Volume 37, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0920-9034
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9870
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Existing literature on Philippine languages is rife with references to Chavacano, the hypernym for Spanish-based creoles spoken in various parts of the archipelago. Variants of Chavacano are characterised in historical accounts as ‘a corrupt Spanish dialect’ with depreciative labels such as ‘hawker Spanish’ or ‘kitchen Spanish’. The concerted assertion of this creole’s degeneracy is a legacy of colonial knowledge production. Since the genesis of the Philippine creoles, much has changed as to their usage both from a linguistic and a social viewpoint. It is in this social dimension that we locate the present study. Of the three main varieties of Chavacano, spoken in Cavite City, Ternate, and Zamboanga respectively, this paper zeroes in on the third as the Mindanaoan variety is the healthiest to date. We wish to interrogate the trajectory of its social status, from its characterisation as a degenerate variant of Spanish to its privileged position in contemporary Zamboanga City as a Hispanic identity marker ( ‘Chavacano slightly Spanish’). Nuancing the role played in language preservation efforts by Zamboangueño elites, this study highlights the singularity of a creolophone community, who, through the politicisation of heritage, has subverted the ideological marginality of their Creole mother tongue and appropriated it to be the hallmark of their ethnic identity.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Abella, Domingo
    1978From Indio to Filipino and some historical works. Manila, Philippines: Privately published by Milagros Romualdez-Abella.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Álvarez-Piñer, Carlos M.
    2018 El idioma chabacano de Filipinas ante los retos del siglo XXI. InSecretaría General del Ministerio (ed.) La influencia económica y comercial de los idiomas de base Española, 133–139. Madrid, Spain: Ministerio de Economía y Empresa. Retreived fromhttps://cvc.cervantes.es/lengua/iecibe/08_madrid.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Asian Development Bank
    Asian Development Bank 2002Indigenous Peoples/Ethnic Minorities and Poverty Reduction: Philippines. Retrieved from: docplayer.net/38724726-Indigenous-peoples-ethnic-minorities-poverty-reduction.html
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Banqué, Pablo
    1887[1884] Carta del Hermano Pablo Banqué al P. Hermenegildo Jacas. Written in Zamboanga on the 10th of April of 1884. [Published in Cartas de los PP de la Compañía de Jesús de la Misión de Filipinas, Cuaderno 6. Manila, Philippines: Establecimiento Tipo-Litogràfico de M. Pérez Hijo.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baranera, Francisco X.
    1880Compendio de geografía de las Islas Filipinas, Marianas y Joló. Manila, Philippines: Establecimiento Tipográfico de Ramírez y Giraudier. Retrieved fromhttps://quod.lib.umich.edu/p/philamer/AHZ9184.0001.001?view=toc
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Barrantes, Vicente
    1869La instrucción primaria en Filipinas de 1596 hasta 1868. Madrid, Spain: Imprenta de la Iberia y Manila.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Barrios-Fabian, María Luisa D.
    2004 Case study of Zamboanga City (forced migration area). PIDS Discussion Paper Series, (No.2004–50). Retrieved from: https://dirp3.pids.gov.ph/ris/dps/pidsdps0450.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Barrows, David
    1914A history of the Philippines. New York, USA: World Book Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bastian, Adolf
    1870Sprachvergleichende Studien mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Indochinesischen Sprachen. Leipzig, Germany: F. A. Brockhaus. Retrieved fromhttps://archive.org/stream/bub_gb_5GcCAAAAQAAJ/bub_gb_5GcCAAAAQAAJ_djvu.txt
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bhabha, Homi
    1984 Of mimicry and man: The ambivalence of colonial discourse. October28. 125–133.   10.2307/778467
    https://doi.org/10.2307/778467 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bickerton, Derek
    2004 Reconsidering creole exceptionalism. Language, 80(4). 828–833.   10.1353/lan.2004.0164
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2004.0164 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bissell, William C.
