1887
Volume 37, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0920-9034
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9870
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study presents the most comprehensive inventory of lexical similarities between Chabacano and Luso-Asian creoles to date. Certain formal similarities, especially regarding function words, have not gone unnoticed in the past, but for the most part have been treated as coincidences. Less attention has been paid to cases of parallel formal and semantic innovation involving content words. Taken together, these data suggest a non-coincidental lexical component shared between Luso-Asian creoles and the multi-directional propagation of features across Ibero-Asian creoles. This notion is further supported if we consider the well-known cultural, commercial and demographic connections between the Philippines and the Portuguese colonies in Asia. At the individual level, discarding a Spanish etymology in favor of a Portuguese one is a very problematic endeavor that often leads to inconclusiveness. However, we argue that the sheer number of shared retentions and innovations presented in this study can only be accounted for by factoring in some degree of language contact. Luso-Asian elements must have seeped into Chabacano at the time of its genesis and at later stages.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.00097.tob
2022-11-03
2022-12-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Arana-Ward, Marie
    1977 A synchronic and diachronic investigation of Macanese: The Portuguese-based creole of Macao. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong, MA thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Asociacion Chabacano del Ciudad de Cavite
    Asociacion Chabacano del Ciudad de Cavite 2008Diccionario Chabacano del Ciudad de Cavite. Cavite City: Office of the City Mayor.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baker, Philip
    1969Etymological Dictionary of Mauritian Creole. Unpublished Manuscript.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bartens, Angela
    2001 El chabacano, un caso de relexificación del (proto)criolloportugués. InThomas Stolz & Klaus Zimmermann (eds.), Lo propio y lo ajeno en las lenguas austronésicas y amerindias. Procesos interculturales en el contacto de lenguas indígenas con el español en el Pacífico e Hispanoamérica, 221–232. Frankfurt/Madrid: Iberoamericana/Vervuert.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Batalha, Graciete Nogueira
    1960 Coincidências com o dialecto de Macau em dialectos espanhóis das Ilhas Filipinas. Boletim de Filologia191. 295–303.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 1988Glossário do dialecto macaense: Notas linguísticas, etnográficas e folclóricas. Macau: Instituto Cultural de Macau.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baxter, Alan N.
    1988A Grammar of Kristang (Malacca Creole Portuguese). Camberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 1990 Notes on the Creole Portuguese of Bidau, East Timor. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages5(1). 1–38. 10.1075/jpcl.5.1.02bax
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.5.1.02bax [Google Scholar]
  9. 1996 Portuguese and Creole Portuguese in the Pacific and Western Pacific rim. InStephen A. Wurm, Peter Mühlhäusler & Darrell T. Tyron (eds.), Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas, Vol.II–11. 299–338. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110819724.2.299
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110819724.2.299 [Google Scholar]
  10. 2009 Causative and facilitative serial verbs in Asian Ibero-romance Creoles – a convergence of substrate and superstrate systems?Journal of Portuguese Linguistics8(2). 65–90. 10.5334/jpl.119
    https://doi.org/10.5334/jpl.119 [Google Scholar]
  11. 2018 Malacca Creole Portuguese in the 19th century. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages33:2. 247–279. 10.1075/jpcl.00016.bax
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.00016.bax [Google Scholar]
  12. Baxter, Alan N. & Hugo C. Cardoso
    2017 Early notices regarding Creole Portuguese in former Portuguese Timor. Journal of Language Contact10(2). 264–317. 10.1163/19552629‑01002001
    https://doi.org/10.1163/19552629-01002001 [Google Scholar]
  13. Baxter, Alan N. & Patrick De Silva
    2004A Dictionary of Kristang (Malacca Creole Portuguese) – English. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Buarque de Holanda Ferreira, Aurélio
    1986Novo Dicionário Aurélio da Língua Portuguesa. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Cardoso, Hugo C.
