Volume 35, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0920-9034
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9870
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Although World Englishes (WE) scholarship is concerned with the study of English varieties in different social contexts, there is a tendency to treat postcolonial ones as homogenous regional phenomena (e.g., Philippine English). Few researchers have discussed variation and social differentiation in detail with empirical evidence. Thus, in order to understand how layers of different varieties of WE operate within a specific group of speakers, this study takes an empirical intergroup approach from a substratist framework. This study explores distinctive features of a metropolitan Manila variety of Chinese English used in the Philippines, Manila Chinese English (MCE), an English contact variety used by Manila Chinese Filipinos. After comparing the frequencies of selected features observed in a 52,000-word MCE database with frequencies in Manila English and American English corpora, this study found that a distinct variety – MCE – most likely emerged in the 1960s due to the extensive contact between general Manila English and local tongues of Chinese Filipinos such as (Hybrid) Hokkien and Tagalog, which function as MCE’s substrate languages. This study takes into account MCE’s structure, sources, and genesis, and discusses MCE in relation to Philippine English as positioned in Schneider’s dynamic model, to demonstrate how intergroup variations coexist but take divergent paths within a WE variety.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Aboh, Enoch
    2015The emergence of hybrid grammars: Language contact and change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139024167
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139024167 [Google Scholar]
  2. Alsagoff, Lubna & Chee Lick Ho
    1998 The relative clause in colloquial Singapore English. World Englishes17. 127–138. 10.1111/1467‑971X.00087
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00087 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson, Stephen R.
    2008 Second position clitics in Tagalog. InSharon Inkelas & Kristin Hanson (Eds.), The nature of the word, 549–566. Cambridge: MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/9780262083799.003.0023
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262083799.003.0023 [Google Scholar]
  4. Ang See, Teresita
    1990The Chinese in the Philippines: Problems and perspectives, vol.1. Manila: Kaisa Para sa Kaunlaran.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 1997The Chinese in the Philippines: Problems and perspectives, vol.2. Manila: Kaisa Para sa Kaunlaran.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bao, Zhiming
    1995Already in Singapore English. World Englishes14. 181–188. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.1995.tb00348.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1995.tb00348.x [Google Scholar]
  7. 2005 The aspectual system of Singapore English and the systemic substratist explanation. Journal of Linguistics41. 237–267. 10.1017/S0022226705003269
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226705003269 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bao, Zhiming & Huaqin Hong
    2006 Diglossia and register variation in Singapore English. World Englishes25. 105–114. 10.1111/j.0083‑2919.2006.00449.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0083-2919.2006.00449.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Barrios, Joi & Julia Camagong
    2014Easy Tagalog: Learn to speak Tagalog quickly. Singapore: Tuttle.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bautista, Maria Lourdes S.
    1996 Notes on three sub-varieties of Philippine English. InMaria Lourdes S. Bautista (ed.), Readings in Philippine Sociolinguistics, 93–101. Manila: De La Salle University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 2000Defining Standard Philippine English: Its status and grammatical features. Manila: De La Salle University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 2004 An overview of the Philippine component of the International Corpus of English (ICE-PHI). Asian Englishes7. 8–26. 10.1080/13488678.2004.10801139
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2004.10801139 [Google Scholar]
  13. Blommaert, Jan
    2010The sociolinguistics of globalization. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511845307
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511845307 [Google Scholar]
  14. Blommaert, Jan & Ben Rampton
    2011 Language and superdiversity. Diversities13: 1–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bolton, Kingsley
    2000 The sociolinguistics of Hong Kong English and the space for Hong Kong English. World Englishes19. 265–285. 10.1111/1467‑971X.00179
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00179 [Google Scholar]
  16. Borlongan, Ariane
    2016 Relocating Philippine English in Schneider’s dynamic model. Asian Englishes18. 232–241. 10.1080/13488678.2016.1223067
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2016.1223067 [Google Scholar]
  17. Bruthiaux, Paul
    2003 Squaring the circles: Issues in modeling English worldwide. International Journal of Applied Linguistics13(2). 159–178. 10.1111/1473‑4192.00042
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1473-4192.00042 [Google Scholar]
  18. Canagarajah, Suresh
    2007 Lingua Franca English, multilingual communities, and language acquisition. The Modern Language Journal91. 923–939. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2007.00678.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00678.x [Google Scholar]
  19. Chan-Yap, Gloria
    1980Hokkien Chinese borrowings in Tagalog. Canberra, Australia: Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Fernández, Mauro & Eeva Sippola
    2017 A new window into the history of Chabacano: Two unknown mid-19th century texts. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages32(2). 304–338. 10.1075/jpcl.32.2.04fer
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.32.2.04fer [Google Scholar]
  21. Gonzales, Wilkinson Daniel Wong
    2016 Trilingual code-switching using quantitative lenses: An exploratory study on Hokaglish. Philippine Journal of Linguistics47. 106–128.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 2017a Philippine Englishes. Asian Englishes19. 79–95. 10.1080/13488678.2016.1274574
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2016.1274574 [Google Scholar]
  23. 2017b Language contact in the Philippines: The history and ecology from a Chinese Filipino perspective. Language Ecology1(2). 185–212. 10.1075/le.1.2.04gon
    https://doi.org/10.1075/le.1.2.04gon [Google Scholar]
  24. 2018 Philippine Hybrid Hokkien as a postcolonial mixed language: Evidence from nominal derivational affixation mixing. Singapore: National University of Singapore. Unpublished MA thesis.
