1887
Volume 36, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0920-9034
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9870
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The Indo-Portuguese creole languages that formed along the former Malabar Coast of southwestern India, currently seriously endangered, are arguably the oldest of all Asian-Portuguese creoles. Recent documentation efforts in Cannanore and the Cochin area have revealed a language that is strikingly similar to its substrate/adstrate Malayalam in several fundamental domains of grammar, often contradicting previous records from the late 19th-century and the input of its main lexifier, Portuguese. In this article, this is shown by comparing Malabar Indo-Portuguese with both Malayalam and Portuguese with respect to features in the domains of word order (head-final syntax and harmonic syntactic patterns) and case-marking (the distribution of the oblique case). Based on older records and certain synchronic linguistic features of the Malabar Creoles, this article proposes that the observed isomorphism between modern Malabar Indo-Portuguese and Malayalam has to be explained as the product of either a gradual process of convergence, or the resolution of historical competition between Dravidian-like and Portuguese-like features.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.00077.car
2022-01-14
2022-01-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abbi, Anvita
    2001A manual of linguistic field work and structures of Indian languages. Munich: Lincom Europa.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Abbi, Anvita & Devi Gopalakrishnan
    1991 Semantics of explicator compound verbs in South Asian languages. Language Sciences13(2). 161–180. 10.1016/0388‑0001(91)90012‑P
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0388-0001(91)90012-P [Google Scholar]
  3. Anquetil-Duperron, Abraham Hyacinthe
    1786 Des recherches historiques et géographiques sur l’Inde. InJean Bernoulli (ed.), Description historique et géographique de l’Inde, vol.II. Berlin: Imprimerie de Pierre Bourdeaux.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Asher, R. E. & T. C. Kumari
    1997Malayalam. London/New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bakker, Peter
    2006 The Sri Lanka Sprachbund: The newcomers Portuguese and Malay. InYaron Matras, April McMahon & Nigel Vincent (eds.), Linguistic areas: Convergence in historical and typological perspective, 135–159. New York: Palgrave. 10.1057/9780230287617_6
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230287617_6 [Google Scholar]
  6. Baxter, Alan N.
    1988A grammar of Kristang (Malacca Creole Portuguese) (Pacific Linguistics. Series B; no. 95). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 1995 Um importante sincretismo no português crioulo de Malaca: A preposição multifuncional ku. InCilene da Cunha Pereira & Paulo Dias Pereira (eds.), Miscelânea de estudos linguísticos, filológicos e literários in memoriam Celso Cunha, 15–33. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 1996 Portuguese and Creole Portuguese in the Pacific and Western Pacific rim. InS. A. Wurm, Peter Mühlhäusler & D. T. Tyron (eds.), Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, 299–338. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110819724.2.299
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110819724.2.299 [Google Scholar]
  9. Baxter, Alan N. & Augusta Bastos
    2012 A closer look at the post-nominal genitive in Asian Creole Portuguese. InHugo C. Cardoso, Alan N. Baxter & Mário Pinharanda Nunes (eds.), Ibero-Asian creoles: Comparative perspectives, 47–79. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.46.03bax
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.46.03bax [Google Scholar]
  10. Bickerton, Derek
    1981Roots of language. Ann Arbor: Karoma.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Butt, Miriam
    2003 The light verb jungle. InG. Aygen, C. Bowern & C. Quinn (eds.), Harvard Working Papers in Linguistics9. 1–49.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Butt, Miriam & Aditi Lahiri
    2013 Diachronic pertinacity of light verbs. Lingua135. 7–29. 10.1016/j.lingua.2012.11.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2012.11.006 [Google Scholar]
  13. Calindro, Ana Regina Vaz
    2017 O acusativo preposicionado na história do Portugueês: O caso dos verbos psicológicos. Revista da Academia Brasileira de Filologia21. 33–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cardoso, Hugo C.
