1887
Volume 36, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0920-9034
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9870
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents and discusses the instances of synchronic variation attested in the personal pronoun paradigm of modern Sri Lanka Portuguese, an endangered Portuguese-based creole spoken by relatively small communities scattered across Eastern and Northern Sri Lanka. Although Sri Lanka Portuguese has a long history of documentation dating from, at least, the beginning of the 19th century, only a few studies have explicitly reported cases of synchronic variation. This study aims, therefore, to fill that gap, by contributing to the description and explanation of patterns of variation relating to the personal pronoun paradigm as encountered in documentary data collected between 2015 and 2020, over several field trips to the districts of Ampara, Batticaloa, Jaffna, and Trincomalee. The nature of the variation observed in the data ranges from phonetic alternations to strategies of paradigm regularization and stylistic shrinkage, often revealing the effects of diachronic processes of variant competition and substitution. Combining the observed patterns of variation with surveyed linguistic trends of language shift, we propose that obsolescence may be responsible for some of the variability encountered in modern SLP personal pronouns, especially that associated with certain socially- or geographically-defined subsets of the speech community (viz. the younger generations and the speakers from Jaffna) characterized by advanced language loss.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.00070.car
2021-03-25
2021-05-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.
    2020 Language contact and endangered languages. In Anthony Grant (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Language Contact, 241–260. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anon
    Anon 1826O Livro de oraçaõ commum e administraçaõ de os sacramentos, e outros ritos e ceremonias de a Igreja, conforme de o uso de a Igreja de Inglaterra: Juntamente com o Psalterio, ou Psalmo de David. London: G. Ellerton & J. Henderson.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anon
    Anon 1851O evangelho conforme de Santo Mattheos. Traduzido ne Indo-Portugueza. London: R. Clay.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Anon
    Anon 1863O livro de oraçaõs usado ne greyas de Wesleyanos ne Ilha de Ceylon. Colombo: Officio Wesleyano.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bakker, Peter
    2006 The Sri Lanka Sprachbund: The newcomers Portuguese and Malay. In Yaron Matras , April McMahon & Nigel Vincent (eds.), Linguistic Areas: Convergence in Historical and Typological Perspective, 135–159. New York: Palgrave. 10.1057/9780230287617_6
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230287617_6 [Google Scholar]
  6. Benveniste, Emile
    1971Problems in general linguistics. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Berrenger
    Berrenger 1811A grammatical arrangement on the method of learning the corrupted Portuguese as spoken in India. Colombo: Frans de Bruin.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bhat, D. N. S.
    2004Pronouns. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Callaway, John
    1818A vocabulary; with useful phrases, and familiar dialogues; in the English, Portuguese, and Cingalese Languages. Colombo: Wesleyan Mission Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 1820A vocabulary, in the Ceylon Portuguese, and English languages, with a series of familiar phrases. Colombo: Wesleyan Mission Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 1823A Ceylon-Portuguese and English Dictionary. Colombo: Wesleyan Mission Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Campbell, Lyle & Martha C. Muntzel
    1989 The structural consequence of language death. In Nancy Dorian (ed.), Investigating Obsolescence: Studies in Language Contraction and Death, 181–196. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620997.016
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620997.016 [Google Scholar]
  13. Cardoso, Hugo C.
    2007 Linguistic traces of colonial structure. In Eric Anchimbe (ed.), Linguistic identity in postcolonial multilingual spaces, 164–181. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 2014 Factoring sociolinguistic variation into the history of Indo-Portuguese. Revista de Crioulos de Base Lexical Portuguesa e Espanhola5. 87–114.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 2017Documentation of Sri Lanka Portuguese. London: SOAS, Endangered Languages Archive. hdl.handle.net/2196/a542c4b1-8c36-4fd5-ae43-e777f87f5983. (26July 2019.)