  25. Gonzalez, Andrew
    1986 Philippine English. InLoretto Todd & Ian Hancock (eds.), International English usage, 344–346. London: Croom Helm.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Greenbaum, Sidney & Gerald Nelson
    1996 The international corpus of English (ICE) project. World Englishes15. 3–15. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.1996.tb00088.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1996.tb00088.x [Google Scholar]
  27. He, Deyuan & David C.-S. Li
    2009 Language attitudes and linguistic features in the ‘China English’ debate. World Englishes28. 70–89. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2008.01570.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2008.01570.x [Google Scholar]
  28. Hiramoto, Mie
    2012 Pragmatics of the sentence-final uses of can in Colloquial Singapore English. Journal of Pragmatics44. 890–906. 10.1016/j.pragma.2012.03.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.03.013 [Google Scholar]
  29. 2015 Sentence-final adverbs in Singapore English and Hong Kong English. World Englishes34. 636–653. 10.1111/weng.12157
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12157 [Google Scholar]
  30. Jenkins, Jennifer
    2009 Who speaks English today?InJennifer Jenkins (Eds.), World Englishes: A resource book for students, 15–24. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kachru, Braj
    1985 Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. InRandolph Quirk, H. Widdowson & Yolande Cantú (eds.), English in the world: Teaching and learning the language and literatures, 11–30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kaufman, Daniel
    2010 The morphosyntax of Tagalog clitics: A typologically driven approach. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation.
  33. Klöter, Henning
    2011The language of the Sangleys: A Chinese vernacular in missionary sources of the seventeenth century. Leiden and Boston: Brill. 10.1163/9789004195929
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004195929 [Google Scholar]
  34. Kortmann, Bernd & Kerstin Lunkenheimer
    2013The electronic world atlas of varieties of English. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. ewave-atlas.org (4March 2019).
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kwan-Terry, Anna
    1989 The specification of stage by a child learning English and Cantonese simultaneously. InHans Dechert & Manfred Raupach (eds.), Interlingual processes, 33–48. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Le Page, Robert & Andrée Tabouret-Keller
    1985Acts of identity: Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Leimgruber, Jakob
    2013 The trouble with World Englishes: Rethinking the concept of ‘geographical varieties’ of English. English Today29. 3–7. 10.1017/S0266078413000242
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078413000242 [Google Scholar]
  38. Lin, Philip
    2015Taiwanese grammar: A concise reference. Lima, Ohio: Greenhorn Media.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Llamzon, Teodoro
    1969Standard Filipino English. Quezon, the Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Martin, Isabel Pefianco
    2014 Beyond nativization? Philippine English in Schneider’s Dynamic Model. InS. Buschfeld, T. Hoffman, M. Huber & A. Kautzsch (Eds.), The evolution of Englishes: The dynamic model and beyond, 70–85. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology 2015Leipzig glossing rules. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Department of Linguistics. https://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/resources/glossing-rules.php (15March 2015).
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Minority Rights Group International
    Minority Rights Group International 2018 Philippines-Chinese. World directory of minorities and indigenous peoples. minorityrights.org/minorities/chinese-5/ (12March 2018).
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Oxford Living Dictionaries
    Oxford Living Dictionaries. n.d.Relative clauses. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/grammar/relative-clauses (4October 2017).
