1887
Volume 23, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1569-2159
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9862
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Every ideology aims at constructing specific representations of reality that many people can easily adopt. In this paper, mental models described as cognitive representations of reality are used to explain how people come to their beliefs. Applying Johnson-Laird’s theoretical concept, I present mental models reconstructed by means of a qualitative analysis of key lexemes in the Crimean speech of Vladimir Putin held in 2014. This reconstruction reveals how the mental models in question target a shared social cognition among listeners using ideologically loaded references articulated in the speech. Furthermore, tracing ideological references allows a preliminary insight into how the speaker aims to affect the discourse formation process of the time. This reconstruction is indispensable to gain a better understanding of the Russian attack on Ukraine, eight years later.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.22110.men
2023-08-31
2024-06-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Albrecht, Jason. E., and Edward J. O’Brien
    1993 “Updating a Mental Model: Maintaining Both Local and Global Coherence.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition191: 1061–1070.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Billig, Michael
    1991Ideology and Opinions. London: SAGE Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Blakkisrud, Helge
    2016 “Blurring the Boundary Between Civic and Ethnic: The Kremlin’s New Approach to National Identity under Putin’s Third Term.” The New Russian Nationalism: Imperialism, Ethnicity and Authoritarianism2000–20151: 249–274.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cameron, Lynne, and Graham Low
    (eds.) 1999Researching and Applying Metaphor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524704
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524704 [Google Scholar]
  5. Carlton, Eric
    1984 “Ideologies as Belief Systems.” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy4 (2): 17–29. 10.1108/eb012964
    https://doi.org/10.1108/eb012964 [Google Scholar]
  6. Chaisity, Paul and Stephen Whitefield
    2015 “Putin’s Nationalism Problem.” E- International Relations, https://www.e-ir.info/2015/04/20/putins-nationalism-problem/
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Charteris-Black, Jonathan
    2004Corpus Approaches to Critical Metaphor Analysis. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230000612
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230000612 [Google Scholar]
  8. Chomski, Noam
    1997Media Control. The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda. New York: Seven Stories Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Collins, Allan, and Dedre Gentner
    1987 “How People Construct Mental Models.” InCultural Models in Language and Thought, ed. byDorothy Holland, and Naomi Quinn, 243–265. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511607660.011
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511607660.011 [Google Scholar]
  10. Craik, Kenneth
    1943The Nature of Explanation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. de Vega, Manuel
    1995 “Backward Updating of Mental Models during Continuous Reading of Narratives.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory, and Cognition211: 373–385.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Drozdova, Oksana, and Paul Robinson
    2019 “A Study of Vladimir Putin’s Rhetoric.” Europe-Asia Studies71 (5): 805–823. 10.1080/09668136.2019.1603362
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09668136.2019.1603362 [Google Scholar]
  13. Dutke, Stephan
    1993 “Mentale Modelle beim Erinnern sprachlich beschriebener räumlicher Anordnungen: Zur Interaktion von Gedächtnisschemata und Textrepräsentation.” Zeitschrift für experimentelle and angewandte Psychologie401: 44–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Eagleton, Terry
    1991Ideology: An Introduction. London: Verso.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Edelman, Murray
    1977Political Language: Words that Succeed and Policies that Fail. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Eltchaninoff, Michel
    2015Dans la tête de Vladimir Poutine. Paris: Solin Actes Sud.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Evans, Alfred B. Jr.