    2006 Challenges to Indo-Portuguese across India. InR. Elangayan (eds.), Proceedings of the FEL X, 23–30. Mysore: Central Institute for Indian Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 2006–2015Corpus of Cannanore Indo-Portuguese speech. Unpublished, Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 2007–2010Corpus of Vypeen [Cochin] Indo-Portuguese speech. Unpublished, Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 2009The Indo-Portuguese language of Diu. Utrecht: LOT.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 2012 Luso-Asian comparatives in comparison. InHugo C. Cardoso, Alan N. Baxter & Mário Pinharanda Nunes (eds.), Ibero-Asian creoles: Comparative perspectives, 81–123. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.46.04car
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.46.04car [Google Scholar]
  19. 2014a Factoring sociolinguistic variation into the history of Indo-Portuguese. Revista de Crioulos de Base Lexical Portuguesa e Espanhola5. 87–114.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 2014b The case of addressees in Dravido-Portuguese. Papia24(2). 307–342.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 2015aCorpus of Calicut Indo-Portuguese speech. Unpublished, Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 2015b Vector verbs in Malabar Indo-Portuguese. Paper presented at the31st South Asian Languages Analysis Roundtable (SALA-31), University of Lancaster, UK, May 15th.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 2016 O português em contacto na Ásia e no Pacífico. InAna Maria Martins & Ernestina Carrilho (eds.), Manual de linguística portuguesa, 68–97. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110368840‑005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110368840-005 [Google Scholar]
  24. 2017 Manuscritos portugueses do Arquivo Regional de Ernakulam, Índia (sécs. XVII-XIX). Paper presented at theIV CILH – Congresso International de Linguística Histórica, University of Lisbon, Portugal, July 20th.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 2019a The Indo-Portuguese creoles of the Malabar: Historical cues and questions. InPius Malekandathil, Lotika Varadarajan & Amar Farooqi (eds.), India, the Portuguese, and maritime interactions, vol.2 [Religion, language and cultural expression], 345–373. New Delhi: Primus Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 2019b The synchrony and diachrony of an Asian-Portuguese causal morpheme. Journal of Ibero-Romance Creoles9(1). 27–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Cardoso, Hugo C., Alan N. Baxter & Mário Pinharanda Nunes
    2012 Introduction. InHugo C. Cardoso, Alan N. Baxter & Mário Pinharanda Nunes (eds.), Ibero-Asian creoles: Comparative perspectives, 1–14. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.46.01intro
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.46.01intro [Google Scholar]
  28. Cardoso, Hugo C., Mahesh Radhakrishnan, Patrícia Costa & Rui Pereira
    2019 Documenting modern Sri Lanka Portuguese. InMário Pinharanda-Nunes & Hugo C. Cardoso (eds.), Documentation and maintenance of contact languages from South Asia to East Asia [Language Documentation & Conservation Special Publication nr. 19], 1–33. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Cardoso, Hugo C. & Patrícia Costa
    2021 Synchronic variation in Sri Lanka Portuguese personal pronouns. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages36(1). 77–108. 10.1075/jpcl.00070.car
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.00070.car [Google Scholar]
  30. Chaudenson, Robert
    1979Les créoles français. Paris: Nathan.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Clements, J. Clancy
    1990 Deletion as an indicator of SVO → SOV shift. Language Variation and Change2. 103–133. 10.1017/S0954394500000302
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394500000302 [Google Scholar]
  32. 1996The genesis of a language: The formation and development of Korlai Portuguese. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.16
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.16 [Google Scholar]
  33. 2000 Evidência para a existência de um pidgin português asiático. InErnesto d’Andrade, Dulce Pereira & Maria Antónia Mota (eds.), Crioulos de base lexical portuguesa, 185–200. Braga: Associação Portuguesa de Linguística.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 2009The linguistic legacy of Spanish and Portuguese; Colonial expansion and language change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511576171
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576171 [Google Scholar]
  35. 2012 Notes on the phonology and lexicon of some Indo-Portuguese creoles. InHugo C. Cardoso, Alan N. Baxter & Mário Pinharanda Nunes (eds.), Ibero-Asian creoles: Comparative perspectives, 15–46. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.46.02cle
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.46.02cle [Google Scholar]
  36. Comrie, Bernard, Martin Haspelmath & Balthasar Bickel
    (2008) The Leipzig Glossing Rules: Conventions for interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme glosses. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/resources/glossing-rules.php (3September 2019.)