    2009The Indo-Portuguese language of Diu. Utrecht: LOT.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 2012a Luso-Asian comparatives in comparison. InHugo C. Cardoso, Alan N. Baxter & Mário Pinharanda Nunes (eds.), Ibero-Asian Creoles: Comparative Perspectives, 15–47. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.46.04car
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.46.04car [Google Scholar]
  17. 2012b Oral traditions of the Luso-Asian communities: Local, regional and continental. InLaura Jarnagin (ed.), Portuguese and Luso-Asian legacies, 1511–2011, vol. 2 (Culture and identity in the Luso-Asian world: Tenacities & plasticities), 143–166. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 2013 Diu Indo-Portuguese structure dataset. InSusanne Michaelis, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber (eds.), Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 2016 O português em contacto na Ásia e no Pacífico. InAna Maria Martins & Ernestina Carreira (eds.), Manual de linguística portuguesa, 68–97. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110368840‑005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110368840-005 [Google Scholar]
  20. 2017Documentation of Sri Lanka Portuguese. London: SOAS, Endangered Languages Archive. URL: https://wurin.lis.soas.ac.uk/Collection/MPI1035102. (Accessed on01/05/2020.)
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 2018Oral Corpus of Malabar Indo-Portuguese Creole. London: SOAS, Endangered Languages Archive. URL: https://wurin.lis.soas.ac.uk/Collection/MPI1225883. Accessed on [20/08/2020].
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 2019 The synchrony and diachrony of an Asian-Portuguese causal morpheme. Journal of Ibero-Romance Creoles9(1). 27–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Carro, Andrés
    (ed) 1849Vocabulario de la lengua ilocana. Manila: Colegio de Santo Tomás.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Clements, Clancy
    1996The Genesis of a Language: The Formation and Development of Korlai Portuguese. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.16
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.16 [Google Scholar]
  25. 2007 Accounting for some similarities and differences among the Indo-Portuguese creoles. Journal of Portuguese Linguistics8(2). 23–47. 10.5334/jpl.117
    https://doi.org/10.5334/jpl.117 [Google Scholar]
  26. 2009The legacy of Spanish and Portuguese: Colonial expansion and language change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511576171
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576171 [Google Scholar]
  27. 2012 Notes on the phonology and lexicon of some Indo-Portuguese creoles. InHugo C. Cardoso, Alan N. Baxter & Mário Pinharanda Nunes (eds.), Ibero-Asian Creoles: Comparative Perspectives, 15–47. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.46.02cle
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.46.02cle [Google Scholar]
  28. 2013 Korlai structure dataset. InSusanne Michaelis, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber (eds.) Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 2018 Speech communities, language varieties, and typology. What does acquisition have to do with it?Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages33(2). 411–432. 10.1075/jpcl.00021.cle
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.00021.cle [Google Scholar]
  30. Clements, Clancy & Andrew Koontz-Garboden
    2002 Two Indo-Portuguese creoles in contrast. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages17(2). 191–236. 10.1075/jpcl.17.2.03cle
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.17.2.03cle [Google Scholar]
  31. Coelho, F. Adolpho
    1881Os dialectos românicos ou neo-latinos na África, Ásia e América. Lisboa: Casa da Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Coello de la Rosa, Alexandre
    2019 “No es esta tierra para tibios”: la implicación de los jesuitas en la conquista y evangelización de Mindanao y Joló (siglo XVII). História Unisinos23(1). 47–61. 10.4013/hist.2019.231.05
    https://doi.org/10.4013/hist.2019.231.05 [Google Scholar]
  33. Croft, William
    1991Syntactic categories and grammatical relations: The cognitive organization of information. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Dalgado, Sebastião Rodolfo
    1893Diccionario portuguez-koṁkaṇî. Mumbai: Typographia do Indu-Prakash.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 1900Dialecto indo-português de Ceilão. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 1903 Dialecto indo-português de Daman. Ta-ssi-yang-kuo-Archivos e annaes do Extremo Oriente Portuguez31, 350–367; 41, 515–523.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 1906 Dialecto indo-português do Norte. Revista Lusitana91. 142–166, 193–228.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 1913Influência do vocabulário português em línguas asiáticas. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 1917 Dialecto indo-português de Negapatão. Revista Lusitana201. 40–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 1919Glossário luso-asiático. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. De Castro, Agustín María
    1954[1780]Misioneros Agustinos en el Extremo Oriente. 1565–1780 (Osario Venerable). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa
    Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa 2008–2021https://dicionario.priberam.org/