    2008 “Putin’s Legacy and Russia’s Identity.” Europe-Asia Studies60 (6): 899–912. 10.1080/09668130802161140
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09668130802161140 [Google Scholar]
  18. Fairclough, Norman
    2001Language and Power (2nd ed.). London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Fauconnier, Gilles
    1985Mental Spaces: Roles and Strategies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 1994Mental Spaces. Aspects of Meaning Construction in Natural Language. New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511624582
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511624582 [Google Scholar]
  21. 1997Mappings in Thought and Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139174220
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139174220 [Google Scholar]
  22. Ferguson, Erika L., and Mary Hegarty
    1994 “Properties of Cognitive Maps Constructed from Texts.” Memory and Cognition221: 455–473. 10.3758/BF03200870
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03200870 [Google Scholar]
  23. Finke, Ronald A.
    1989Principles in Mental Imagery. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Finlayson, Alan
    2012 “Rhetoric and the Political Theory of Ideologies.” Political Studies601: 751–767. 10.1111/j.1467‑9248.2012.00948.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.2012.00948.x [Google Scholar]
  25. Gel’man, Vladimir
    2015 “The Politics of Fear.” Russian Politics & Law53 (5–6): 6–26. 10.1080/10611940.2015.1146058
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10611940.2015.1146058 [Google Scholar]
  26. Gentner, Dedre, and Albert L. Stevens
    (eds.) 1983Mental Models. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gibbs, Raymond W., and Gerard J. Steen
    (eds.) 1999Metaphor in Cognitive Linguistics. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.175
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.175 [Google Scholar]
  28. Gorham, Michael S.
    2005 “Putin’s Language.” Ab Imperio, 41: 381–401. 10.1353/imp.2005.0150
    https://doi.org/10.1353/imp.2005.0150 [Google Scholar]
  29. 2014After Newspeak. Language Culture and Politics in Russia from Gorbachev to Putin. Itacha, London: Cornell University Press. 10.7591/cornell/9780801452628.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7591/cornell/9780801452628.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  30. 2017 “Humpty Dumpty and the Troll Factory: Varieties of Verbal Subversion on the Russian-Language Internet.” Zeitschrift für Slavische Philologie731: 79–103.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Hart, Christopher
    2014Discourse, Grammar and Ideology: Functional and Cognitive Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Herspring, Dale R.
    2007Putin’s Russia: Past Imperfect, Future Uncertain. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Hopf, Ted
    2016 “‘Crimea is Ours’: A Discursive History.” International Relations30 (2): 227–255. 10.1177/0047117816645646
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0047117816645646 [Google Scholar]
  34. Johnson-Laird, Philip N.
    1983Mental Models. Towards a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference, and Consciousness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Koteyko, Nelya, and Lara Ryazanova-Clarke
    2009 “The Path and Building Metaphors in the Speeches of Vladimir Putin: Back to the Future?”. Slavonica15 (2): 112–127. 10.1179/136174209X12507596634810
    https://doi.org/10.1179/136174209X12507596634810 [Google Scholar]
  36. Kosslyn, Stephen M.
    1994Image and Brain: The Resolution of the Imagery Debate. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/3653.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/3653.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  37. Kuipers, Benjamin
    1982 “The ‘Map in the Head’ Metaphor.” Environment and Behavior141: 202–220. 10.1177/0013916584142005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916584142005 [Google Scholar]
  38. Kuße, Holger
    2019Aggression and Argumentation. Mit Beispielen aus dem russisch ukrainischen Konflikt (Slavistische Beiträge). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson
    1980Metaphors we Live By. Chicago: Chicago U.P.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Lakoff, George
    2004Don’t Think of an Elephant!: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate: the Essential Guide for Progressives. Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Makhashvili, Levan
    2017 “The Russian Information War and Propaganda Narratives in the European Union and the EU’s Eastern Partnership Countries.” International Journal of Social Science and Humanity7 (5): 309–313.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. March, Luke
    2012 “Nationalism for Export? The Domestic and Foreign-Policy Implications of the New ‘Russian Idea’”, Europe-Asia Studies64(3): 401–425. 10.1080/09668136.2012.661927
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09668136.2012.661927 [Google Scholar]
  43. Marr, David
    1982Vision: A Computational Investigation in the Human Representation of Visual Information. San Francisco: Freeman.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Matthews, Owen
    2014 “Putin to Russia: We Will Bury Ourselves”, Newsweek, 6Decembe: www.newsweek.com/2014/06/20/putins-paranoia-card-254513.html
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Maynard, Jonathan Leader
    2013 “A Map of the Field of Ideological Analysis”, Journal of Political Ideologies18(3): 299–327. 10.1080/13569317.2013.831589
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13569317.2013.831589 [Google Scholar]
  46. McNamara, Timothy, Diana L. Miller, and John D. Bransford
    1991 “Mental Models and Reading Comprehension.” InHandbook of Reading Research, Vol.21, ed. byRebecca Barr, Michael L. Kamil, Peter B. Mosenthal, P. David Pearson, 490–511. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Morelli, Anne
    2001Principes élémentaires de propagande de guerre. Brussels: éditions Labor.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Motyl, Alexander J.
