Language Contact with Chinese
  • ISSN 0920-9034
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9870
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Penang Hokkien was spoken by the early Hokkien settlers as a heritage language in a Malay dominant environment before it became a lingua franca of the Chinese communities in present-day Penang and its neighboring states in Northern Malaysia. Over two centuries, Penang Hokkien has assimilated Malay words and structures. This article discusses the forms and functions of and , which have assimilated Malay elements as response strategies to two key triggers for deviation from the baseline Southern Min dialect: ambiguity and complex structure. Through a detailed study of and , this article contributes to a better understanding of the development of a Malay-dominant heritage language that is based on a Chinese dialect spoken in the Malay peninsula.


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