    2005 Engaging colonial nostalgia. Cultural Anthropology, 20(2). 215–248.   10.1525/can.2005.20.2.215
    https://doi.org/10.1525/can.2005.20.2.215 [Google Scholar]
  13. Blake, Frank
    1905 The Bisayan Dialects. Journal of the American Oriental Society26. 120–136.   10.2307/592885
    https://doi.org/10.2307/592885 [Google Scholar]
  14. Blázquez-Carretero, Miguel & Jillian Loise Melchor
    . in press. Divining the indio’s tongue: missionary language learning in early colonial Philippines. InMaria Serena Diokno Ed. In the Spanish world, but not quite of it: prismatic views of the Philippines from its early history to the late 18th century. Manila: University of the Philippines Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Blazquez, Miguel & Jillian Melchor
    2021 Divining the indio’s tongue: missionary language learning in colonial-era Philippines. InM. Diokno (Ed.) Early Modern and Modern Philippines, 1565–1898. Manila: UP University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Butler, Beverly
    2006 Heritage and the present past. InChristopher Tilley, Webb Keane, Susanne Küchler, Michael Rowlands, & Patricia Spyer (eds.) Handbook of material culture, 463–479. London, UK: Sage. 10.4135/9781848607972.n30
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781848607972.n30 [Google Scholar]
  17. Canuday, Jose Jowel
    2018 Re-visioning obscure spaces: Enduring cosmopolitanism in the Sulu archipelago and Zamboanga peninsula. Thesis Eleven145(1). 77–98.   10.1177/0725513618763841
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0725513618763841 [Google Scholar]
  18. Caro y Mora, Juan
    1897La situación del país. Manila, Philippines: Impr. de Amigos del País.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Climaco, Rafael Cesar
    1995 Something Novel in the Sta. Maria Parish. InRafael Cesar Climaco (ed.) Zamboanga yesterday. From the scrapbook of R. C. Climaco, 6–7. Zamboanga City, Philippines: Leader’s Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Commissioner of Education
    Commissioner of Education 1907Report of the Commissioner of Education for the year ending June 30, 1905, vol. 1. Washington, USA: Government Printing Office. Retrieved fromhttps://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924097879534&view=1up&seq=7
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Corte y Ruano, Felipe de la
    1887La isla de Mindanao, su suelo y sus habitantes. Madrid: Imprenta del Memorial de Ingenieros.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Covarrubias Horozco, Sebastián de
    1674[1611]Tesoro de la Lengua Castellana o Española. Madrid, Spain: M. Sánchez & G. de León (eds.). Retrieved fromhttps://archive.org/details/tesorodelalengua00covauoft
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cuartocruz, Orlando B.
    1992Zamboanga Chabacano folk literature. Zamboanga, Philippines: Western Mindanao State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. DeCamp, David
    1971 The study of pidgin and creole languages. InDell Hymes (ed.) Pidginization and Creolization of Languages, 13–39. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. DeGraff, Michel
    2001 Morphology in creole genesis: Linguistics and ideology. Current Studies in Linguistics Series36. 53–122.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 2003 Against creole exceptionalism. Language79(2). 391–410.   10.1353/lan.2003.0114
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2003.0114 [Google Scholar]
  27. 2005 Linguists’ most dangerous myth: The fallacy of Creole Exceptionalism. Language in society34(4). 533–591.   10.1017/S0047404505050207
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404505050207 [Google Scholar]
  28. Derrida, Jacques
    1992The other heading: Reflections on today’s Europe. Indiana, USA: Indiana University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Diez, Miguel, Francisco Morales, & Ángel Sabin
    1977Las lenguas de España. Madrid, Spain: Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias de la Educación.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Eberhard, David M., Gary F. Simons, & Charles D. Fennig
    2019Ethnologue: Languages of the world. Twenty-second edition. Dallas, Texas, USA: SIL International. Online version: www.ethnologue.com
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Élisée Reclus, Jacques
    1889Nouvelle Géographie universelle : La Terre et les Hommes. Vol. XIV: Océan et terres océaniques. Paris, France: Librairie Hachette et Cie. Retrieved fromhttps://archive.org/details/nouvellegograp14recl
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Enriquez, Antonio Reyes
    2011, Sept.5. Jambangan: the “Garden of Flowers” never was!Retrieved fromarenriquez.over-blog.com
  33. Errington, Joseph
    2001 Colonial linguistics. Annual review of anthropology, 30. 19–39. 10.1146/annurev.anthro.30.1.19
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.30.1.19 [Google Scholar]
  34. Escosura y Morrogh, Patricio
    1882Memoria sobre Filipinas y Joló, redactada en 1863 y 1864. Madrid, Spain: Imprenta de Manuel G. Hernández.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Fabian, Johannes
    1986Language and colonial power: The appropriation of Swahili in the former Belgian Congo 1880–1938. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Fernández, Mauro
    2006 Las lenguas de Zamboanga según los jesuitas y otros observadores occidentales. Revista internacional de lingüística iberoamericana 4, 1(7). 9–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Fernández, Mauro A.