    2016 “Putin’s Russia as a Fascist Political System.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies49 (1): 25–36. 10.1016/j.postcomstud.2016.01.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postcomstud.2016.01.002 [Google Scholar]
  49. Oates, Sarah
    2016 “Russian Media in the Digital Age: Propaganda Rewired.” Russian Politics1 (4): 398–417. 10.1163/2451‑8921‑00104004
    https://doi.org/10.1163/2451-8921-00104004 [Google Scholar]
  50. Pasitselska, Olga
    2017 “Ukrainian Crisis through the Lens of Russian Media: Construction of Ideological Discourse.” Discourse & Communication11 (6): 591–609. 10.1177/1750481317714127
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481317714127 [Google Scholar]
  51. Rak, Joanna, and Roman Bäcker
    2020 “Theory behind Russian Quest for Totalitarianism. Analysis of Discursive Swing in Putin’s Speeches.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies53 (1): 13–26. 10.1525/cpcs.2020.53.1.13
    https://doi.org/10.1525/cpcs.2020.53.1.13 [Google Scholar]
  52. Reichgelt, Han
    1982 “Mental Models and Discourse.” Journal of Semantics11: 371–386. 10.1093/jos/1.3‑4.371
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jos/1.3-4.371 [Google Scholar]
  53. Rickheit, Gert, and Lorenz Sichelschmidt
    1999 “Mental Models: Some Answers, Some Questions, Some Suggestions.” InMental Models in Discourse Processing and Reasoning, ed. byGert Rickheit, and Christopher Habel, 9–40. Amsterdam: North-Holland Elsevier. 10.1016/S0166‑4115(99)80045‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(99)80045-4 [Google Scholar]
  54. Robinson, Neil, and Sarah Milne
    2017 “Populism and Political Development in Hybrid Regimes: Russia and the Development of Official Populism.” International Political Science Review38 (4): 412–425. 10.1177/0192512117697705
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0192512117697705 [Google Scholar]
  55. Rogov, Kirill
    2018 “The Art of Coercion: Repressions and Repressiveness in Putin’s Russia.” Russian Politics3(2): 151–174. 10.1163/2451‑8921‑00302001
    https://doi.org/10.1163/2451-8921-00302001 [Google Scholar]
  56. Rouse, William B., and Nancy M. Morris
    1986 “On Looking into the Black Box: Prospects and Limits in the Search for Mental Models.” Psychological Bulletin1001: 349–363. 10.1037/0033‑2909.100.3.349
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.100.3.349 [Google Scholar]
  57. Ryazanova-Clarke, Lara
    2004 “Criminal Rhetoric in Russian Political Discourse.” Language Design: Journal of Theoretical and Experimental Linguistics61: 141–160.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Sartori, Giovanni
    1969 “Politics, Ideology and Belief Systems.” American Political Science Review63 (2): 398 – 411. 10.2307/1954696
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1954696 [Google Scholar]
