Volume 22, Issue 4
  • ISSN 1569-2159
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9862



The European migrant crisis constitutes one of the greatest challenges of the second Decade of the 21st century. Controlled by the populist Law and Justice, the Polish government has been one of the few to oppose receiving refugees, although it is obliged to through the cooperation of EU states. The authors analyzed 852 parliamentary speeches of 24 Polish political leaders since 2011 to 2019. Considering the analysis results, it is possible to conclude that the more severe the crisis became, the more dynamically the number of reports on the migrant crisis increased in parliamentary discourse. The research confirms that the two biggest parties present dramatically disparate views on the issue. The study also confirms that the views and declarations of the analyzed political leaders are compatible with the views of their electorates.

Available under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license.

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Adamczewska, Kinga
    2016 „Retoryka populistyczna w parlamentarnej kampanii wyborczej w dobie kryzysu migracyjnego.” Refleksje141: 11–26. 10.14746/r.2016.2.2
    https://doi.org/10.14746/r.2016.2.2 [Google Scholar]
  2. Adamczyk, Anita [Google Scholar]
  3. Androvičová, Jarmila
    2016 “The Migration and Refugee Crisis in Political Discourse in Slovakia: Institutionalized Securitization and Moral Panic.” Acta Universitatis Carolinae Studia Territoriallia21: 39–64. 10.14712/23363231.2017.11
    https://doi.org/10.14712/23363231.2017.11 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bayley, Paul
    2004a “Introduction. The Whys and Wherefores of Analysing Parliamentary Discourse.” InCross-Cultural Perspectives on Parliamentary Discourse, edited byPaul Bayley, 1–44. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/dapsac.10.01bay
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.10.01bay [Google Scholar]
  5. (ed.) 2004bCross-Cultural Perspectives on Parliamentary Discourse. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/dapsac.10
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.10 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bertram, Łukasz, Adam Puchejda, and Karolina Wigura
    2017The Negative Portrayal of Muslims in the Polish Press. An Analysis of Selected Examples Published Between 2015–2016. Warszawa: Kultura Liberalna.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bielecka-Prus, Joanna
    2016 “Językowe konstruowanie obcego w polskiej debacie parlamentarnej na temat uchodźców.” InObcy w labiryncie kultur, edited byTomasz M. Korczyński, and Anna Orla-Bukowska, 115–132. Warszawa: Warszawskie Wydawnictwo Socjologiczne.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bischof, Karin, and Cornelia Ilie
    2018 “Democracy and Discriminatory Strategies in Parliamentary Discourse.” Journal of Language and Politics17 (5): 585–593. 10.1075/jlp.00017.edi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.00017.edi [Google Scholar]
  9. Cap, Piotr
    2018 “‘We Don’t Want Any Immigrants or Terrorists Here’: The Linguistic Manufacturing of Xenophobia in the Post-2015 Poland. Discourse & Society29 (4): 380–398. 10.1177/0957926518754416
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926518754416 [Google Scholar]
  10. Cekiera, Rafał
    2017 “Między gościnnością a misoksenią – reperkusje kryzysu migracyjnego w Polsce.” Political Preferences171: 237–250. 10.6084/m9.figshare.5725954
    https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5725954 [Google Scholar]
  11. 2020 “Anti-Refugee Attitudes of Polish Catholics and the Teaching of the Catholic Church: The Surprising Paradox and Its Reasons.” The International Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Society10 (4): 11–24. 10.18848/2154‑8633/CGP/v10i04/11‑24
    https://doi.org/10.18848/2154-8633/CGP/v10i04/11-24 [Google Scholar]
  12. Central Statistical Office
    Central Statistical Office 2020Demographic Situation in Poland until 2019. International Migration of the Population in the Years 2000–2019. Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chilton, Paul A. and Christina Schäffner