    2019 El español: una lengua viva. Los hablantes de chabacano (criollo hispano-filipino): un manojo de identidades entreveradas. InEl Español en el Mundo Anuario del Instituto Cervantes 2020. Madrid: Instituto Cervantes. Retrieved fromhttps://cvc.cervantes.es/lengua/anuario/anuario_20/fernandez/p01.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Fernandez, Raul R.
    1995 Tagalog Furor. InRafael Cesar Climaco (ed.) Zamboanga yesterday. From the scrapbook of R. C. Climaco, 159–160. Zamboanga City, Philippines: Leader’s Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Fernández Cuevas, José
    1889[1860] Relación de un viaje de exploración a Mindanao. Published inCartas de los PP. de la Compañía de Jesús de la misión de Filipinas, Cuaderno 8. Manila: Tipolitografia de Chofré y Compañía.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Foreman, John
    1906The Philippine Islands. Nueva York, USA: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Fortuno-Genuino, Cecilia
    2011 Is Chabacano dying?InAmbeth R. Ocampo (ed.), Selected papers from Philippine-Spanish Friendship Day conferences, 1–25. Manila, Philippines: The National Historical Commission of the Philippines.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Foucault, Michel
    1997Ethics, Subjectivity and Truth. Essential Works of Foucault 1954–1984 (Vol. 1). (Paul Rabinow, Ed.). New York, USA: The New Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Francia y Ponce de León, Benito & González Parrado, Julián
    1898Las Islas Filipinas: Mindanao, vol. I. La Habana, Cuba: Imp. de la Subinspección de Infantería. Retrieved from: digitallibrary.ust.edu.ph/cdm/compoundobject/collection/section5/id/148403/rec/131
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Garrett, Paul B.
    2006 Contact languages as “endangered” languages: What is there to lose?Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages21(1). 175–190. 10.1075/jpcl.21.1.05gar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.21.1.05gar [Google Scholar]
  45. Gelb, Ignace Jay
    1963A study of writing. Chicago, USA, The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. GMA News Online
    GMA News Online 2007, April18. Mayor: Promote Zambo as ‘Asia’s Latin City. Retrieved fromhttps://www.gmanetwork.com/news/news/content/38905/mayor-promote-zambo-as-asia-s-latin-city/story/
  47. González, Gabriela
    2018Redeeming La Raza: Transborder Modernity, Race, Respectability, and Rights. Oxford University Press.   10.1093/oso/9780199914142.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199914142.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  48. González Fernández, Ramón & Federico Moreno Jerez
    1877Anuario filipino para 1877. Manila, Philippines: Establecimiento Tipográfico de Plana y Cia. Retrieved fromhttps://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.32044020169660&view=1up&seq=21
    [Google Scholar]
  49. González Serrano, Valentín
    1880Ecos de Manila. Manila, Philippines: Imprenta y Librería de El Oriente.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Himoro, Marcelo Yuji
    2019 Hacia un corrector ortográfico para la nueva ortografía del chabacano de Zamboanga. Master Thesis. UNED, Madrid, Spain.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Himoro, Marcelo Yuji, & Lora, Antonio P.
