1887
Volume 33, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0920-9034
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9870
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Cavite Chabacano, an endangered creole language spoken in Cavite City, Philippines, has dialectal variation that can be traced to the settlement patterns established by the Spanish during the colonial era. This study focuses on Cavite Chabacano speakers’ metalinguistic awareness of dialectal variation, what their attitudes are toward it, and how they believe the different dialects are influenced by the superstrate Spanish or the substrate Tagalog. Participants’ comments during a map-labeling task show where Chabacano is still believed to be spoken and reveal that they have high metalinguistic awareness of variation in the vowel system and in second person pronoun usage. The Chabacano spoken in the San Roque district is perceived to have the closest relationship to Spanish, despite having more substrate influence in the vowel system. This study demonstrates the usefulness of perceptual dialectology for endangered language documentation and for studying variation and language attitudes in small communities and creole or other multilingual settings.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.00001.les
2018-05-07
2019-10-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Asociacion Chabacano del Ciudad de Cavite
    Asociacion Chabacano del Ciudad de Cavite 2008Diccionario Chabacano del Ciudad de Cavite. Cavite City: Office of the City Mayor.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barajas, Jennifer
    2014A sociophonetic investigation of unstressed vowel raising in the Spanish of a rural Mexican community. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bartens, Angela
    2005 The loss of linguistic pluralism: Creoles as endangered languages. UniverSOS2. 55–68.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Benson, Erica J.
    2005 Folk perceptions of dialects in Ohio. In Brian D. Joseph , Carol G. Preston , & Dennis R. Preston (eds.), Language diversity in Michigan and Ohio: Towards two state linguistic profiles, 35–60. Ann Arbor: Caravan Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bentivoglio, Paola
    2003 Spanish forms of address in the sixteenth century. In Andreas Jucker & Irma Taavitsainen (eds.), Diachronic perspectives on address term systems, 177–193. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/pbns.107.09ben
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.107.09ben [Google Scholar]
  6. Borromeo, Soledad Masangkay
    1974El Cadiz filipino: Colonial Cavite, 1571–1896. Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Borromeo-Buehler, Soledad
    1985 The ‘inquilinos’ of Cavite: A social class in nineteenth-century Philippines. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies16(1). 69–98. doi: 10.1017/S0022463400012777
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022463400012777 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bradley, David
    2013 Language attitudes: The key factor in language maintenance. In David Bradley & Maya Bradley (eds.), Language endangerment and language maintenance: An active approach, 1–10. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bucholtz, Mary
    2003 Sociolinguistic nostalgia and the authentication of identity. Journal of Sociolinguistics7(3). 398–416. doi: 10.1111/1467‑9481.00232
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00232 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bucholtz, Mary , Nancy Bermudez , Victor Fung , Lisa Edwards , & Rosalva Vargas
    2007 Hella Nor Cal or totally So Cal? The perceptual dialectology of California. Journal of English Linguistics35(4). 325–352. doi: 10.1177/0075424207307780
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424207307780 [Google Scholar]
  11. Cordero-Fernando, Gilda
    1992Philippine food and life. Manila: Anvil.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cortés, Jerónimo de Fuentes
    1659Planta del puerto y punta de Cavite, en el estado en que están sus fortificaciones en 18 de junio de 1659. Sevilla: Archivo General de Indias.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Doeppers, Daniel F.
    1972 The development of Philippine cities before 1900. The Journal of Asian Studies31(4). 769–792. doi: 10.2307/2052101
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2052101 [Google Scholar]
  14. Drager, Katie & James Grama
    2014 ‘De tawk dakain ova dea’: Mapping language ideologies on Oʻahu. Dialectologia12. 23–51.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Escalante, Enrique R.