  43. Escalante, Enrique R.
    2005Chabacano… for everyone: A guide to the Chabacano language. Manila: Baby Dragon Printing Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Fernández, Mauro
    2004 Plurifuncionalidad de la partícula na en el chabacano de Zamboanga. InMauro Fernández, Manuel Fernández Ferreiro & Nancy Vázquez Veiga (eds.), Los criollos de base ibérica, 89–121. Frankfurt/Madrid: Vervuert/Iberoamericana. 10.31819/9783865278555‑004
    https://doi.org/10.31819/9783865278555-004 [Google Scholar]
  45. 2010 La partícula «con» en el español de Filipinas, el chabacano y el «Taglish». InMaria Ilieascu, Heidi Siller-Runggaldier & Paul Danler (eds.), Actes du XXV Congrès International de Linguistique et de Philologie Romanes, vol. 1, 305–313. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110231922.1‑305
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110231922.1-305 [Google Scholar]
  46. Fernández, Mauro A.
    2012a Leyenda e historia del chabacano de Ermita (Manila). UniverSOS Revista de Lenguas Indígenas y Universos Culturales91. 9–70.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 2012bNenang, nino, nem não, ni no: Similarities and differences. InHugo C. Cardoso, Alan N. Baxter & Mário Pinharanda Nunes (eds.), Ibero-Asian creoles: Comparative perspectives, 205–238. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.46.08fer
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.46.08fer [Google Scholar]
  48. 2013 Los marcadores TMA y el origen de los criollos hispano-filipinos. InEmili Casanova & Cesáreo Calvo (eds.), Actes du XXVI Congrès International de Linguistique et Philologie RomanesVIII1, 559–570. Berlín/Nueva York: De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Fernández, Mauro
    2017 Los primeros textos en chabacano de Zamboanga. Paper presented at theAnnual Meeting of the Association of Portuguese and Spanish-Lexified Creoles. University of Stockholm, June 15th-17th, 2017.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 2018 El pidgin chino-español de Manila a principios del siglo XVIII. Zeitschrift für Romanische Philologie. 134(1). 137–170. 10.1515/zrp‑2018‑0006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/zrp-2018-0006 [Google Scholar]
  51. 2020 El primer vocabulario del chabacano de Zamboanga: Estudio y edición anotada. Journal of Ibero-Romance Creoles101. 92.184.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Fernández, Mauro & Eeva Sippola
    2017 A new window into the history of Chabacano: Two unknown mid-19th century texts. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages32(2). 304–338. 10.1075/jpcl.32.2.04fer
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.32.2.04fer [Google Scholar]
  53. 2018 On the chronology of the formation of the Chabacano varieties: a reply to Parkvall & Jacobs 2018. Journal of Ibero-Romance Creoles81. 38–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Fernández, Mauro & Nancy Vázquez
    2019 Calas en la escena lingüística de la Bahía de Manila: 1620–1640. Paper presented at thejoint conference of the Association of Portuguese and Spanish-Lexified Creoles & the Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics. University of Lisbon, June 18th.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Ferraz, Luís Ivens
    1987 Portuguese creoles of West Africa and Asia. InGilbert Glenn (ed.), Pidgin and Creole languages in Memory of John E. Reinecke, 337–360. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Forman, Michael
    1988 Several prodigal sons: A closer look at the preposition na in Zamboangueño and Asian Creoles Portuguese. InRoger Hadlich and J. D. Ellsworth (eds.), East meets West. Homage to Edgar C. Knowlton, Jr, 63–71. Honolulu: Department of European Languages and Literature, College of Languages, Linguistics, and Literature.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Grant, Anthony
    2013 On the (dis)unity of the Manila Bay Creoles: Some lexical strata in Ternateño. Revista de Crioulos de Base Lexical Portuguesa e Espanhola4 (2). 26–47.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Hancock, Ian
    1975 Malacca Creole Portuguese: Asian, African or European?Anthropological Linguistics17(5). 211–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Jacobs, Bart
    2013 Reassessment of the Portuguese contribution to the Papiamentu lexicon. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages28(1). 154–165. 10.1075/jpcl.28.1.07jac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.28.1.07jac [Google Scholar]
  60. Jacobs, Bart & Mikael Parkvall