    (2020, May). Towards a Spell Checker for Zamboanga Chavacano Orthography. InProceedings of The 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, 2685–2697. Marseille, France: European Language Resources Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Lamb-Sobrapeña, Rose
    1984 Foreign relations and friends. InRafael Cesar Climaco (Ed.) Zamboanga yesterday. From the scrapbook of R. C. Climaco, 135–158. Zamboanga City, Philippines: Leader’s Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Lay, George Tradescant
    1839The claims of Japan and Malaysia upon Christendom exhibited in notes of voyages made in 1837. Nueva York, USA: E. French. Retrieved fromhttps://archive.org/details/claimsjapanandm00kinggoog/page/n7
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Lee, Nala H., & John R. Van Way
    2018 Assessing Degrees of Language Endangerment. InKenneth L. Rehg, & Lyle Campbell (eds.). The Oxford handbook of endangered languages, 48–65. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.   10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190610029.013.5
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190610029.013.5 [Google Scholar]
  55. Lesho, Marivic & Eeva Sippola
    2013 The sociolinguistic situation of the Manila Bay Chabacano speaking communities. Language Documentation & Conservation7.1–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 2014 Folk perceptions of variation among the Chabacano creoles. Revista de Crioulos de Base Lexical Portuguesa e Espanhola5. 1–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Levisen, Carsten & Eeva Sippola
    2020 Place, Pragmatics and Postcolonial Discourse. Journal of Postcolonial Linguistics2, 1–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Lewis, Melvin P., & Gary F. Simons
    2010 Assessing endangerment: expanding Fishman’s GIDS. Revue roumaine de linguistique55(2). 103–120.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Lim y Atilano, Hilario A.
    1993Roots of Zamboanga Hermosa. Manila, Philippines: s.n.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Lim, Lisa & Ansaldo Umberto
    2007 Identity alignment in the multilingual space: the Malays of Sri Lanka. InEric A. Anchimbe (Ed.), Linguistic Identity in Multilingual Postcolonial Spaces, 218–243. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Press
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Lim, Narzalina
    1997 Portrait of a Political Activist. InLorna Kalaw-Tirol (Ed.) Women on Fire. Mandaluyong City: Anvil Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Lipski, John M.
    2001 The place of Chabacano in the Philippine linguistic profile. Sociolinguistic Studies2(2). 119–163.   10.1558/sols.v2i2.119
    https://doi.org/10.1558/sols.v2i2.119 [Google Scholar]
  63. Lipski, John. M.
    2010 Chabacano y español: resolviendo las ambigüedades. Lengua y migración/Language and Migration2(1). 5–41.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Lipski, John M.
    2012 Remixing a mixed language: the emergence of a new pronominal system in Chabacano (Philippine Creole Spanish). International Journal of Bilingual17(4). 448–478.   10.1177/1367006912438302
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006912438302 [Google Scholar]
  65. MacKinlay, William E. W.
    1901 Memorandum on the languages of the Philippines. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland31. 214–218.   10.2307/2842797
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2842797 [Google Scholar]
  66. Martínez de Zúñiga, Joaquín
    1893a[1803–1805]Estadismo de las Islas Filipinas, o mis viajes por este país (vol.I). InWescenlao. E. Renata (Ed.), Madrid, Spain: Editorial de la viuda de M. Minuesa de los Ríos. Retrieved fromhttps://digital.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/werkansicht?PPN=PPN68925881X&PHYSID=PHYS_0367&DMDID=DMDLOG_0001
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 1893b[1803–1805]Estadismo de las Islas Filipinas, o mis viajes por este país (vol. II). InWescenlao. E. Renata (Ed.), Madrid, Spain: Editorial de la viuda de M. Minuesa de los Ríos. Retrieved fromhttps://archive.org/details/bub_gb_ElhFAAAAYAAJ_2
    [Google Scholar]
  68. McCoy, Alfred
    2009An Anarchy of Families: State and Family in the Philippines. University of Wisconsin Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Meijer, Guus & Pieter Muysken
    1977 On the beginnings of pidgin and creole studies: Schuchardt and Hesseling. InAlbert Valdman (ed.) Pidgin and creole linguistics, 21–45. Bloomington, Indiana, USA: Indiana University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Melchor, Jillian Loise
    2020 The Suitability of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) Learning Materials: An Analysis of K to 12 Ilocano Short Stories. Hawai’i Journal of the Humanities1(1). 147–168.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Montano, Joseph
    1886Voyage aux Philippines et en Malaisie. Paris: Librairie Hachette et Cie.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Moseley, Christopher
    2010Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, 3rd edn. Paris, UNESCO Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Mufwene, Salikoko S.