    2005Chabacano… for everyone: A guide to the Chabacano language. Manila: Baby Dragon Printing Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fernández, Mauro
    2010 Las cartas de Pardo de Tavera a Schuchardt sobre el ‘español de cocina’ de las Islas Filipinas. Grazer Linguistische Studien74. 239–272.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 2011 Chabacano en Tayabas: Implicaciones para la historia de los criollos hispano-filipinos. Revista Internacional de Lingüistica Iberoamericana (España)9(1). 189–218.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 2012 Leyenda e historia del chabacano de Ermita. UniverSOS: Revista de Lenguas Indígenas y Universos Culturales9. 9–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Fernández, Mauro & Eeva Sippola
    2017 A new window into the history of Chabacano: Two unknown mid-19th century texts. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages32(2). 304–338. doi: 10.1075/jpcl.32.2.04fer
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.32.2.04fer [Google Scholar]
  20. Fortuno-Genuino, Cecilia
    2011 Is Chabacano dying?In Ambeth R. Ocampo (ed.), Selected papers from Philippine-Spanish Friendship Day conferences, 2009, 1–25. Manila: National Historical Commission of the Philippines.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Fought, Carmen
    2002 California students’ perceptions of, you know, regions and dialects?In Daniel Long & Dennis R. Preston (eds.), Handbook of perceptual dialectology, Volume2, 113–134. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/z.hpd2.13fou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.hpd2.13fou [Google Scholar]
  22. Gal, Susan & Judith T. Irvine
    1995 The boundaries of languages and disciplines: How ideologies construct difference. Social Research62. 967–1001.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Garcia Serrano, Miguel
    1622/1904 Letter from Archbishop Miguel Garcia Serrano to the King. In Emma Blair & James Robinson (eds.), The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898, volumeXX, 76–105. Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Garrett, Paul B.
    2006 Contact languages as ‘endangered’ languages: What is there to lose?Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages21(1). 175–190. doi: 10.1075/jpcl.21.1.05gar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.21.1.05gar [Google Scholar]
  25. Gealogo, Francis A.
    2005 Population history of Cavite during the nineteenth century. The Journal of History51(1). 308–339.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. German, Alfredo B.
    1932The Spanish dialect of Cavite. Manila: University of the Philippines MA thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gonzalez, Andrew
    1970 Acoustic correlates of accent, rhythm, and intonation in Tagalog. Phonetica22. 11–44. doi: 10.1159/000259307
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000259307 [Google Scholar]
  28. 1998 The language planning situation in the Philippines. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development19(5). 487–525. doi: 10.1080/01434639808666365
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434639808666365 [Google Scholar]
  29. Hardacker, Erin P.
    2012 The impact of Spain’s 1863 educational decree on the spread of Philippine public schools and language acquisition. European Education44(4). 8–30. doi: 10.2753/EUE1056‑4934440401
    https://doi.org/10.2753/EUE1056-4934440401 [Google Scholar]
  30. Holmquist, Jonathan C.
    1985 Social correlates of a linguistic variable: A study in a Spanish village. Language in Society14(2). 191–203. doi: 10.1017/S004740450001112X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740450001112X [Google Scholar]
  31. 2005 Social stratification in women’s speech in rural Puerto Rico: A study of five phonological features. In Lotfi Sayahi & Maurice Westmoreland (eds.), Selected Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics, 109–119. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Ing, Roseller
    1968A phonological analysis of Chabacano. London: University of London PhD thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 1976 Sources and variants of Chabacano consonants. Studies in English Literature & Linguistics1. 17–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Irvine, Alison
    1994 Dialect variation in Jamaican English: A study of the phonology of social group marking. English World-Wide15(1). 55–78. doi: 10.1075/eww.15.1.04irv
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.15.1.04irv [Google Scholar]
  35. 2004 A good command of the English language: Phonological variation in the Jamaican acrolect. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages19(1). 41–76. doi: 10.1075/jpcl.19.1.03irv
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.19.1.03irv [Google Scholar]
  36. 2008 Contrast and convergence in Standard Jamaican English: The phonological architecture of the standard in an ideologically bidialectal community. World Englishes27(1). 9–25. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2008.00533.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2008.00533.x [Google Scholar]
  37. Jeon, Lisa & Patricia Cukor-Avila
    2015 ‘One country, one language’?: Mapping perceptions of dialects in South Korea. Dialectologia14. 17–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Lacoste, Veronique & Christian Mair