    (eds) 2002Politics As Text and Talk: Analytic Approaches to Political Discourse. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub. Co. 10.1075/dapsac.4
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.4 [Google Scholar]
  14. Cieślińska, Barbara, and Małgorzata Dziekońska
    2019 “The Ideal and the Real Dimensions of the European Migration Crisis. The Polish Perspective.” Social Sciences8 (11): 314. 10.3390/socsci8110314
    https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8110314 [Google Scholar]
  15. Cheng, Maria
    2006 “Constructing a New Political Spectacle: Tactics of Chen Shui-bian’s 2000 and 2004 Inaugural Speeches.” Discourse & Society17 (5): 583–608. 10.1177/0957926506066297
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926506066297 [Google Scholar]
  16. Collet, Tanja
    2009 “Civilization and Civilized in Post-9/11 US Presidential Speeches.” Discourse & Society20 (4): 455–475. 10.1177/0957926509104023
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926509104023 [Google Scholar]
  17. Czornik, Katarzyna
    2017 “Problematyka uchodźców (migrantów) z Bliskiego Wschodu i Afryki Północnej w kampanii parlamentarnej z 2015 roku. Analiza stanowisk.” InPolskie wybory 2014–2015: kontekst krajowy i międzynarodowy – przebieg rywalizacji – konsekwencje polityczne, edited byMariusz Kolczyński, 157–177. Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dillon, George L., Anne Doyle, Carol M. Eastman, Susan Kline, Sandra Silberstein and M. Toolan
    1990 “The Rhetorical Construction of a President.” Discourse & Society1 (2): 189–200. 10.1177/0957926590001002004
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926590001002004 [Google Scholar]
  19. European Commission
    European Commission 2017Relocation: Commission Launches Infringement Procedures Against the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. Retrieved fromeuropa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1607_en.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Fairclough, Norman
    1992Discourse and social change. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Fairclough, Norman, and Ruth Wodak
    1997 “Critical discourse analysis.” InDiscourse Studies. A Multidisciplinary Introduction, Vol. 2. Discourse as Social Interaction, edited byTeun A. van Dijk, 258–284. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Fairclough, Isabela, Fairclough, Norman
    2012Political Discourse Analysis. A Method for Advanced Students. London: Routlege.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Fetzer, Anita, and Peter Bull
    2012 “Doing Leadership in Political Speech: Semantic Processes and Pragmatic Inferences.” Discourse & Society23 (2):127–144. 10.1177/0957926511431510
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926511431510 [Google Scholar]
  24. Fotaki, Marianna
    2020 “Refugee and Forced Migrants Are Not Welcome in Europe’s Diminished Welfare States.” Problemy Polityki Społecznej48 (1): 53–72. 10.31971/16401808.48.1.2020.4
    https://doi.org/10.31971/16401808.48.1.2020.4 [Google Scholar]
  25. Flowerdew, John and John E. Richardson
    (eds.) 2020The Routledge Handbook of Critical Discourse Studies. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gee, James Paul and Michael Handford
    2013The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203809068
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203809068 [Google Scholar]
  27. Gianfreda, Stella
    2017 “Politicization of the Refugee Crisis? A Content Analysis of Parliamentary Debates in Italy, the UK and the EU.” Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica48 (1):1–24. 10.1017/ipo.2017.20
    https://doi.org/10.1017/ipo.2017.20 [Google Scholar]
  28. Goździak, Elżbieta M., and Péter Márton
    2018 “Where the Wild Things Are: Fear of Islam and the Anti-Refugee Rhetoric in Hungary and in Poland.” Central and Eastern European Migration Review7 (2): 125–151. CitetononCRdoi:10.17467/ceemr.2018.04
    https://doi.org/Cite to nonCR doi: 10.17467/ceemr.2018.04 [Google Scholar]
