Hai Liang, Gary K. Y. Tang, and Samson Yuen
    2021 “Dynamics of Tactical Radicalisation and Public Receptiveness in Hong Kong’s Anti-Extradition Bill Movement.” Journal of Contemporary Asia: 1–23. doi:  10.1080/00472336.2021.1910330
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00472336.2021.1910330 [Google Scholar]
  45. Lee, Francis L. F., Gary K. Y. Tang, Samson Yuen, and Edmund W. Cheng
    2020 “Five Demands and (Not Quite) Beyond: Claim Making and Ideology in Hong Kong’s Anti-Extradition Bill Movement.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies53 (4): 22–40. doi:  10.1525/j.postcomstud.2020.53.4.22
    https://doi.org/10.1525/j.postcomstud.2020.53.4.22 [Google Scholar]
  46. Lee, Junghi, and Robert L. Craig
    1992 “News as an Ideological Framework: Comparing US Newspapers’ Coverage of Labor Strikes in South Korea and Poland.” Discourse and Society3 (3): 341–363. 10.1177/0957926592003003004
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926592003003004 [Google Scholar]
  47. Liu, Ming
    2015 “Scapegoat or Manipulated Victim? Metaphorical Representations of the Sino-US Currency Dispute in Chinese and American Financial News.” Text and Talk35 (3): 337–357. doi:  10.1515/text‑2015‑0003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/text-2015-0003 [Google Scholar]
  48. 2017 “Contesting the Cynicism of Neoliberalism: A Corpus-assisted Discourse Study of Press Representations of the Sino-US Currency Dispute.” Journal of Language and Politics16 (2): 242–263. doi:  10.1075/jlp.15010.liu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.15010.liu [Google Scholar]
  49. 2020 “One City, Two Stories: Competing Discursive Constructions of Postcolonial Hong Kong in Chinese and American Newspapers.” InWorking with Discourses: Corpus and Systemic Functional Perspectives, ed. byJosef Schmied, Chenguang Chang, and Matthias Hofmann, 143–160. Göttingen: Cuvillier Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Liu, Ming, and Cong Jiang
    2019 “Constant Fear, But Lingering Nostalgia: British Press Representations of Post-colonial Hong Kong 20 Years on.” Discourse and Communication13 (6): 630–646. doi:  10.1177/1750481319868852
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481319868852 [Google Scholar]
  51. Liu, Ming, and Jiali Zhong
    2020 “Between National and Local: Identity Representations of Post-colonial Hong Kong in a Local English Newspaper.” Discourse, Context and Media. doi:  10.1016/j.dcm.2020.100401
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2020.100401 [Google Scholar]
  52. Martin, Martin F.
    2007Hong Kong: Ten Years after the Handover. Washington D.C.: CRS Report for Congress.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Martín Rojo, Luisa
    2014 “Occupy: The spatial dynamics of discourse in global protest movements.” Journal of Language and Politics13 (4):583–598. 10.1075/jlp.13.4.01mar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.13.4.01mar [Google Scholar]
  54. Mautner, Gerlinde
    2009a “Checks and Balances: How Corpus Linguistics Can Contribute to CDA.” InMethods of Critical Discourse Studies (2nd Edition), ed. byRuth Wodak, and Michael Meyer, 122–143. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 2009b “Corpora and Critical Discourse Analysis.” InContemporary Corpus Linguistics, ed. byPaul Baker, 32–46. New York: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. McLeod, Douglas. M.
    2007 “News Coverage and Social Protest: How the Media’s Protect Paradigm Exacerbates Social Conflict.” Journal of Dispute Resolution (1): 185–194.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. McLeod, Douglas M., Hertog, James K.