    2004 Language Birth and Death. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33. 201–222. 10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143852
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143852 [Google Scholar]
  74. 2015 The emergence of creoles and language change. InNancy Bonvillain (ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Linguistic Anthropology348–365. London, UK: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Nieto Aguilar, José
    1894Mindanao: su historia y geografía. Madrid, Spain: Imprenta del Cuerpo Administrativo del Ejército. Retrieved fromhttps://digital.soas.ac.uk/AA00000853/00001
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Orendain II, Antonio E.
    1984a A Reason for Being. InAntonio E. Orendain II (ed.) Zamboanga Hermosa: Memories of the Old Town, 8–11. Mandaluyong, Philippines: Filipinas Foundation, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 1984b A Reason for Being. InAntonio E. Orendain II (ed.) Zamboanga Hermosa: Memories of the Old Town, 129–134. Mandaluyong, Philippines: Filipinas Foundation, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Pallesen, Alfred Kemp
    1985Culture contact and language convergence. Manila, Philippines: Linguistic Society of the Philippines.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Pi, Pio
    1895[1894] Carta del P. Pio Pi al Hermano Francisco de A. Alós. Written in Zamboanga on the 8th of August of 1894. Published inCartas de los PP. de la Compañía de Jesús de la Misión de Filipinas, Cuaderno 10. Manila, Philippines: Establecimiento Tipo-Litogràfico de M. Pérez, hijo.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. POPCEN
    POPCEN 2015Census of Population and Housing. Manila, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved fromhttps://psa.gov.ph
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Ragsag, Anabelle
    2020Ethnic Boundary-making at the Margins of Conflict in the Philippines: Everyday Identity Politics in Mindanao. Springer.   10.1007/978‑981‑15‑2525‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2525-4 [Google Scholar]
  82. Real Academia Española
    Real Academia Española 1726–1739Diccionario de Autoridades de la Real Academia Española de la Lengua (vol. II). Madrid, Spain. Retrieved fromweb.frl.es/DA.html
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Retana, Wenceslao
    1921 Diccionario de filipinismos. Revue Hispanique51. 1–174.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Rex, John & Gurharpal Singh
    2003 Pluralism and Multiculturalism in Colonial Society: Thematic Introduction. International Journal on Multicultural Societies5(2). 106–118.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Rimando, Antonio. P.
    2018, September23rd. Tausug, Cebuano pupils confused over use of Chavacano in schools. The Manila Times. Retrieved fromhttps://www.manilatimes.net
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Romanillos, Emmanuel Luis A.
    2006Chabacano studies: Essays on Cavite’s Chabacano language and literature. Cavite, Philippines: Cavite Historical Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Ruíz, Sincero
    1907 Cuestiones filipinas: la instrucción española y la americana. Nuestro tiempo, 7(93). 181–193. Retrieved fromhemerotecadigital.bne.es/issue.vm?id=0002507182&search=&lang=es
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Russell, Florence K.
    1907A woman’s joumey through the Philippines. Boston: Page & Co.Retrieved from: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/20913/20913-h/20913-h.htm#d0e1567
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Sánchez de Badajoz, Diego
    1886[1554]Recopilación en metro. InVicente Barrantes (Ed.), Madrid, Spain: Librería de los Bibliófilos-Fernando Fé. Retrieved fromhttps://archive.org/details/recopilacionenme02sanc
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Santayana, Agustín
    1862La isla de Mindanao: su historia y su estado presente, con algunas reflexiones acerca de su porvenir. Madrid, Spain: Imprenta de Alhambra y Comp. Retrieved fromhttps://quod.lib.umich.edu/p/philamer/BBM8737.0001.001?view=toc
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Scheidnagel, Manuel
    1880Las colonias españolas de Asia: Islas Filipinas. Madrid: Imprenta de los Sres. Pacheco y Pinto
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Schuchardt, Hugo
    1883 Kreolische Studien IV: über das Malaio-spanische der Philippinen. Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien105(1). 111–150.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Sippola, Eeva
    2010 Chabacano for everyone? Chabacano language projects in Cavite City in comparison with other Chabacano communities. InBettina Migge, Isabel Léglise, & Angela Bartens (eds.), Creoles in Education, 55–80. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.   10.1075/cll.36.03sip
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.36.03sip [Google Scholar]
  94. 2019 Describing creole: researcher perspectives on endangerment and multilingualism in the Chabacano communities. Journal of Ibero-Romance Creoles9(1). 6–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Sonnerat, Pierre
    1782Voyage aux Indes Orientales et à la Chine (vol.2). Paris: author’s edition. Retrieved fromhttps://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Spoehr, Alexander
    1968 Archaeological survey of southern Zamboanga and the Sulu Archipelago. Asian Perspectives11. 177–185.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 1973Zamboanga and Sulu: an archaeological approach to ethnic diversity (Vol. 1). Pittsburgh, USA: Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Steinkrüger, Patrick O.