  29. Haynes, Amanda, Martin J. Power, Eoin Devereux, Aileen Dillane, and James Carr
    (eds) 2016Public and Political Discourses of Migration, International Perspectives. London: Rowman & Littlefield.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights
    Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights 2018Migranci, uchodźcy i ksenofobia w kampanii wyborczej 2018 – raport z monitoringu. Warszawa: Helsińska Fundacja Praw Człowieka.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Hodór, Kinga, and Anna Kosińska
    2016 “Polish Perceptions on the Immigration Influx: a Critical Analysis.” University of Bologna Law Review1 (2): 242–270. CitetononCRdoi:10.6092/issn.2531‑6133/6674
    https://doi.org/Cite to nonCR doi: 10.6092/issn.2531-6133/6674 [Google Scholar]
  32. Horn, Pauline, Margaret Leniston and Pauline Lewis
    1983 “The Maiden Speeches of New Zealand Women Members of Parliament.” Political Science35 (2): 229–266. 10.1177/003231878303500204
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003231878303500204 [Google Scholar]
  33. Horolets, Anna, Adriana Mica, Mikołaj Pawlak, and Paweł Kubicki
    2020 “Ignorance as an Outcome of Categorizations: The “Refugees” in the Polish Academic Discourse Before and After the 2015 Refugee Crisis.” East European Politics and Societies and Cultures34 (3): 730–751. 10.1177/0888325419891204
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0888325419891204 [Google Scholar]
  34. Ionescu-Ruxăndoiu, Liliana
    2012 “Introduction.” InParliamentary Discourses across Cultures: Interdisciplinary Approaches, edited byLiliana Ionescu-Ruxăndoiu, Melania Roibu, and Michaela V. Constantinescu, 1–20. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ilie, Cornelia
    2003 “Discourse and Metadiscourse in Parliamentary Debates.” Journal of Language and Politics2 (1): 71–92. 10.1075/jlp.2.1.05ili
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.2.1.05ili [Google Scholar]
  36. 2015 “Parliamentary Discourse.” InThe International Encyclopedia of Language and Social Interaction, edited byKaren Tracy, Cornelia Ilie, and Todd Sandel, 1–15. Chichester: Willey Blackwell. 10.1002/9781118611463.wbielsi201
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118611463.wbielsi201 [Google Scholar]
  37. 2017 “Parliamentary Debates.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Language and Politics, edited byRuth Wodak, and Bernhard Forchtner, 309–325. London: Routlege. 10.4324/9781315183718‑24
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315183718-24 [Google Scholar]
  38. Ilie, Cornelia, and Cezar M. Ornatowski
    2018 “Central and Eastern European Parliamentary Rhetoric since the Nineteenth Century: The Case of Romania and Poland.” InParliament and Parliamentarism: A Comparative History of a European Concept, edited byPasi Ihalainen, Cornelia Ilie, and Kari Palonen, 192–216. New York: Berghahn Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Jaskułowski, Krzysztof
    2019The Everyday Politics of Migration Crisis in Poland. Between Nationalism, Fear and Empathy. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑10457‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-10457-3 [Google Scholar]
  40. Kesting, Norbert, Abel Reiberg, and Philip Hocks
    2018 “Discourse Quality in Times of Populism: An Analysis of German Parliamentary Debates on Immigration Policy.” Communication & Society31 (3): 77–91. 10.15581/‑90
    https://doi.org/10.15581/ [Google Scholar]
  41. Kirkwood, Steve
    2017 “The Humanisation of Refugees: A Discourse Analysis of UK Parliamentary Debates on the European Refugee ‘Crisis’.” Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology271: 115–125. 10.1002/casp.2298
    https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.2298 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kissová, Lenka
    2018 “The Production of (Un)deserving and (Un) acceptable: Shifting Representations of Migrants within Political Discourse in Slovakia,” East European Politics and Societies32 (4): 743–66. 10.1177/0888325417745127
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0888325417745127 [Google Scholar]
