1887
Volume 32, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0920-9034
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9870
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

This paper discusses the origins of linguistic elements in three Northern Songhay languages of Niger and Mali: Tadaksahak, Tagdal and Tasawaq. Northern Songhay languages combine elements from Berber languages, principally Tuareg forms, and from Songhay; the latter provides inflectional morphology and much of the basic vocabulary, while the former is the source of most of the rest of the vocabulary, especially less basic elements. Subsets of features of Northern Songhay languages are compared with those of several stable mixed languages and mixed-lexicon creoles, and in accounting for the origin of these languages the kind of language mixing found in Northern Songhay languages is compared with that found in the (Algonquian) Montagnais dialect of Betsiamites, Quebec. The study shows that Tagdal and the other Northern Songhay languages could be construed as mixed languages, although the proportion of Berber and Songhay elements varieties somewhat between these languages, and also indicates that the definition of ‘mixed language’ is labile because different mixed languages combine their components in different ways, so that different kinds of mixed languages need to be recognized. NS languages seem to belong to the category of Core-Periphery languages with respect to the origins of more versus less basic morphemes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.32.2.03ben
2017-12-04
2019-09-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adamou, Aboubacar
    1979Agadez et sa région [Études nigériennes 44]. Niamey, Niger: Institut de recherches en sciences humaines.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alidou, Ousseina
    1988Tasawaq d’In-gall: esquisse linguistique d’une langue dite «mixte». MA thesis, University of Niamey.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bakker, P. , & M. Mous
    (eds.) 1994Mixed languages: 15 case studies in language intertwining. Amsterdam: IFOTT.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bakker, Peter
    1997A Language of our Own: The Genesis of Michif – the Mixed Cree-French language of the Canadian Métis [Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics, 10]. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Barth, Heinrich
    1851 Progress of the African Mission, Consisting of Messrs. Richardson, Barth, and Overweg, to Central Africa. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London21. 130–221. doi: 10.2307/1798187
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1798187 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bender, M. Lionel
    1996The Nilo-Saharan Languages: A Comparative Essay. München: LINCOM-Europa.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Benítez-Torres, Carlos M
    2005 Review of Nicolaï 2005. Journal of West African Languages. 32(1). 188–191.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 2009 Inflectional vs. Derivational Morphology in Tagdal (Northern Songhay): A case of language mixing. In Fiona McLaughlin , Matondo Masungu , & Eric Potsdam (eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 38th Conference on African Linguistics, 69–83. Somerville, Ma.: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. . n.d. Tagdal lexicon.
  10. Bernus, Suzanne & Edmond Bernus
    1972Du sel et des dattes: Introduction à l’étude de la communauté d’Ingall et de Tegidda-n-tesemt. Niamey, Niger: Centre Nigérien de Recherches en Sciences Humaines.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cancel, Lt
    1908 Etude sur le dialecte de Tabelbala. Revue Africaine270-271. 302–347.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Champault, Dominique
    1969Une oasis du Sahara nord-occidental, Tabelbala. Paris: CNRS.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Christiansen, Niels & Regula Christiansen
    2002 Some verb morphology features of Tadaksahak: Berber or Songhay, this is the question. SIL Electronic Working Papers 2002-005 . Dallas, Tex: SIL International. www.sil.org/silewp/2002/005/.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Christiansen-Bolli, Regula
    2010A grammar of Tadaksahak: A Northern Songhay language of Mali. Doctoral dissertation, University of Leiden.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Dimmendaal, Gerrit
    1992 Review of Nicolaï (Parentés linguistiques). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies55. 73–5.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 1995 Do some languages have multi-genetic or non-genetic origin? An exercise in taxonomy. In Franz Rottland & Robert Nicolaï (eds.), Nilo-Saharan Studies [Nilo-Saharan 10], 357–372. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Drapeau. Lynn
    1994 Bilinguisme et érosion lexicale dans une communauté montagnaise, In Pierre Martel & Jacques Maurais (eds.), Langues et sociétés en contact, 363–376. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Drapeau, Lynn
    1995 Code-switching in caretaker speech and bilingual competence in a native village of Northern Quebec. International Journal of the Sociology of Language113. 157–164.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Ehret, Christopher
    2001A comparative reconstruction of Proto-Nilo-Saharan. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Gómez-Rendón, J. A
    2008Mestizaje lingüístico en los Andes: génesis y estructura de una lengua mixta. Quito, Ecuador: Abya-Yala.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Good, Jeff
    2009 Loanwords in Saramaccan. In Martin Haspelmath & Uri Tadmor (eds.), Loanwords in the world’s languages: A comparative handbook, 918–943. Berlin: De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Grant, Anthony P
    2002 Fabric, pattern, shift and diffusion: What change in Oregon Penutian languages can tell historical linguists. In Laura Buszard-Welcher (ed.), Proceedings of the Meeting of the Hokan-Penutian Workshop, June 17-18, 2000, U. of California at Berkeley. Report 11, Survey of California and Other Indian Languages, 33–56. Department of Linguistics, University of California at Berkeley.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 2013 Mindanao Chabacano and other ‘mixed creoles’: Do mixed-lexifier creoles (MLCs) tend to borrow the same kinds of other phenomena?In Hugo C. Cardoso , Alan N. Baxter & Mário Pinharanda Nunes (eds.), Ibero-Asian Creoles in Comparative Perspectives, 327–364. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cll.46.12gra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.46.12gra [Google Scholar]
  24. Greenberg, Joseph
    1963The Languages of Africa [International Journal of American Linguistics 29.1]. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Heath, Jeffrey
    1999aA grammar of Koyra Chiini: the Songhay of Timbuktu. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110804850
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110804850 [Google Scholar]
  26. 1999bA Grammar of Koyraboro (Koroboro) Senni, the Songhay of Gao. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe. doi: 10.1515/9783110804850
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110804850 [Google Scholar]