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Croft, William
    1990Typology and universals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Dalgado, Sebastião Rodolfo
    1913Influência do vocabulário português em línguas asiáticas (abrangendo cerca de cinquenta idiomas). Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Döhla, Hans-Jörg
    2014 Diachronic convergence and divergence in differential object marking between Spanish and Portuguese. InKurt Braunmüller, Steffen Höder & Karoline Kühl (eds.), Stability and divergence in language contact: Factors and mechanisms. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/silv.16.12doh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/silv.16.12doh [Google Scholar]
  40. Dryer, Matthew S.
    1986 Primary objects, secondary objects, and antidative. Language62. 808–845. 10.2307/415173
    https://doi.org/10.2307/415173 [Google Scholar]
  41. 1992 The Greenbergian word order correlations. Language68(1). 81–138. 10.1353/lan.1992.0028
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1992.0028 [Google Scholar]
  42. 2007 Word order. InTimothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, vol.1, 2nd ed., 61–131. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511619427.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511619427.002 [Google Scholar]
  43. Emeneau, Murray B.
    1956 India as a linguistic area. Language32. 3–16. 10.2307/410649
    https://doi.org/10.2307/410649 [Google Scholar]
  44. Ferraz, Luís Ivens
    1987 Portuguese creoles of West Africa and Asia. InGlenn Gilbert (ed.), Pidgin and creole languages: Essays in memory of John E. Reinecke, 337–360. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Greenberg, Joseph H.
    1963 Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of meaningful elements. InJoseph Greenberg (ed.), Universals of language, 73–113. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Haspelmath, Martin
    2005 Argument marking in ditransitive alignment types. Linguistic Discovery3(1). 1–21. 10.1349/PS1.1537‑0852.A.280
    https://doi.org/10.1349/PS1.1537-0852.A.280 [Google Scholar]
  47. 2011 On S, A, P, T, and R as comparative concepts for alignment typology. Linguistic Typology15(3). 535–567. 10.1515/LITY.2011.035
    https://doi.org/10.1515/LITY.2011.035 [Google Scholar]
  48. Heath, Jeffrey
    1978Linguistic diffusion in Arnhem Land. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Krajinović, Ana
    2015 O sistema verbal dos crioulos indo-portugueses do Malabar. Lisbon: Universidade de Lisboa MA dissertation.
  50. 2018Malabar Indo-Portuguese: Structure and origins of the verbal system. Munich: LINCOM.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Lopes, David
    1936A expansão da língua portuguesa no Oriente, durante os séculos XVI, XVII e XVIII. Barcelos: Portucalense Editora.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Masica, Colin P.
    1976Defining a linguistic area: South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Matos, L.
    1968 O português – língua franca no Oriente. InAdriano Moreira (ed.), Colóquios sobre as províncias do Oriente, 13–23. Lisbon: Junta de Investigações Ultramarinas.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Matras, Yaron
    2009Language contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511809873
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511809873 [Google Scholar]
  55. Mohanan, K. P. & Tara Mohanan
    1990 Dative subjects in Malayalam: Semantic information in syntax. InM. K. Verma & K. P. Mohanan (eds.), Experiencer subjects in South Asian languages, 43–57. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Mücke, Johannes & Hugo Cardoso
    2014 The correspondence between Angelus Francis Xaver Maffei and Hugo Schuchardt. InBernhard Hurch (ed.), Hugo Schuchardt Archiv (2007-). schuchardt.uni-graz.at/korrespondenz/briefe/korrespondenzpartner/1993. (3September 2019.)
