Volume 2, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2215-1931
  • E-ISSN: 2215-194X
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


Developing comprehensible speech is an important goal for L2 learners. At present, there is clear evidence indicating that pronunciation instruction can help develop comprehensibility compared to no instruction at all (see Thomson & Derwing, 2015, for a review). However, it is unclear whether rapid improvements can be obtained through explicit pronunciation instruction. This study investigated the effects of explicit and nonexplicit instruction in the development of comprehensible speech in ESL learners. Three groups ( = 12) received about four hours of pronunciation instruction over three weeks using the same teaching sequence. Groups differed in the type of explicit instruction received: two experimental groups received explicit instruction either on suprasegmental features or four vowel sounds. The same content was presented to the third group without explicit instruction. Speech samples collected from all L2 learners before and after treatment revealed an effect of explicit instruction on comprehensibility: the group instructed in suprasegmentals was rated as more comprehensible. No significant improvement was seen in the nonexplicit group. These results suggest that focusing on suprasegmental aspects seems to be most effective for comprehensibility when time is limited, and argue for a major role for explicit phonetic instruction in developing enhanced comprehensibility (e.g., Derwing, Munro, & Wiebe, 1998; Munro, 1995).


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Abrahamsson, N. , & Hyltenstam, K
    (2009) Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: Listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny. Language Learning, 59, 249–306. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2009.00507.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00507.x [Google Scholar]
  2. Anani, M
    (1989) Incorrect stress placement in the case of Arab learners of English. IRAL : International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 27, 15–21. doi: 10.1515/iral.1989.27.1.15
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.1989.27.1.15 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson-Hsieh, J. , Johnson, R. , & Koehler, K
    (1992) The relationship between native speaker judgments of nonnative pronunciation and deviance in segmentals, prosody, and syllable structure. Language Learning, 42, 529–555. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1992.tb01043.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1992.tb01043.x [Google Scholar]
  4. Avery, P. , & Ehrlich, S
    (1992) Teaching American English pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baker, A
    (2014) Exploring teachers’ knowledge of second language pronunciation techniques: Teacher cognitions, observed classroom practices, and student perceptions. TESOL Quarterly, 48, 136–163. doi: 10.1002/tesq.99
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.99 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bayraktaroğlu, S
    (2008) Orthographic interference and the teaching of British pronunciation to Turkish learners. The Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 4, 107–143.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Benson, P. , & Lor, W
    (1999) Conceptions of language and language learning. System, 27, 459–472. doi: 10.1016/S0346‑251X(99)00045‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(99)00045-7 [Google Scholar]
  8. Best, C.T. , & Tyler, M.D
    (2007) Nonnative and second language speech perception: Commonalities and complementarities. In O.-S. Bohn & M.J. Munro (Eds.), Language experience in second language speech learning: In honor of James Emil Flege (pp.13–34). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/lllt.17.07bes
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.17.07bes [Google Scholar]
  9. Boersma, P. , & Weenink, D
    (2015) Praat: Doing phonetics by computer [Computer program] Version 5.4.06. Retrieved 7 March 2015 from www.praat.org/
  10. Bradlow, A. , Akahane-Yamada, R. , Pisoni, D.B. , & Tohkura, Y
    (1997) Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /l/: Long-term retention of learning in perception and production. Perception & Psychophysics, 61, 977–985. doi: 10.3758/BF03206911
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03206911 [Google Scholar]
  11. Brown, A
    (1991) Functional load and the teaching of pronunciation. In A. Brown (Ed.), Teaching English pronunciation: A book of readings (pp.211–224). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Celce-Murcia, M
    (Ed.) (2001) Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed.). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Celce-Murcia, M. , Brinton, D.M. , Goodwin, J.M. , & Griner, B
    (2010) Teaching pronunciation: A coursebook and reference guide (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Chamot, A. , Barnhard, S. , El-Dinary, P. , & Robbins, J
    (1999) The learning strategies handbook. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Couper, G
    (2003) The value of an explicit pronunciation syllabus in ESOL teaching. Prospect, 18, 53–70.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. (2006) The short and long-term effects of pronunciation instruction. Prospect, 21, 46–66.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cutler, A. , Wales, R. , Cooper, N. , & Janssen, J
    (2007) Dutch listeners’ use of suprasegmental cues to English stress. In J. Trouvain & W.J. Barry (Eds.). Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp.1913–1916). Saarbrücken.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Darcy, I. , Dekydtspotter, L. , Sprouse, R. , Glover, J. , Kaden, C. , McGuire, M. , & Scott, J.H.G
    (2012a) Direct mapping of acoustics to phonology: On the lexical encoding of front rounded vowels in L1 English-L2 French acquisition. Second Language Research, 28, 5–40. doi: 10.1177/0267658311423455
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658311423455 [Google Scholar]
  19. Darcy, I. , Ewert, D. , & Lidster, R
    (2012b) Bringing pronunciation instruction back into the classroom: An ESL Teachers’ pronunciation “toolbox”. In J. Levis & K. LeVelle (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference (pp.93–108). Ames, IA: Iowa State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Darcy, I. , & Krüger, F
    (2012) Vowel perception and production in Turkish children acquiring L2 German. Journal of Phonetics, 40, 568–581. doi: 10.1016/j.wocn.2012.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2012.05.001 [Google Scholar]
  21. Darcy, I. , Park, H. , & Yang, C.-L
