1887
Volume 5, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2215-1931
  • E-ISSN: 2215-194X
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper investigates the occurrence of misunderstandings in ELF (English as a Lingua Franca) interactions caused by vowel pronunciation in Brunei English. The study is based on ten audio recordings, each consisting of conversations between two participants: a Bruneian (L2 speaker) and a non-Bruneian speaker. Out of a total of 152 tokens (occurrences) of misunderstandings identified, 36 of them (23.7%) are found to involve vowel pronunciation. Data analysis includes examining vowel length, the vowels of , monosyllabic triphthongs, , vowel reduction, spelling pronunciation and American pronunciation in causing misunderstandings. The findings indicate that misunderstandings may be caused by a change in vowel length and quality in 28 tokens. The study concludes that vowel pronunciation in Brunei English conversational speech, particularly in the lack of vowel length distinction and absence of diphthongs in closed syllables may occasionally lead to a loss of intelligibility in ELF settings.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jslp.17049.gar
2019-09-17
2019-12-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Allan, W. S., & Starks, D.
    (2000) “No-one sounds like us?” A comparison of New Zealand and other southern hemisphere Englishes. InA. Bell & K. Kuiper (Eds.), New Zealand English: Varieties of English around the world (pp.53–83). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g25.07all
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g25.07all [Google Scholar]
  2. Baker, W.
    (2015) Culture and identity through English as a lingua franca: Rethinking concepts and goals in intercultural communication. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781501502149
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501502149 [Google Scholar]
  3. Clynes, A. & Deterding, D.
    (2011) Standard Malay (Brunei). Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 41(2), 259–268. 10.1017/S002510031100017X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S002510031100017X [Google Scholar]
  4. Cruttenden, A.
    (2014) Gimson’s pronunciation of English (8th ed.). London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203784969
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203784969 [Google Scholar]
  5. Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J.
    (1997) Accent, intelligibility and comprehensibility: Evidence from four L1s. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 1–16. 10.1017/S0272263197001010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263197001010 [Google Scholar]
  6. (2005) Second language accent and pronunciation teaching: A research-based approach. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), 379–397. 10.2307/3588486
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588486 [Google Scholar]
  7. Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J.
    (2002) Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23, 245–259. 10.1080/01434630208666468
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630208666468 [Google Scholar]
  8. Derwing, T. M., Fraser, H., Kang, O., & Thonson, R. L.
    (2014) L2 accent and ethics: Issues that merit attention. InA. Mahboob & L. Barratt (Eds.), Englishes in multilingual contexts: Language variation and education (pp.63–80). Dordrecht: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Deterding, D.
    (2007) Singapore English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748625444.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748625444.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  10. (2013) Misunderstandings in English as a lingua franca: An analysis of ELF interactions in South-East Asia. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110288599
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110288599 [Google Scholar]
  11. (2014) The evolution of Brunei English: How it is contributing to the development of English in the world. InS. Buschfeld, T. Hoffmann, M. Huber, & A. Kautzsch (Eds.), The evolution of Englishes. The Dynamic Model and Beyond (pp.420–433). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. (2015) The phonology of Brunei English: L2 English or emergent variety. InU. Gut, R. Fuchs & E.-M. Wunder (Eds.), Universal or Diverse Paths to English Phonology (pp.8–21). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Deterding, D., & Kirkpatrick, A.
    (2006) Emerging South-East Asian Englishes and intelligibility. World Englishes, 25(3/4), 391–409. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2006.00478.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2006.00478.x [Google Scholar]
  14. Deterding, D., & Salbrina, S.
    (2013) Brunei English: A new variety in a multilingual society. Dordrecht: Springer. 10.1007/978‑94‑007‑6347‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6347-0 [Google Scholar]
  15. Deterding, D., & Nur Raihan, M.
    (2016) The role of vowel quality in ELF misunderstandings. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 5(2), 291–307. 10.1515/jelf‑2016‑0021
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jelf-2016-0021 [Google Scholar]
  16. Firth, A.
    (1996) The discursive accomplishment of normality: On ‘lingua franca’ English and conversational analysis. Journal of Pragmatics, 26, 237–259. 10.1016/0378‑2166(96)00014‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(96)00014-8 [Google Scholar]
  17. House, J.
    (1999) Misunderstanding in intercultural communication: Interactions in English as a lingua franca and the myth of mutual intelligibility. InC. Gnutzmann (Ed.), Teaching and learning English as a global language (pp.73–89). Tübingen: Stauffenburg.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Ishamina, A.
    (2015) Listener pronunciation in misunderstandings in international communication. South East Asia: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 15, 26–35.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. (2016a) TH in misunderstandings in Brunei English. South East Asia: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 16, 1–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. (2016b) The role of fast speech in misunderstandings in Brunei English. InNoor Azam, H.-O., J. McLellan, & D. Deterding (Eds.), The use and status of language in Brunei Darussalam: A kingdom of unexpected linguistic diversity (pp.41–56). Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑10‑0853‑5_5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0853-5_5 [Google Scholar]
  21. Ishamina, A., & Deterding, D.
    (2015) The role of noun phrases in misunderstandings in Brunei English in ELF settings. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 4(2), 283–308.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Jenkins, J.
    (2000) The phonology of English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. (2009) World Englishes: A resource book for students (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kaur, J.
    (2010) Achieving mutual understanding in World Englishes. World Englishes, 29(2), 192–208. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2010.01638.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2010.01638.x [Google Scholar]
  25. (2016) Intercultural misunderstanding revisited: Cultural differences as a (non) source of misunderstanding in ELF communication. InP. Holmes & F. Dervin (Eds.), The cultural and intercultural dimensions of English as a lingua franca (pp.134–156). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783095100‑010
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783095100-010 [Google Scholar]
  26. Kirkpatrick, A.
    (2010) English as a lingua franca in ASEAN: A multilingual model. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. 10.5790/hongkong/9789888028795.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.5790/hongkong/9789888028795.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  27. Lim, S. S., & Low, E. L.