  59. Shlapentokh, Dmitry V.
    2014 “Implementation of an Ideological Paradigm: Early Duginian Eurasianism and Russia’s Post-Crimean Discourse.” Contemporary Security Policy35 (3): 380–399. 10.1080/13523260.2014.963966
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13523260.2014.963966 [Google Scholar]
  60. Schnotz, Wolfgang
    1988 “Textverstehen als Aufbau Mentaler Modelle.” InWissenspsychologie, ed. byHeinz Mandl, and Hans Spada, 299–330. München: Psychologie Verlag Union.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 1993 “Mentale Repräsentationen beim Sprachverstehen.” Zeitschrift für Psychologie2011: 237–259.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Skinner, Quentin
    1974 “Some Problems in the Analysis of Political Thought and Action.” Political Theory21: 277–303. 10.1177/009059177400200303
    https://doi.org/10.1177/009059177400200303 [Google Scholar]
  63. Snyder, Timothy
    2018Der Weg in die Unfreiheit. Russland-Europa-Amerika. München: C.H. Beck. 10.17104/9783406725029
    https://doi.org/10.17104/9783406725029 [Google Scholar]
  64. Tarrow, Sidney
    2013The Language of Contention: Revolutions in Words. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139567190
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139567190 [Google Scholar]
  65. Taylor, Holly A., and Barbara Tversky
    1992 “Spatial Mental Models Derived from Survey and Route Descriptions.” Journal of Memory and Language311: 261–292. 10.1016/0749‑596X(92)90014‑O
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(92)90014-O [Google Scholar]
  66. Trenin, Dmitri V.
    2007Getting Russia Right. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Tolman, Edward C.
    1948 “Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men.” Psychological Review551: 189–208. 10.1037/h0061626
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0061626 [Google Scholar]
  68. Tully, James H.
    1983 “The Pen is a Mighty Sword: Quentin Skinner’s Analysis of Politics.” British Journal of Political Science131: 489–509. 10.1017/S0007123400003379
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400003379 [Google Scholar]
  69. Tulving, Endel
    1983Elements of Episodic Memory. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Van der Vet, Freek
    2018 “When They Come for You”: Legal Mobilization in New Authoritarian Russia.” Law & Society Review, 521: 301–336. 10.1111/lasr.12339
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lasr.12339 [Google Scholar]
  71. Van Dijk, Teun A.
    1998Ideology. A Multidisciplinary Approach. London: SAGE Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 2006 “Discourse and Manipulation.” Discourse and Society17/21: 359–383. 10.1177/0957926506060250
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926506060250 [Google Scholar]
  73. 2008Discourse and Context. A Socio-Cognitive Approach. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511481499
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511481499 [Google Scholar]
  74. 2013 “Ideology and Discourse.” In: The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies, ed. byMichael Freeden, and Lyman Tower Sargent, and Marc Stears, 175–196. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Van Herpen, Marcel H.
    2015Putin’s Propaganda Machine: Soft Power and Russian Foreign Policy. London: Rowman & Littlefield.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Van Leeuwen, Theodore Jacob
    2007 “Legitimation in Discourse and Communication.” Discourse & Communication1(1): 91–112. 10.1177/1750481307071986
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481307071986 [Google Scholar]
  77. Verschueren, Jef
    2012 Ideology in Language Use. Pragmatic Guidelines for Empirical Research. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 2015 “Ideology in Discourse.” In: The International Encyclopedia of Language and Social Interaction, ed. byKaren Tracy, 1–10. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781118611463.wbielsi051
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118611463.wbielsi051 [Google Scholar]
  79. Wodak, Ruth
    2006 “Blaming and Denying: Pragmatics.” In: Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, ed. byEdward K. Brown, 59–64. Oxford: Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/04307‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/04307-8 [Google Scholar]
  80. Wodak, Ruth, and Michael Meyer
    2009 “Critical Discourse Analysis: History, Agenda, Theory and Methodology.” In: Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, ed. byRuth Wodak, and Michael Meyer, 1–33. London: SAGE Publications
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Шавшин, Владимир [Shavshin, Vladimir]
    2010Балаклава [Balaklava]. Севастополь: Телескоп [Sevastopol: Telescope].
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.22110.men
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jlp.22110.men
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): cognitive mapping; Crimean speech; ideological references; ideology; mental model
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error