  43. Klaus, Witold
    2017 “Security First – New Right-Wing Government in Poland and Its Policy Towards Immigrants and Refugees.” Surveillance & Society15 (3/4): 523–528. 10.24908/ss.v15i3/4.6627
    https://doi.org/10.24908/ss.v15i3/4.6627 [Google Scholar]
  44. Klaus, Witold, Miklós Lévay, Irena Rzeplińska, and Miroslav Scheinost
    2018 “Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Central-European Countries – Reality, Politics and the Creation of Fear in Societies.” InRefugees and Migrants in Law and Policy Challenges and Opportunities for Global Civic Education, edited byHelmut Kury, and Sławomir Redo, 457–494. Cham: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑72159‑0_21
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-72159-0_21 [Google Scholar]
  45. Krotofil, Joanna, and Dominika Motak
    2018a “A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Media Coverage of the Migration Crisis in Poland. The Polish Catholic Church’s Perception of the ‘Migration Crisis’”. Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis281: 92–115. 10.30674/scripta.70069
    https://doi.org/10.30674/scripta.70069 [Google Scholar]
  46. 2018b “Between Traditionalism, Fundamentalism, and Populism: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Media Coverage of the Migration Crisis in Poland.” InReligion in the European Refugee Crisis. Religion and Global Migrations, edited byUlrich Schmiedel, and Graeme Smith. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑67961‑7_4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67961-7_4 [Google Scholar]
  47. Krzyżanowska, Natalia, and Michał Krzyżanowski
    2018 “‘Crisis’ and Migration in Poland: Discursive Shifts, Anti-pluralism and the Politicisation of Exclusion.” Sociology52 (3): 612–618. 10.1177/0038038518757952
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038518757952 [Google Scholar]
  48. Krzyżanowski, Michał
    2014 “’Values.’ Imaginaries and Templates of Journalistic Practice: A Critical Discourse Analysis.” Social Semiotics24 (3): 345–365. 10.1080/10350330.2014.930607
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10350330.2014.930607 [Google Scholar]
  49. 2018a “We Are a Small Country That Has Done Enormously Lot: The “Refugee Crisis” and the Hybrid Discourse of Politicising Immigration in Sweden.” Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies16 (1–2): 97–117. 10.1080/15562948.2017.1317895
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2017.1317895 [Google Scholar]
  50. 2018b “Discursive Shifts in Ethno-Nationalist Politics: On Politicization and Mediatization of the “Refugee Crisis” in Poland.” Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies16 (1–2): 76–96. 10.1080/15562948.2017.1317897
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2017.1317897 [Google Scholar]
  51. 2020 “Discursive Shifts and the Normalisation of Racism: Imaginaries of Immigration, Moral Panics and the Discourse of Contemporary Right-wing Populism.” Social Semiotics30 (4): 503–527. 10.1080/10350330.2020.1766199
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10350330.2020.1766199 [Google Scholar]
  52. Krzyżanowski, Michał, and Ruth Wodak
    2008The Politics of Exclusion. Debating Migration in Austria. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Krzyżanowski, Michał, Anna Triandafyllidou, and Ruth Wodak
    2018 “The Mediatisation and Politicisation of the Refugee Crisis in Europe: Discursive Practices and Legitimation Strategies.” Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies16 (1–2): 1–14. 10.1080/15562948.2017.1353189
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2017.1353189 [Google Scholar]
  54. Legut, Agnieszka, and Konrad Pędziwiatr
    2018 “Sekurytyzacja migracji w polityce polskiej a zmiana postaw Polaków wobec uchodźców.” InSami swoi? Wielokulturowość we współczesnej Europie, edited byRomuald Jończy, 41–51. Gliwice-Opole: Dom Współpracy Polsko-Niemieckiej.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Lewis, David
    1997 “The Two Rhetorical Presidencies: An Analysis of Televised Presidential Speeches 1947–1991.” American Politics Research25 (3): 380–395. 10.1177/1532673X9702500307