    2020a How ‘Portuguese’ are Palenquero and Chabacano really?Revue Romaine56(2). 235–266. 10.1075/rro.19001.jac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rro.19001.jac [Google Scholar]
  61. 2020b Chavacano (Philippine Creole Spanish): Are the varieties related?Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages35(1). 88–124. 10.1075/jpcl.00049.jac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.00049.jac [Google Scholar]
  62. Koontz-Garboden, Andrés & Clancy Clements
    2002 Some theoretical implications of adpositions in Spanish and Portuguese-based creoles. Paper presented at theSociety of Pidgin and Creole Languages conference. San Francisco, CA, 4–6th January.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Krajinović, Ana
    2015 O Sistema verbal dos crioulos indo-portugueses do Malabar. Lisbon: University of Lisbon Master Thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Lang, Jürgen
    2002Dicionário do crioulo da ilha de Santiago (Cabo Verde). Tübingen: Gunter Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Lebel, Alexandre
    2018 Seven ways to say no: The negation system in Macau Creole Portuguese. Papia28(2). 157–200.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Li, Michelle & Stephen Matthews
    2016 An outline of Macau Pidgin Portuguese. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages31(1). 141–183. 10.1075/jpcl.31.1.06li
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.31.1.06li [Google Scholar]
  67. Lipski, John
    1988 Philippine Creole Spanish: Reassessing the Portuguese element. Zeitschrift für Romanische Philologie1041. 25–45. 10.1515/zrph.1988.104.1‑2.25
    https://doi.org/10.1515/zrph.1988.104.1-2.25 [Google Scholar]
  68. Marques Pererira, J. F.
    1899Ta-Ssi-Yang-Kuo – Archivos e annaes do Extremo Oriente Portuguêz I. Lisboa: Antiga Casa Bertrand.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Marques, José
    1764Novo diccionario das linguas portugueza e franceza. Lisboa: José da Costa Coimbra – Officina Patriarcal de Francisco Luiz Ameno.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Mattes, Veronika
    2010 „Sa Profesor Schuchardt munting alay ni F. Blumentritt“: Die Briefe Ferdinand Blumentritts an Hugo Schuchardt. Grazer Linguistische Studien741. 63–237.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Maurer, Philippe
    2011The former Portuguese Creole of Batavia and Tugu. London: Battlebridge.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Miranda, Gervasio
    1956El dialecto chabacano de Cavite. Dumaguete, Negros Oriental: Author’s edition.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Molony, Carol
    1977 Recent relexification processes in Philippine Creole Spanish. InBent Blount & Mary Sanches (eds.), Sociocultural dimensions of language change, 131–60. New York: Academic Press. 10.1016/B978‑0‑12‑107450‑0.50014‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-107450-0.50014-0 [Google Scholar]
  74. Montero y Vidal, José
    1876Cuentos filipinos. Madrid: Imprenta, Estereotipia y Galvanoplastia de Aribau y Compañía.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Nigoza, Evangelino
    2007Bahra. The history, legends, customs and traditions of Ternate, Cavite = Bahra. Manga historia, alamat, custumbre y tradiciong di Bahra. Cavite: Cavite Historical Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Oliveira, João Pedro
    2018 Tóri di Babel: humor e língua na literatura em crioulo de Macau. Lisbon: University of Lisbon Master Thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Oropeza Keresey, Déborah
    2011 La esclavitud asiática en el virreinato de la Nueva España, 1565–1673. Historia Mexicana61(1). 5–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Parkvall, Mikael & Bart Jacobs
    2018 The genesis of Chavacano revisited and solved. Lingua2151. 53–77. 10.1016/j.lingua.2018.09.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2018.09.006 [Google Scholar]
  79. Pereira, Dulce
    2000 Um crioulo de outro planeta. InErnesto d’Andrade, Maria Antónia Mota & Dulce Pereira (eds.), Crioulos de base portuguesa, 27–46. Braga: Associação Portuguesa de Linguística.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Pérez, Marilola
    2015 Cavite Chabacano Philippine Creole Spanish: Description and typology. Berkeley, CA: University of California PhD dissertation.
  81. Pinharanda Nunes, Mário
    2010 Estudo da expressão morfo-sintáctica das categorias de Tempo, Modo e Aspecto em Maquista. Macau: Universidade de Macau PhD dissertation.