    1999 “Social Control, Social Change and the Mass Media’s Role in the Regulation of Protest Groups.” InMass Media, Social Control and Social Change: A Macrosocial Perspective, ed. byDavid Demers, and Kasisomayajula Viswanath, 305–330. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Partington, Alan
    2004 “Corpora and Discourse, a Most Congruous Beast.” InCorpora and Discourse, ed. byAlan Partington, John Morley, and Louann Haarman, 11–20. Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Purbrick, Martin
    2019 “A Report of the 2019 Hong Kong Protests.” Asian Affairs50 (4): 465–487. doi:  10.1080/03068374.2019.1672397
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03068374.2019.1672397 [Google Scholar]
  60. Shoemaker, Pamela. J.
    1982 “The Perceived Legitimacy of Deviant Political Groups: Two Experiments on Media Effects.” Communication Research9 (2): 249–286. doi:  10.1177/009365082009002004
    https://doi.org/10.1177/009365082009002004 [Google Scholar]
  61. Shoemaker, Pamela J.
    1984 “Media Treatment of Deviant Political Groups.” Journalism Quarterly61 (1): 66–82. doi:  10.1177/107769908406100109
    https://doi.org/10.1177/107769908406100109 [Google Scholar]
  62. Strömbäck, Jesper
    2008 “Four Phases of Mediatization: An Analysis of the Mediatization of Politics.” The International Journal of Press/Politics13 (3): 228–246. doi:  10.1177/1940161208319097
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161208319097 [Google Scholar]
  63. Thomas, Tanja, and Miriam Stehling
    2015 “The Communicative Construction of FEMEN: Naked Protest in Self-mediation and German Media Discourse.” Feminist Media Studies16 (1): 86–100. doi:  10.1080/14680777.2015.1093111
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2015.1093111 [Google Scholar]
  64. Trew, Tony
    1979 “Theory and Ideology at Work.” InLanguage and Control, ed. byRoger Fowler, Bob Hodge, Gunther Kress, and Tony Trew, 94–116. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Uldam, Julie
    2013 “Activism and the Online Mediation Opportunity Structure: Attempts to Impact Global Climate Change Policies?” Policy and Internet5 (1): 56–75. doi:  10.1002/poi3.22
    https://doi.org/10.1002/poi3.22 [Google Scholar]
  66. van Dijk, Teun A.
    1991Racism and the Press. London and New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 2011Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. London: Sage. 10.4135/9781446289068
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446289068 [Google Scholar]
  68. Wang, Guofeng, and Xueqin Ma
    2021 “Were They Illegal Rioters or Pro-democracy Protestors? Examining the 2019–20 Hong Kong Protests in China Daily and The New York Times.” Critical Arts. doi:  10.1080/02560046.2021.1925940
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02560046.2021.1925940 [Google Scholar]
  69. Wisler, Dominique, and Marco Giugni
    1999 “Under the Spotlight: The Impact of Media Attention on Protest Policing.” Mobilization: An International Quarterly4 (2): 171–187. doi:  10.17813/maiq.4.2.e02v758487330131
    https://doi.org/10.17813/maiq.4.2.e02v758487330131 [Google Scholar]
  70. Wittebols, James H.
    1996 “News from the Noninstitutional World: US and Canadian Television News Coverage of Social Protest.” Political Communication13 (3): 345–361. doi:  10.1080/10584609.1996.9963122
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.1996.9963122 [Google Scholar]
  71. Wodak, Ruth, and Bernhard Forchtner
    2018The Routledge Handbook of Language and Politics. London and New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Wodak, Ruth, and Michael Meyer
    2016a “Critical Discourse Studies: History, Agenda, Theory and Methodology.” InMethods of Critical Discourse Studies (Third Edition), ed. byRuth Wodak, and Michael Meyer, 1–22. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. (Eds.) 2016bMethods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Woller, Almut
    2018 “Self-mediation Practices of Arab Anarchists.” InDigital Media and the Politics of Transformation in the Arab World and Asia, ed. byCarola Richter, Anna Antonakis, and Cilja Harders, 35–60. Wiesbaden: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑658‑20700‑7_3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-20700-7_3 [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error