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1532673X9702500307 [Google Scholar]
  56. Łaciak, Beata, and Justyna Segeš-Frelak
    2018The Wages of Fear: Attitudes Towards Refugees and Migrants in Poland. Warszawa: Foundation Institute of Public Affairs.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Narkowicz, Kasia
    2018 “‘Refugees Not Welcome Here’: State, Church and Civil Society Responses to the Refugee Crisis in Poland.“ The International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society311: 357–373. 10.1007/s10767‑018‑9287‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10767-018-9287-9 [Google Scholar]
  58. Ornatowski, Cezar
    2010 “Parliamentary Discourse and Political Transition: Polish Parliament After 1989.” InEuropean Parliaments under Scrutiny: Discourse Strategies and Interaction Practicies, edited byCornelia Ilie, 223–264. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/dapsac.38.12orn
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.38.12orn [Google Scholar]
  59. Pędziwiatr, Konrad
    2016 „Islamophobia in Poland. National Report 2015.” InEuropean Islamophobia Report 2015, edited byEnes Bayrakli, and Farid Hafez, 423–441. Istanbul: SETA.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Pędziwiatr, Konrad, and Agnieszka Legut
    2017 “Polskie rządy wobec unijnej strategii na rzecz przeciwdziałania kryzysowi migracyjnemu.” InUchodźcy w Europie, edited byKonstanty Adam Wojtaszczyk, and Joanna Szymańska, 671–693. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Polko, Paulina
    2018 “Polityka migracyjna w programach polskich partii politycznych po 1989.” Wschodnioznawstwo121: 339–354.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Potyrała, Anna
    2016 “Poland Towards the Migration Crisis of 2015–2016.” Przegląd Politologiczny21: 75–88. 10.14746/pp.2016.21.2.6
    https://doi.org/10.14746/pp.2016.21.2.6 [Google Scholar]
  63. Reisigl, Martin, and Ruth Wodak
    2001Discourse and Discrimination. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Schiffrin, Deborah, Deborah Tannen, and Heidi E. Hamilton
    (eds) 2001The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing LTD.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Shenhav, Shaul
    2004 “Once Upon a Time There Was a Nation: Narrative Conceptualization Analysis. The Concept of ‘Nation’ in Discourse of Israeli Likud Party Leaders.” Discourse & Society15 (1): 81–104. 10.1177/0957926504038947
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926504038947 [Google Scholar]
  66. Skrabacz, Ewa, and Błażej Choroś
    2018 “Ramowanie bezpieczeństwa w debatach telewizyjnych w kampaniach wyborczych: samorządowej (2014) i parlamentarnej (2015).” Chorzowskie Studia Polityczne151: 97-115.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Tannen, Deborah, Hamilton, Heidi E., and Deborah Schiffrin
    (eds) 2015The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Malden: Wiley. 10.1002/9781118584194
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118584194 [Google Scholar]
  68. Titscher, Stefan, Meyer, Michael, Wodak, Ruth, and Eva Vetter
    2000Methods of Text and Discourse analysis. London/Thousand Oaks: SAGE. 10.4135/9780857024480
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9780857024480 [Google Scholar]
  69. Toye, Richard
    2011 “The Rhetorical Premiership: A New Perspective on Prime Ministerial Power Since 1945.” Parliamentary History, 30 (2): 175–192. 10.1111/j.1750‑0206.2011.00247.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-0206.2011.00247.x [Google Scholar]
  70. Triadafilopoulos, Triadafilos
    1999 “Politics, Speech, and the Art of Persuasion: Toward an Aristotelian Conception of the Public Sphere.” The Journal of Politics61 (3): 741–757. 10.2307/2647826
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2647826 [Google Scholar]
  71. Trojanowska-Strzęboszewska, Monika
    2010Kształtowanie się stanowisk politycznych na temat imigracji i imigrantów w Polsce w latach 2001–2005, Warszawa: Instytut Spraw Publicznych.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. van Dijk, Teun A.