  82. Pinharanda Nunes, Mário & Alan N. Baxter
    2004 Os marcadores pré-verbais no crioulo de base lexical portuguesa de Macau. Papia141. 31–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Ramírez Luengo, José Luis
    2016 Lusismos, falsos lusismos, casi lusismos: el aporte portugués en la historia del léxico del español (americano). InMariano Quirós García, (eds.), Etimología e historia en el léxico del español: estudios ofrecidos a José Antonio Pascual (Magister bonus et sapiens), 899–918. Frankfurt/Madrid: Vervuert/Iberoamericana.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Real Academia Española
    Real Academia Española 2016Diccionario de la lengua española (23ª. ed.). https://dle.rae.es/.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Real Academia Española: Banco de datos (CORDE)
    Real Academia Española: Banco de datos (CORDE) [on line]. Corpus diacrónico del español. www.rae.es [01/05/2020].
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Riego de Dios, Maria Isabelita
    1989 [1979] A Composite dictionary of Philippine Creole Spanish (PCS). Studies in Philippine Linguistics7(2). 1–210.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Rougé, Jean Louis
    1988Petit dictionnaire étymologique du kriol de Guinée Bissau et de Casamance. Bissau: Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Santos, Rolando Arquiza
    2010Chavacano de Zamboanga. Un compendio y diccionario. Zamboanga: Ateneo de Zamboanga University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Schuchardt, Hugo
    1882 Kreolischen Studien II: Ueber das Indoportugiesische von Cochim. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien102(2). 799–816.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 1883a Kreolischen Studien IV: Ueber das Malaiospanische der Philippinen. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien105(1). 111–150.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 1883b Kreolische Studien VI. Ueber das Indoportugiesische von Mangalore. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien105(3). 882–904.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 1891 Kreolische Studien IX. Ueber das Malaioportugiesische von Batavia und Tugu. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Wien122(9). 1–256.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Schwegler, Armin
    1999 Monogenesis revisited: The Spanish perspective. InJohn Rickford & Suzanne Romaine (eds.), Creole genesis, attitudes and discourse, 235–262. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.20.16sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.20.16sch [Google Scholar]
  94. Seijas, Tatiana
    2008 The Portuguese slave trade to Spanish Manila: 1580–1640. Itinerario321. 19–38. 10.1017/S0165115300001686
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0165115300001686 [Google Scholar]
  95. Senna Fernandes, Miguel & Alan Norman Baxter
    2004Maquista chapado. Vocabulary and expressions in Macao’s Portuguese Creole. Macao: Instituto Cultural do Governo da Região Especial Administrativa de Macau.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Sippola, Eeva
    2011 Una gramática descriptiva del chabacano de Ternate. Helsinki: University of Helsinki PhD dissertation.
  97. Smith, Ian
    1979 Convergence in South Asia: A creole example. Lingua481. 193–222. 10.1016/0024‑3841(79)90005‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(79)90005-6 [Google Scholar]
  98. 2013 Sri Lankan Portuguese structure dataset. InSusanne Michaelis, Philippe Maurer, Martin Haspelmath & Magnus Huber (eds.), Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 2016 The Earliest Grammars of Sri Lanka Portuguese. Papia26(2). 237–281.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Steinkrüger, Patrick
    2008 The puzzling case of Chabacano: Creolization, substrate, mixing and secondary contact. Studies in Philippine Languages and Cultures191. 142–157.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Tirona, Tomás T.
    1924An account of the Ternate dialect (of Cavite P.I.). Tagalog Paper 487 of the Beyer’s Collection, Philippine National Library.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Vázquez, Nancy & Mauro A. Fernández
    2012Maskin, maski, masque… in the Spanish and Portuguese creoles of Asia: Same particle, same provenance?InHugo C. Cardoso, Alan N. Baxter & Mário Pinharanda Nunes (eds.), Ibero-Asian Creoles: Comparative Perspectives, 181–204. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cll.46.07vei
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.46.07vei [Google Scholar]
  103. Videira Pires, Benjamin
    1995Taprobana e mais além… Presenças de Portugal na Ásia. Macao: Instituto Cultural de Macau
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Whinnom, Keith
    1956Spanish contact vernaculars in the Philippine Islands. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Yule, Henry & Burnell, Arthur
    1903A glossary of Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms. London: Murray.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.00097.tob
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.00097.tob
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Chabacano; Ibero-Asian creoles; lusitanisms; Luso-Asian creoles; Portuguese element
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error