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Cardoso, Hugo C. , Mahesh Radhakrishnan , Patrícia Costa & Rui Pereira
    2019 Documenting modern Sri Lanka PortugueseIn Pinharanda-Nunes, Mário & Hugo Cardoso (eds.), Documentation and Maintenance of Contact Languages from South Asia to East Asia (Language Documentation & Conservation Special Publication nr. 19), 1–33. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cardoso, Hugo C. , Tjerk Hagemeijer & Nélia Alexandre
    2015 Crioulos de base lexical portuguesa. In Maria Iliescu & Eugeen Roegiest (eds.), Manuel des Anthologies, Corpus et Textes Romans, 670–692. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110333138‑043
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110333138-043 [Google Scholar]
  18. Chandralal, Dileep
    2010Sinhala (London Oriental and African Language Library 15). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/loall.15
    https://doi.org/10.1075/loall.15 [Google Scholar]
  19. Clements, J. Clancy
    1990 Deletion as an indicator of SVO → SOV shift. Language Variation and Change2. 103–133. 10.1017/S0954394500000302
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000302 [Google Scholar]
  20. Dalgado, Sebastião Rodolfo
    1900Dialecto Indo-Português de Ceylão. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Fox, William Buckley
    1819A Dictionary in the Ceylon-Portuguese, Singhalese, and English Languages. Colombo: Wesleyan Mission Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Helmbrecht, Johannes
    2003 Politeness Distinctions in Second Person Pronouns. In Friedrich Lenz (ed.), Deictic Conceptualization of Space, Time and Person, 185–202. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.112.10hel
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.112.10hel [Google Scholar]
  23. Ishiyama, Osamu
    2019Diachrony of Personal Pronouns in Japanese. A functional and cross-linguistic perspective (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 344). Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.344
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.344 [Google Scholar]
  24. Lyons, John
    1977Semantics, vol.2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Mansfield, John & James Stanford
    2017 Documenting sociolinguistic variation in lesser-studied indigenous communities: Challenges and practical solutions. In Kristine A. Hildebrandt , Carmen Jany & Wilson Silva (eds.), Documenting Variation in Endangered Languages (Language Documentation & Conservation Special Publication 13), 116–136. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Meyerhoff, Miriam
    2017 Writing a linguistic symphony: Analyzing variation while doing documentation. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue Canadienne de Linguistique62(4). 525–549. 10.1017/cnj.2017.28
    https://doi.org/10.1017/cnj.2017.28 [Google Scholar]
  27. McGilvray, Dennis
    1982 Dutch Burghers and Portuguese mechanics: Eurasian ethnicity in Sri Lanka. Comparative Studies in Society and History24(2). 235–263. 10.1017/S0010417500009919
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417500009919 [Google Scholar]
  28. Nagy, Naomi
    2009 The challenges of less commonly studied languages: Writing a sociogrammar of Faetar. In James Stanford & Dennis Preston (eds.), Variation in Indigenous Minority Languages, 397–417. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.25.20nag
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.25.20nag [Google Scholar]
  29. 2017 Documenting variation in (endangered) heritage languages: How and why?In Kristine A. Hildebrandt , Carmen Jany & Wilson Silva (eds.), Documenting Variation in Endangered Languages (Language Documentation & Conservation Special Publication 13), 33–64. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Newstead, Robert
    1827Um curto catichismo da Biblia, disposado em quarento divisaõs, todas as repostas per as perguntas sendo ne as palavras de a Santas Escrituras. Transl. of W. F. Lloyd . London: J.S. Hughes.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 1852O Novo Testamento de Nossa Senhor e Salvador Jesus Christo. Transl. of W. F. Lloyd . Colombo: Wesleyan Mission.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 1871Cantigas per adoraçaõ publico, em lingua portugueza de Ceylon. Colombo: Wesleyan Mission.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Nordhoff, Sebastian
    2013 The current state of Sri Lanka Portuguese. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages28(2). 425–434. 10.1075/jpcl.28.2.06nor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.28.2.06nor [Google Scholar]
  34. Palosaari, Naomi & Lyle Campbell
    2011 Structural aspects of language endangerment. In Peter Austin & Julia Sallabank (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages, 100–119. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Pereira, Rui
    2019Sri Lanka Portuguese: A sociolinguistic perspective. Paper presented at the19th Annual Conference of the Association of Portuguese and Spanish-lexified Creoles & Summer Conference of the Society of Pidgin and Creole Linguistics. Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa, June 17th.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Sasse, Hans-Jürgen
    2001 Typological changes in language obsolescence. In Martin Haspelmath , Ekkehard König , Wulf Oesterreicher & Wolfgang Raible (eds.), Language Typology and Language Universals; An International Handbook, vol.2, 1668–1677. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Sippola, Eeva
    2018 Collecting and analysing creole data. In Wendy Ayres-Bennett & Janice Carruthers (eds.), Manual of Romance Sociolinguistics, 91–113. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110365955‑004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110365955-004 [Google Scholar]
  38. Siewierska, Anna
    2004Person. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511812729
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812729 [Google Scholar]
  39. 2013 Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns. In Matthew Dryer & Martin Haspelmath (eds.), The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Schiffman, Harold F.
    1999A Reference Grammar of Spoken Tamil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Smith, Ian
    (coll.) 1973Indo-Portuguese (Sri Lanka) (IRS01). PARADISEC. catalog.paradisec.org.au/collections/IRS01 (27July 2019.)
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 1977 Sri Lanka Creole Portuguese phonology. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University PhD dissertation.
  43. 1979a Convergence in South Asia: a creole example. Lingua48- 193–222. 10.1016/0024‑3841(79)90005‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(79)90005-6 [Google Scholar]
  44. 1979b Substrata vs. universals in the formation of Sri Lanka Portuguese. Papers in Pidgin and Creole Linguistics2. 183–200.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 1984 The development of morphosyntax in Sri Lanka Portuguese. In Mark Sebba & Loreto Todd (eds.), York papers in Linguistics. York: University of York.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 2013 Sri Lanka Portuguese. In Susanne M. Michaelis , Philippe Maurer , Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber (eds.) The Survey of Pidgin and Creole Languages, Vol. II (Portuguese-based, Spanish-based, and French-based Languages), 111–121. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 2016 The earliest grammars of Sri Lanka Portuguese. Papia26(2). 237–281.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Tadmor, Uri
    2009 Loanwords in the world’s languages: Findings and results. In Martin Haspelmath & Uri Tadmor (eds.), Loanwords in the World’s Languages: A Comparative Handbook, 55–75. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110218442.55
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110218442.55 [Google Scholar]
  49. Tomás, Maria Isabel
    1992Os Crioulos Portugueses do Oriente; Uma Bibliografia. Macau: Instituto Cultural de Macau.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.00070.car
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.00070.car
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error