    2012 Authenticity in creole-speaking contexts: An introduction. Zeitschrift fur Anglistik und Amerikanistik. 60(3). 211–215.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Lefebvre, Claire
    1974 Discreteness and the linguistic continuum in Martinique. Anthropological Linguistics16(2). 47–78.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Lesho, Marivic
    2013The sociophonetics and phonology of the Cavite Chabacano vowel system. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 2015 Rhotic variation in Cavite Chabacano. Presented atthe Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics summer meeting. Graz, Austria, July 7–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Lesho, Marivic & Eeva Sippola
    2013 The sociolinguistic situation of the Manila Bay Chabacano-speaking communities. Language Documentation & Conservation7. 1–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 2014 Folk perceptions of variation among the Chabacano creoles. Revista de Crioulos de Base Lexical Portuguesa e Espanhola5. 1–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Lipski, John , Peter Mühlhausler & F. Duthin
    1996 Spanish in the Pacific. In Stephen A. Wurm , Peter Mühlhäusler , & Darrell T. Tryon (eds.), Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, 271–298. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110819724.2.271
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110819724.2.271 [Google Scholar]
  45. Lipski, John
    1986a The reduction of /s/ in Philippine Creole Spanish and its implications for historical Hispanic dialectology. Diachronica3. 43–66. doi: 10.1075/dia.3.1.04lip
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.3.1.04lip [Google Scholar]
  46. 1986b The Portuguese element in Philippine Creole Spanish: A critical reassessment. Philippine Journal of Linguistics17. 1–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 1987 El español en Filipinas: Comentarios sobre un lenguaje vestigial. Anuario de lingüística hispánica3. 123–142.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Llamado, Librada C.
    1972 The phrase-structure rules of Cavite Chavacano. Philippine Journal of Linguistics3. 67–95.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Lance, Donald M.
    1999 Regional variation in subjective dialect divisions in the United States. In Dennis R. Preston (ed.), Handbook of perceptual dialectology, Volume1, 283–314. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/z.hpd1.26lan
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.hpd1.26lan [Google Scholar]
  50. Long, Daniel & Dennis R. Preston
    (eds.) 2002Handbook of perceptual dialectology, Volume2. Handbook of Perceptual Dialectology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/z.hpd2
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.hpd2 [Google Scholar]
  51. Mase, Yoshio
    1999/1964 Dialect consciousness and dialect divisions: Examples in the Nagano-Gifu boundary region. In Dennis R. Preston (ed.), Handbook of perceptual dialectology, Volume1, 71–100. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/z.hpd1.13mas
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.hpd1.13mas [Google Scholar]
  52. McCarthy, William J.
    1995 The yards at Cavite: Shipbuilding in the early colonial Philippines. International Journal of Maritime History7. 149–162. doi: 10.1177/084387149500700208
    https://doi.org/10.1177/084387149500700208 [Google Scholar]
  53. Medina, Isagani R.
    2001 Growth of towns and parishes in Cavite, 1571–1880. In Mirana R. Medina (ed.), Ang Kabite sa gunita: Essays on Cavite and the Philippine revolution, 43–55. Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Miranda, Gervasio
    1956El dialecto chabacano de Cavite. Dumaguete City: n.p.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Mitchell, David , Marivic Lesho , & Abby Walker
    2017 Folk perception of African American English regional variation. Journal of Linguistic Geography5(1). 1–16. doi: 10.1017/jlg.2017.2
    https://doi.org/10.1017/jlg.2017.2 [Google Scholar]
  56. Mühlhäusler, Peter
    1983 Learning to speak about speaking in a pidgin language. In S. A. Wurm (ed.), Papers in pidgin and creole linguisticsno.3 (Pacific Linguistics Series A – No. 65), 93–103. Canberra: Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Mühleisen, Susanne
    2001 Is ‘Bad English’ dying out? A diachronic comparative study of attitudes towards Creole versus Standard English in Trinidad. Philologie im Netz15. 43–78.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Nearey, Terrance M.
    1977Phonetic feature systems for vowels. Edmonton: University of Alberta dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Niedzielski, Nancy
    1999 The effect of social information on the perception of sociolinguistic variables. Journal of Language and Social Psychology18(1). 62–85. doi: 10.1177/0261927X99018001005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X99018001005 [Google Scholar]
  60. Pangilinan, Gervasio E.
    1926/2001The historic Cavite (La histórica Cavite). Cavite: Cavite Historical Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Parodi, Claudia & Otto Santa Ana
    1997 Tipología de comunidades de habla: Del español rural al estándar. Nueva revista de filología hispánica45(2). 305–320. doi: 10.24201/nrfh.v45i2.1999
    https://doi.org/10.24201/nrfh.v45i2.1999 [Google Scholar]
  62. Penny, Ralph
    2000Variation and change in Spanish. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139164566
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139164566 [Google Scholar]