  27. Heath, J
    2004 Tadaksahak vocabulary. MS. 30pp.
  28. Heath, Jeffrey
    2005A Grammar of Tamashek (Tuareg of Mali). Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110909586
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110909586 [Google Scholar]
  29. Hamani, Djibo M
    1989Au carrefour du soudan et de la berbérie: Le sultanat touareg de l’Ayar [Études nigériennes 55]. Niamey, Niger: Institut de recherches en sciences humaines.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Koelle, S. W
    1854Polyglotta africana, or a comparative vocabulary of nearly three hundred words and phrases, in more than one hundred distinct African languages. London: Church Missionary House.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kossmann, Maarten
    2004 Mood/Aspect/Negation Morphemes in Tabelbala Songhay (Korandje). Afrika und Übersee87. 131–153.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 2005 Review of Nicolaï (2003). Journal of African Languages and Linguistics26(1). 99–103. doi: 10.1515/jall.2005.26.1.99
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jall.2005.26.1.99 [Google Scholar]
  33. 2007a Grammatical borrowing in Tasawaq. In Yaron Matras & Jeantte Sakel (eds.), Grammatical borrowing in cross-linguistic perspective, 75–90. Berlin/ New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 2007b The borrowing of aspect as lexical tone: y-initial Tuareg verbs in Tasawaq (Nothern Songhay). Studies in African Linguistics36(2). 151–166.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 2011A Grammar of Ayer Tuareg (Niger). Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 2012 Pharyngealization and the Vowel System of Tasawaq (Northern Songhay). Nordic Journal of African Studies21(1). 21–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Kouwenberg, Silvia
    1994A grammar of Berbice Dutch Creole. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110885705
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110885705 [Google Scholar]
  38. Lacroix, Pierre-Francis
    1967 Le vocabulaire 'kandin' dans la Polyglotta Africana. African Language Review6. 153–158.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Lacroix, Pierre F
    1968L’ensemble songhay-jerma: Problèmes et thèmes de travail. Lexicologie tihitit et tagdalt. Microfiche A 77 023 290. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie, "Archives et documents", micro-édition.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 1980Les parlers du sous-ensemble songhay-zarma septentrional. Documents de terrain. Lexicologie tihitit et tagdalt. Microfiche A 77 023 290. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie, "Archives et documents", micro-édition.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 1981 Emghedeshie, « Songhay language of Agadez », à travers les documents de Barth. InE. R. A. 246 du CNRS "Langage et Culture en Afrique de l'Ouest" (ed.), Itinérances – en pays peul et ailleurs: mélanges (Mémoires de la Société des Africanistes). Paris: Société des Africanistes.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Laverdure, Patline , & Ida Rose Allard
    1984The Michif dictionary: Turtle Mountain Chippewa Cree, edited by John C. Crawford . Winnipeg: Pemmican.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Matras, Yaron
    2012A grammar of Domari. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. doi: 10.1515/9783110291421
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110291421 [Google Scholar]
  44. Mous, Maarten
    2003The making of a mixed language: The case of Ma'á/Mbugu [Creole language library 26]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cll.26
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.26 [Google Scholar]
  45. Muysken, Pieter
    1997 Media Lengua. In Sarah G. Thomason (ed.), Contact languages: A wider perspective, 365–426. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cll.17.13muy
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.17.13muy [Google Scholar]
  46. Nicolaï, Robert
    1979Les dialectes du songhay (Contribution à l’étude des changements linguistiques). Doctoral dissertation, University of Nice.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 1981Les dialectes du songhay (Contribution à l’étude des changements linguistiques). Paris: SELAF.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 1990a L’évolution ‘problématique’ du songhay septentrional (Analyze d’une situation de contact). Travaux du Cercle Linguistique de Nice10-11. 135–148.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 1990bParentés linguistiques (à propos du songhay). Paris: Éditions du CNRS.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 2003La force des choses ou l’épreuve ‘nilo-saharienne’: Questions sur les reconstructions archéologiques et l’évolution des langues. Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, Beiheft 13. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 2006a Songhay-mande convergence area: Questions and frames. Annual Publications in African Linguistics4. 5–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 2006b Aux marges de l’espace chamito-sémitique : songhay et apparentements non-linéaires. In A. Mettouchi & A. Lonnet (eds.), Faits de langues, Les langues chamito-sémitiques (afro-asiatiques), 245–277. Le Mans: Faits de Langues.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 2009 Language contact, areality, and history: The Songhay question revisited. In Wilhelm J. G. Möhlig , Frank Seidel & Marc Seifert (eds.), Language Contact, Language Change and History Based on Language Sources in Africa [Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika 20], 187–207. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. . n.d. A Songhay-Mande Convergence Area? Facts, Questions, Frames. www.unice.fr/ChaireIUF-Nicolai/TextesRN/Songhay-mande_convergence.pdf
  55. Prost, André
    1956La langue soˑnay et ses dialectes. Paris: SELAF.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Rueck, Michael & Niels Christiansen
    1999Northern Songhay speech varieties in Niger. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 1999-008. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. www.sil.org/silesr/1999/1999-008/silesr1999-008esr.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Schuh, Russell G
    1975 Kandin in the Polyglotta Africana: two languages in one. African Languages/Langues africaines1. 300–305.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Smith, Norval S. H
    1987The origin of the creole languages of Surinam. PhD dissertation, University of Amsterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Souag, Lameen
    2009 The subclassification of Songhay and its historical implications. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics33(2). 181–213.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 2010 The Western Berber Stratum in Kwarandzyey. In Harry Stroomer , Maarten Kossmann , Dymitr Ibriszimow & Rainer Vossen (eds.), Etudes berbères V, Essais sur des variations dialectales et autres articles, 177–189. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 2012 The subclassification of Songhay and its historical implications. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics33(2). 181–213. doi: 10.1515/jall‑2012‑0008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jall-2012-0008 [Google Scholar]
  62. 2014 Review of R. Christiansen-Bolli (2010). Journal of Language Contact7(2). 453–459. doi: 10.1163/19552629‑00702014
    https://doi.org/10.1163/19552629-00702014 [Google Scholar]
  63. 2015 Explaining Korandjé: Language contact, plantations and the trans-Saharan trade. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Linguistics30. 189–224. doi: 10.1075/jpcl.30.2.01sou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.30.2.01sou [Google Scholar]
  64. . n.d. 380-item Korandje- English- French wordlist. MS in author’s possession.
  65. Stauffer, Daniel Ray
    1997Essential elements of Songhai grammar. MA thesis, University of Texas at Arlington.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Thomason, Sarah & Terrence Kaufman
    1997Contact languages: A wider perspective [Creole language library #17]. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cll.17
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.17 [Google Scholar]
  67. Thomason, Sarah Grey
    2001Language contact: An introduction. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. doi: 10.1016/B0‑08‑043076‑7/03032‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-043076-7/03032-1 [Google Scholar]
  68. Tilmatine, Mohamed
    1991Talelbala: Eine Songhaysprachinsel in der algerischen Sahara [Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere, Sondernummer]. Berlin: Freie Universität.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 1996 Un parler berbèro-songhay du sud-ouest algérien (Tabelbala): Elements d’histoire et de linguistique. Etudes et Documents Berbères14. 163–198.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Vakhtin, Nikolai B. & Evgenij Golovko
    1990 Aleut in contact: The CIA enigma. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia22. 97–125. doi: 10.1080/03740463.1990.10411524
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03740463.1990.10411524 [Google Scholar]
  71. Wolff, H. Ekkehard & Manou Ousseina Alidou
    2001 On the non-linear ancestry of Tasawaq (Niger). Or: How “mixed” can a language be?In Derek Nurse (ed.), Historical language contact in Africa, special volume of Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika6/17, 523–574. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.32.2.03ben
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jpcl.32.2.03ben
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Korandje , mixed language , Northern Songhay , Tabarog , Tadaksahak , Tagdal and Tasawaq
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error