    (2005) Triphthongs in Singapore English. InD. Deterding, A. Brown & E. L. Low (Eds.), English in Singapore: Phonetic research based on a corpus (pp.64–73). Singapore: McGraw-Hill Education (Asia).
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lindemann, S.
    (2010) “Who’s intelligible?” The perceiver’s role. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 18(2), 223–232.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Martin, P. W., & Poedjosoedarmo, G.
    (1996) Introduction: An overview of the language situation in Brunei Darussalam. InP. W. Martin, C. Ożóg, & G. Poedjosoedarmo (Eds.), Language use & language change in Brunei Darussalam (pp.1–23). Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Mauranen, A.
    (2006) Signaling and preventing misunderstandings in English as lingua franca communication. International Journal of Sociology of Language, 177. 123–150.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. McLellan, J., & Noor Azam, H.-O.
    (2012) Brunei English. InE. Low & Azirah Hashim (Eds.), English in Southeast Asia: Features, policy and language use (pp.75–90). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/veaw.g42.08mcl
    https://doi.org/10.1075/veaw.g42.08mcl [Google Scholar]
  32. McLellan, J., & Chin, G. S. V.
    (2016) A research bibliography for Brunei English. World Englishes, 35(4), 612–617. 10.1111/weng.12230
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12230 [Google Scholar]
  33. Meierkord, C.
    (1996) English als Medium der interkulturellen Kommunikation: Untersuchungen zum non-native/non-native speaker. Diskurs: Frankfurt Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Mesthrie, R., & Bhatt, R. M.
    (2008) World Englishes: The study of linguistic varieties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511791321
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791321 [Google Scholar]
  35. Mortensen, J.
    (2013) Notes on English used as a lingua franca as an object of study. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 2(1), 25–46. 10.1515/jelf‑2013‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jelf-2013-0002 [Google Scholar]
  36. Mossop, J.
    (1996) Some phonological features of Brunei English. InP. W. Martin, C. Ożóg, & G. Poedjosoedarmo (Eds.), Language use & language change in Brunei Darussalam (pp.189–208). Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Munro, M. J.
    (2008) Foreign accent and speech intelligibility. InJ. G. Hansen Edwards & M. L. Zampini (Eds.), Phonology and second language acquisition (pp.193–218). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.36.10mun
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.36.10mun [Google Scholar]
  38. Munro, M. J., Derwing, T. M., & Morton, S. L.
    (2006) The mutual intelligibility of L2 speech. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 111–131. 10.1017/S0272263106060049
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263106060049 [Google Scholar]
  39. Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M.
    (2015) Intelligibility in research and practise: Teaching priorities. InM. Reed & J. M. Levis (Eds.), The Handbook of English Pronunciation (pp.377–396). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  40. Nelson, C. L.
    (2011) Intelligibility in World Englishes: Theory and application. New York and London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Nur Raihan, M.
    (2015) Spelling pronunciation: a new norm in Brunei English?South East Asia: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 15, 36–42.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. (2017) Rhoticity in Brunei English: A diachronic approach. South East Asia: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 17, 1–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Osimk, R.
    (2011) Decoding sounds: An experimental approach to intelligibility in ELF. VIEWS, 18(1), 64–89.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. O’Neal, G.
    (2015) ELF intelligibility: The vowel quality factor. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 4(2), 347–358. 10.1515/jelf‑2015‑0026
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jelf-2015-0026 [Google Scholar]
  45. Pitzl, M.-L., Breiteneder, A., & Klimpfinger, T.
    (2008) A world of words: Processes of lexical innovation in VOICE. Vienna English Working Papers, 12(2), 50–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Pickering, L.
    (2006) Current research on intelligibility in English as a lingua franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 26, 219–233. 10.1017/S0267190506000110
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190506000110 [Google Scholar]
  47. Pietikӓinen, K. S.
    (2018) Misunderstandings and ensuring understanding in private ELF talk. Applied Linguistics, 39(2), 188–212.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Poedjosoedarmo, G.
    (2004) English in Brunei Darussalam: Portrait of a vital language with an elusive role. RELC, 35(3), 359–370. 10.1177/0033688205052148
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688205052148 [Google Scholar]
  49. Roach, P.
    (2009) English phonetics and phonology: A practical course (4th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Salbrina, S.
    (2006) The vowels of Brunei English: An acoustic investigation. English World-Wide, 27, 247–264. 10.1075/eww.27.3.03sha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.27.3.03sha [Google Scholar]
  51. Salbrina, S., & Deterding, D.
    (2010) Rhoticity in Brunei English. English World-Wide, 31(2), 121–137. 10.1075/eww.31.2.01sha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.31.2.01sha [Google Scholar]
  52. Sewell, A.
    (2017) Functional load revisited: Reinterpreting the findings of ‘lingua franca’ intelligibility studies. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 3(1), 57–79. 10.1075/jslp.3.1.03sew
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jslp.3.1.03sew [Google Scholar]
  53. Smith, L. E.
    (1992) Spread of English and issues of intelligibility. InB. B. Kachru (Ed.), The other tongue: English across cultures, (2nd ed.) (pp.75–88). Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Smith, L. E., & Nelson, C. L.
    (1985) International intelligibility of English: Directions and resources. World Englishes, 4(3), 333–342. 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.1985.tb00423.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1985.tb00423.x [Google Scholar]
  55. Wells, J. C.
    (1982) Accents of English 1: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. (2008) Longman pronunciation dictionary (3rd ed.). Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jslp.17049.gar
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jslp.17049.gar
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error