Volume 7, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0920-9034
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9870
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Previous research (including the recent monographs of Friedemann & Patino Rosselli 1983 and Megenney 1986) states that Palenquero (henceforth PAL) has but a single future particle — tan — and lacks overt irrealis markers to express conditionals. This paper takes issue with earlier claims by showing that this creole language in fact has an additional irrealis marker — ake or its variants k(e) — whose principal function is to signal future and conditional.After the presentation of data, attention is focused on the syntax and origin of aké. In the course of the discussion it will become apparent that the PAL facts speak against Bickerton's well-known hypothesis about the prototypical creole tense-modality-aspect system, which is said to order preverbal morphemes as follows: tense (± anterior) + modality (±irrealis) + aspect (±durative). The final section offers a preliminary investigation into PAL modal distinctions (certain future versus probable future) which casts strong doubts on earlier assertions that PAL lacks contrastive mood differentiations. The article concludes with suggestions for further research.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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