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Raposo, Eduardo, Maria Fernanda Bacelar, Maria Antónia Mota, Luísa Segura & Amália Mendes
    2013Gramática do Português, vol.II. Lisbon: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Rosa, Maria Lurdes
    2008 Historical archives of the Diocese of Cochin: Its contents and the major possible fields of research. Anais de História de Além-Mar9. 423–431.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Schäfer-Prieß, Barbara
    2002 O acusativo preposicional na história da língua portuguesa. InBrian F. Head, José Teixeira, Aida S. Lemos, Anabela L. de Barros & António Pereira (eds.), História da língua e história da gramática, 405–419. Braga: Universidade do Minho/ILCH.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Schuchardt, Hugo
    1882 Kreolische Studien II. Über das Indoportugiesische von Cochim. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien (Philosophisch-historische Klasse)102. 799–816.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 1883 Kreolische Studien VI. Über das Indoportugiesische von Mangalore. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien (Philosophisch-historische Klasse)105(III). 882–904.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 1889a Beiträge zur Kenntnis des creolischen Romanisich. V. Allgemeineres über das Indoportugiesische (Asioportugiesische). Zeitschrift für Romanische Philologie13. 476–516.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 1889b Beiträge zur Kenntnis des kreolischen Romanisch: VI. Zum Indoportugiesischen von Mahé und Cannanore. Zeitschrift für Romanische Philologie13. 516–524. 10.1515/zrph.1889.13.1‑4.463
    https://doi.org/10.1515/zrph.1889.13.1-4.463 [Google Scholar]
  64. Smith, Ian R.
    1977 Sri Lanka Creole Portuguese phonology. Ithaca NY: Cornell University PhD dissertation.
  65. 1979 Convergence in South Asia: A creole example. Lingua48(2–3). 193–222. 10.1016/0024‑3841(79)90005‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(79)90005-6 [Google Scholar]
  66. 2012 Measuring substrate influence; Word order features in Ibero-Asian Creoles. InHugo C. Cardoso, Alan N. Baxter & Mário Pinharanda Nunes (eds.), Ibero-Asian creoles: Comparative perspectives, 125–148. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.46.05smi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.46.05smi [Google Scholar]
  67. 2013a Sri Lanka Portuguese. InSusanne Michaelis, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber (eds.), The survey of pidgin and creole languages, vol.2 (Portuguese-based, Spanish-based, and French-based Languages), 111–121. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 2013b Sri Lanka Portuguese structure dataset. InSusanne Michaelis, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber (eds.), The atlas of pidgin and creole languages online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. https://wurin.lis.soas.ac.uk/Collection/MPI1035102 (15June 2020.)
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 2016 The earliest grammars of Sri Lanka Portuguese. Papia26(2). 237–281.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Subbarao, Karumuri V.
    2008 Typological characteristics of South Asian languages. InBraj B. Kachru, Yamuna Kachru, and S. N. Sridhar (eds.), Language in South Asia, 49–78. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511619069.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511619069.005 [Google Scholar]
  71. de Swart, Peter
    2006 Case markedness. InLeonid Kulikov, Andrej Malchukov & Peter de Swart (eds.), Case, valency and transitivity, 249–267. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.77.16swa
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.77.16swa [Google Scholar]
  72. 2007Cross-linguistic variation in object marking. Utrecht: LOT.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Teyssier, Paul
    2005A língua de Gil Vicente. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional – Casa da Moeda.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Thomaz, Luís Filipe
    1985 A língua portuguesa em Timor. InCongresso sobre a situação actual da língua portuguesa no mundo – Actas, 313–338. Lisbon: Instituto de Cultura e Língua Portuguesa.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Tomás, Maria Isabel
    1992Os crioulos portugueses do Oriente: Uma bibliografia. Macau: Instituto Cultural de Macau.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Verma, M. K. & K. P. Mohanan
    (eds.) 1990Experiencer subjects in South Asian Languages. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.00077.car
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.00077.car
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): case; convergence; diachrony; Indo-Portuguese; Malabar Indo-Portuguese; Malayalam; word order
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error