    2013 Zamboanga Chabacano. The survey of pidgin and creole languages2. 156–162.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Stroud, Christopher
    2001 African mother-tongue programmes and the politics of language: Linguistic citizenship versus linguistic human rights. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural development22(4). 339–355. 10.1080/01434630108666440
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630108666440 [Google Scholar]
  100. The Mindanao Examiner
    The Mindanao Examiner 2006 Sept.21. Zamboanga City Is Now Branded As Asia’s Latin City. Retrieved fromhttps://zamboangajournal.wordpress.com/2006/09/21/zamboanga-city-is-now-branded-as-asias-latin-city/
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Tobar Delgado, Eduardo
    2015 Estudio de lingüística popular en redes sociales online en chabacano zamboangueño: una visión panorámica. Revista de Crioulos de Base Lexical Portuguesa e Espanhola, 5. 47–86.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 2016 Comunidades ‘online’ y revitalización lingüística: el ejemplo de Zamboanga de Antes. PhD Thesis. Universidad de la Coruña, La Coruña, Spain.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Tobar Delgado, Eduardo, & Mauro Fernández
    2019 Hacia una ortografía para el chabacano zamboangueño. Language Problems and Language Planning43(1). 32–54.   10.1075/lplp.00031.tob
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lplp.00031.tob [Google Scholar]
  104. Treacher, Amal
    2005 On postcolonial subjectivity. Group Analysis38(1). 43–57.   10.1177/0533316405049365
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0533316405049365 [Google Scholar]
  105. UNESCO
    UNESCO 2003 Language Vitality and Endangerment. Inthe International Expert Meeting on UNESCO Programme Safeguarding of Endangered Languages, 10–12. Paris, France. Retrieved from: www.unesco.org/culture/ich/doc/src/00120-EN.pd
    [Google Scholar]
  106. United States Bureau of the Census
    United States Bureau of the Census 1905Census of the Philippine Islands taken under the direction of the Philippine Commission in the year 1903, Vol. 1. Washington: United States Bureau of the Census. Retrieved fromhttps://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/1903%20CPH%20vol1.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  107. United States Philippine Commission
    United States Philippine Commission 1909Report of the United States Philippine Commission to the Secretary of War 1908, part 2. Washington, USA: Government Printing Office. Retrieved fromhttps://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015023516696&view=1up&seq=5
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Valles-Akil, Lojean
    2002 Mantenimiento de lengua criolla en un contexto multilingüe: el caso del chabacano en la ciudad de Zamboanga. PAPIA-Revista Brasileira de Estudos do Contato Linguístico, 12(1). 41–66.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Waitz, Theodor
    1863Introduction to anthropology. Londres: Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts. Retrieved fromhttps://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008584804. 10.5962/bhl.title.50862
    https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.50862 [Google Scholar]
  110. Warren, James Francis
    2000The global economy and the Sulu zone: Connections, commodities, and culture. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Wee, Benjamin
    1984 Keeping in Mind the Beautiful Past in the March to a Dynamic Future. InAntonio E. Orendain II (ed.) Zamboanga Hermosa: Memories of the Old Town, 191–192. Mandaluyong, Philippines: Filipinas Foundation, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Whitmarsh, Phelps
    1901, March16. Around Mindanao. The Outlook67(11). 637–643. Retrieved fromhttps://www.unz.com/print/Outlook-1901mar16-00637/
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Wu, Zongjie, & Song Hou
    2015 Heritage and discourse. InEmma Waterton & Steve Watson (eds.) The Palgrave handbook of contemporary heritage research, 37–51. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.   10.1057/9781137293565_3
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137293565_3 [Google Scholar]
  114. Young, Robert J. C.
    2020[2003]Postcolonialism: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press.   10.1093/actrade/9780198856832.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/actrade/9780198856832.001.0001 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error