    1993a “Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis.” Discourse & Society4 (2): 249–83. 10.1177/0957926593004002006
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926593004002006 [Google Scholar]
  73. 1993bElite Discourse and Racism. Newbury Park: Sage Publications. 10.4135/9781483326184
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483326184 [Google Scholar]
  74. 1997a “Discourse Analysis as Ideology Analysis.” InLanguage and Peace, edited byChristina Schoaffner, and Anita L. Wenden, 229–245. Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 1997b “What is Political Discourse Analysis.” Belgian Journal of Linguistics11 (1): 11–52. 10.1075/bjl.11.03dij
    https://doi.org/10.1075/bjl.11.03dij [Google Scholar]
  76. 1997c “Political Discourse and Racism: Describing Others in Western Parliaments.” InThe Language and Politics of Exclusion: Others in Discourse, edited byStephen Harold Riggins, 31–64. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 2000a “On the Analysis of Parliamentary Debates on Immigration.” InThe Semiotics of Racism: Approaches to Critical Discourse Analysis, edited byMark Reisigl, and Ruth Wodak, 85–103. Vienna: Passagen Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 2000b “Parliamentary Debates.” InRacism at the Top. Parliamentary Discourses on Ethnic Issues in Six European States, edited byRuth Wodak, and Teun A. van Dijk, 45–78. Klagenfurt: Drava Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 2001 “Critical Discourse Analysis.” InThe Handbook of Discourse Analysis, edited byDeborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen, and Heidi E. Hamilton, 352–371. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing LTD.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 2004 “Text and Context of Parliamentary Debates.” InCross- Cultural Perspectives on Parliamentary Discourse, edited byPaul Bayley, 339–372. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/dapsac.10.10dij
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.10.10dij [Google Scholar]
  81. 2018 “Discourse and Migration.” InQualitative Research in European Migration Studies, edited byRicard Zapata-Barrero, and Evren Yalaz, 227–245. Cham: Springer Open. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑76861‑8_13
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-76861-8_13 [Google Scholar]
  82. Vollmer, Bastian, and Serhat Karakayali
    2017 “The Volatility of the Discourse on Refugees in Germany.” Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies16 (1–2): 118–139. 10.1080/15562948.2017.1288284
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2017.1288284 [Google Scholar]
  83. Wei-Lun, Louis, and Kathleen Ahrens
    2008 “Ideological Influence on BUILDING Metaphors in Taiwanese Presidential Speeches.” Discourse & Society19 (3): 383–408. 10.1177/0957926508088966
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926508088966 [Google Scholar]
  84. Wilson, John
    2001 “Political Discourse.” InThe Handbook of Discourse Analysis, edited byDeborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen, and Heidi E. Hamilton, 398–415. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Wnuk, Magdalena, Anna Ścisłowska, and Róża Rzeplińska
    2012Posłowie i senatorowie o polityce wobec imigrantów, Warszawa: Stowarzyszenie Mam Prawo Wiedzieć.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Wodak, Ruth
    2015The Politics of Fear – What Right-wing Populist Discourses Mean. London: Sage. 10.4135/9781446270073
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446270073 [Google Scholar]
  87. Wodak, Ruth, and Teun A. Van Dijk
    (eds) 2000Racism at the Top. Parliamentary Discourses on Ethnic Issues in Six European States. Klagenfurt: Drava Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Wodak, Ruth, and Michał Krzyżanowski
    (eds) 2008Qualitative Discourse Analysis in the Social Sciences. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑04798‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-04798-4 [Google Scholar]
  89. Wodak, Ruth, and Michael Meyer
    2015Methods of Critical Discourse Studies. London: Sage Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Yermakova, Olena
    2019 “Mythology of the Law and Justice Party’s Migration Discourse.” Politeja6 (63): 177–195. 10.12797/Politeja.16.2019.63.12
    https://doi.org/10.12797/Politeja.16.2019.63.12 [Google Scholar]
  91. Žúborová, Viera, and Ingrid Borárosová
    2017 “Migration Discourse in Slovak Politics. Context and Content of Migration in Political Discourse: European Values versus Campaign Rhetoric.” Journal of Nationalism, Memory & Language Politics11 (1): 1–19. 10.1515/jnmlp‑2017‑0005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jnmlp-2017-0005 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): European Union; migrant crisis; Poland; political leaders; populism
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error