  63. Preston, Dennis R.
    1986 Five visions of America. Language in Society15. 221–40. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500000191
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500000191 [Google Scholar]
  64. (ed.) 1999Handbook of perceptual dialectology. Volume1. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/z.hpd1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.hpd1 [Google Scholar]
  65. 2002 Perceptual dialectology: Aims, methods, findings. Trends in Linguistics Studies and Monographs137. 57–104.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 2010 Perceptual dialectology in the 21st century. In Christina Ada Anders , Markus Hundt , & Alexander Lasch (eds.), Perceptual dialectology: Neue Wege der Dialektologie (Linguistik-Impulse & Tendenzen 38), 1–30. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Ramos, Felicidad G.
    1963A contrastive analysis of the sound system of the Cavite Chavacano and the English languages. Manila: Abad Santos Educational Institution MA thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Rensink, W. G.
    1999/1955 Informant classification of dialects. In Dennis R. Preston (ed.), Handbook of perceptual dialectology, Volume1, 3–8. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/z.hpd1.07ren
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.hpd1.07ren [Google Scholar]
  69. Rickford, John R.
    1985 Standard and non-standard language attitudes in a creole continuum. In Nessa Wolfson & Joan Manes (eds.), Language of inequality, 145–160. Berlin: Mouton Publishers. doi: 10.1515/9783110857320.145
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110857320.145 [Google Scholar]
  70. Reid, Lawrence A.
    1973 Diachronic typology of Philippine vowel systems. In Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.), Current Trends in Linguistics 11: Diachronic, areal, and typological linguistics, 485–506. The Hague and Paris: Mouton and Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Riego de Dios, Maria Isabelita O.
    1989 A composite dictionary of Philippine Creole Spanish (PCS). Studies in Philippine Linguistics7(2). 1–210.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Roberts, Sarah J.
    2004 The role of style and identity in the development of Hawaiian Creole. In Geneviève Escure & Armin Schwegler (eds.), Creoles, contact, and language change: Linguistic and social implications, 331–350. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/cll.27.16rob
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.27.16rob [Google Scholar]
  73. Schachter, Paul & Fe T. Otanes
    1972Tagalog reference grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Scott, William Henry
    2010Barangay: Sixteenth century Philippine culture and society. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Tejada, Juan Somodevilla
    1663Plano de la ensenada y plaza de Cavite con sus fortificaciones y las cercanías de la misma donde se localizan los pueblos de San Roque, Cavite el Viejo y la Estanjuela y las bocas de los ríos Binacaya, Bacoor y Cavite el Viejo. Sevilla: Archivo General de Indias.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Villavicencio, D. Manuel & José Riudavets
    1874Plano del puerto de Cavite con sus ensenadas de Cañacao y Bacoor y parte de la bahía de Manila hasta Parañaque. Madrid: Dirección de Hidrografía. bdh.bne.es/bnesearch/detalle/bdh0000054540 (26 March 2016)
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Wassink, Alicia Beckford
    1999 Historic low prestige and seeds of change: Attitudes toward Jamaican Creole. Language in Society28(1). 57–92. doi: 10.1017/S0047404599001037
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404599001037 [Google Scholar]
  78. Wickberg, Edgar
    2002The Chinese in Philippine life, 1850–1898. Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Winford, Donald
    1976 Teacher attitudes toward language varieties in a creole community. International Journal of the Sociology of Language8. 45–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Wolfram, Walt
    2007 Sociolinguistic folklore in the study of African American Vernacular English. Language and Linguistic Compass1(4). 293–313. doi: 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2007.00016.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2007.00016.x [Google Scholar]
  81. Yan, Qingyang
    2015 The perceptual categorization of Enshi Mandarin regional varieties. Journal of Linguistic Geography3(1). 1–19. doi: 10.1017/jlg.2015.3
    https://doi.org/10.1017/jlg.2015.3 [Google Scholar]
  82. Yap, Fe Z. Aldave
    1970The sounds of Pilipino: A descriptive analysis. Manila: United Pub. Co.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.00001.les
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.00001.les
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error