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Park, Joseph Sung-Yul
    2016 Language as pure potential. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development37. 453–466. 10.1080/01434632.2015.1071824
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2015.1071824 [Google Scholar]
  45. Park, Joseph Sung-Yul & Lionel Wee
    2009 The three circles redux: A market–theoretic perspective on World Englishes. Applied Linguistics30. 389–406. 10.1093/applin/amp008
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amp008 [Google Scholar]
  46. Pennycook, Alastair
    2016 Mobile times, mobile terms: The trans-super-poly-metro movement. InNikolas Coupland (ed.), Sociolinguistics: Theoretical debates, 201–216. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781107449787.010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107449787.010 [Google Scholar]
  47. Pennycook, Alastair & Emi Otsuji
    2015Metrolingualism: Language in the city. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315724225
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315724225 [Google Scholar]
  48. Platt, John
    1975 The Singapore English speech continuum and its basilect ‘Singlish’ as a ‘creoloid’. Anthropological Linguistics17(7). 363–374.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Platt, John & Heidi Weber
    1980English in Singapore and Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech & Jan Svartvik
    1985A comprehensive grammar of the English language. Harlow, U.K.: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Sankoff, Gillian
    2006 Age: Apparent time and real time. InKeith Brown (Ed.), The encyclopedia of language & linguistics, 2nd edn., vol.1, 110–116. Oxford: Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/01479‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/01479-6 [Google Scholar]
  52. Schachter, Paul & Fe Otanes
    1972Tagalog reference grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Schneider, Edgar
    2003 The dynamics of new Englishes: From identity construction to dialect birth. Language79. 233–281. 10.1353/lan.2003.0136
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2003.0136 [Google Scholar]
  54. 2007Postcolonial English: Varieties around the world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511618901
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511618901 [Google Scholar]
  55. Sharma, Devyani
    2009 Typological diversity in new Englishes. English World-Wide30(2). 170–195. 10.1075/eww.30.2.04sha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.30.2.04sha [Google Scholar]
  56. Siegel, Jeff
    1999 Transfer constraints and substrate influence in Melanesian Pidgin. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages14(1). 1–44. 10.1075/jpcl.14.1.02sie
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.14.1.02sie [Google Scholar]
  57. 2015 The role of substrate transfer in the development of grammatical morphology in language contact varieties. Word Structure8(2). 160–183. 10.3366/word.2015.0080
    https://doi.org/10.3366/word.2015.0080 [Google Scholar]
  58. Smith, Larry E.
    1981English for cross-cultural communication. London: Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑1‑349‑16572‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-16572-8 [Google Scholar]
  59. Solheim, Wilhelm
    1964 Pottery and the Malayo-Polynesians. Current Anthropology5. 376–406. 10.1086/200526
    https://doi.org/10.1086/200526 [Google Scholar]
  60. Sung, C-C Matthew
    2015 Hong Kong English: Linguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives. Language and Linguistics Compass9. 256–270. 10.1111/lnc3.12142
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lnc3.12142 [Google Scholar]
  61. Tan, Susan
    1993 The education of Chinese in the Philippines and Koreans in Japan. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong thesis. 10.5353/th_b3195041
  62. Tayao, Maria
    2004 The evolving study of Philippine English phonology. World Englishes23. 77–90. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2004.00336.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2004.00336.x [Google Scholar]
  63. Tupas, Ruanni
    2004 The politics of Philippine English: Neocolonialism, global politics, and the problem of postcolonialism. World Englishes23. 47–58. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2004.00334.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2004.00334.x [Google Scholar]
  64. Uytanlet, Juliet
    2014 The hybrid Tsinoys: Challenges of hybridity and homogeneity as sociocultural constructs among the Chinese in the Philippines. Wilmore: Asbury Theological Seminary dissertation.
  65. Van Coetsem, Frans
    1988Loan phonology and the two transfer types in language contact. Dordrecht: Foris. 10.1515/9783110884869
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110884869 [Google Scholar]
  66. Villanueva, Rey
    2016 The features of Philippine English across regions. Manila: De La Salle University dissertation.
  67. Wang, Yan
    2011 Relative clauses in Hong Kong English: A corpus-based perspective. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics34. 15–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Wei, Li
    2011 Moment analysis and translanguaging space: Discursive construction of identities by multilingual Chinese youth in Britain. Journal of Pragmatics43. 1222–1235. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.035
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.035 [Google Scholar]
  69. Wickberg, Edgar
    1965The Chinese in Philippine life, 1850–1898. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Winford, Donald
    1997 Re-examining Caribbean English creole continua. World Englishes16(2). 233–279. 10.1111/1467‑971X.00061
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00061 [Google Scholar]
  71. Wong, May L-Y.
    2013 Hong Kong English. InBernd Kortmann & Kerstin Lunkenheimer (eds.), The electronic world atlas of varieties of English. Leipzig, Germany: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. ewave-atlas.org/languages/56 (1April 2017).
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error