    (2015) Individual differences in L2 acquisition of English phonology: The relation between cognitive abilities and phonological processing. Learning and Individual Differences, 40, 63–72. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2015.04.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.04.005 [Google Scholar]
  22. Darcy, I. , Peperkamp, S. , & Dupoux, E
    (2007) Bilinguals play by the rules. Perceptual compensation for assimilation in late L2-learners. In J. Cole & J.I. Hualde (Eds.), Laboratory Phonology 9 (pp.411–442). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Darcy, I. , Ramus, F. , Christophe, A. , Kinzler, K. , & Dupoux, E
    (2009) Phonological knowledge in compensation for native and non-native assimilation. In F. Kügler , C. Féry , & R. van de Vijver (Eds.), Variation and gradience in phonetics and phonology (pp.265–309). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Derwing, T.M. , & Rossiter, M.J
    (2003) The effects of pronunciation instruction on the accuracy, fluency, and complexity of L2 accented speech. Applied Language Learning, 13, 1–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Derwing, T.M
    (2008) Curriculum issues in teaching pronunciation to second language learners. In J.G. Hansen Edwards & M.L. Zampini (Eds.), Phonology and second language acquisition (pp.347–371). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sibil.36.17der
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.36.17der [Google Scholar]
  26. Derwing, T.M. , & Munro, M.J
    (1997) Accent, intelligibility, and comprehensibility: Evidence from four L1s. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 1–16. doi: 10.1017/S0272263197001010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263197001010 [Google Scholar]
  27. Derwing, T.M. , Munro, M.J. , & Wiebe, G
    (1997) Pronunciation instruction for ‘fossilized’ learners: Can it help?Applied Language Learning, 8, 185–203.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Derwing, T.M. , Munro, M.J. , & Wiebe, G.E
    (1998) Evidence in favor of a broad framework for pronunciation instruction. Language Learning, 48, 393–410. doi: 10.1111/0023‑8333.00047
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00047 [Google Scholar]
  29. Derwing, T.M. , Thomson, R.I. , & Munro, M.J
    (2006) English pronunciation and fluency development in Mandarin and Slavic speakers. System, 34, 183–193. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2006.01.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.01.005 [Google Scholar]
  30. Dupoux, E. , Kakehi, K. , Hirose, Y. , Pallier, C. & Mehler
    J (1999) Epenthetic vowels in Japanese: A perceptual illusion?Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Perception and Performance, 25, 1568–1578. doi: 10.1037/0096‑1523.25.6.1568
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.25.6.1568 [Google Scholar]
  31. Dupoux, E. , Pallier, C. , Sebastián-Gallés, N. , & Mehler, J
    (1997) A destressing “deafness” in French?Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 406–421. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1996.2500
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1996.2500 [Google Scholar]
  32. Dupoux, E. , Sebastián-Gallés, N. , Navarrete, E. , & Peperkamp, S
    (2008) Persistent stress ‘deafness’: The case of French learners of Spanish. Cognition, 106, 682–706. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2007.04.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2007.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  33. Elliot, A.R
    (1997) On the teaching and acquisition of pronunciation within a communicative approach. Hispania, 80, 95–108. doi: 10.2307/345983
    https://doi.org/10.2307/345983 [Google Scholar]
  34. Ellis, R. , Loewen, S. , Elder, C. , Erlam, R. , Philp, J. , & Reinders, H
    (2009) Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing, and teaching. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Field, J
    (2005) Intelligibility and the listener: The role of lexical stress. TESOL Quarterly, 39, 399–423. doi: 10.2307/3588487
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588487 [Google Scholar]
  36. Flege, J.E
    (1995) Second language speech learning. Theory, findings and problems. In W. Strange (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience. Issues in cross-language research (pp.233–277). Timonium, MD: York Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Flege, J.E. , Bohn, O.-S. , & Jang, S
    (1997) Effects of experience on non-native speakers’ production and perception of English vowels. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 437–470. doi: 10.1006/jpho.1997.0052
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1997.0052 [Google Scholar]
  38. Flege, J.E. , Frieda, E.M. , & Nozawa, T
    (1997) Amount of native-language (L1) use affects the pronunciation of an L2. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 169–186. doi: 10.1006/jpho.1996.0040
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1996.0040 [Google Scholar]
  39. Foote, J.A. , Holtby, A. , & Derwing, T.M
    (2011) Survey of pronunciation teaching in adult ESL programs in Canada, 2010. TESL Canada Journal, 29, 1–22
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Goodwin, J
    (2014) Teaching Pronunciation. In M. Celce‐Murcia , D.M. Brinton , & M.A. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed.) (pp.136–152). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Grant, L
    (Ed.) (2014) Pronunciation myths: Applying second language research to classroom teaching. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Guion, S.G
    (2005) Knowledge of English word stress patterns in early and late Korean-English bilinguals. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 503–533. doi: 10.1017/S0272263105050230
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263105050230 [Google Scholar]
  43. Guion, S.G. , Flege, J.E. , & Loftin, J.D
    (2000) The effect of L1 use on pronunciation in Quichua-Spanish bilinguals. Journal of Phonetics, 28, 27–42. doi: 10.1006/jpho.2000.0104
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.2000.0104 [Google Scholar]
  44. Guion, S.G. , Flege, J.E. , Liu, S.H. , & Yeni-Komshian, G.H
    (2000) Age of learning effects on the duration of sentences produced in a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21, 205–228. doi: 10.1017/S0142716400002034
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400002034 [Google Scholar]
  45. Hahn, L.D
    (2004) Primary stress and intelligibility: Research to motivate the teaching of suprasegmentals. TESOL Quarterly, 38, 201–223. doi: 10.2307/3588378
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588378 [Google Scholar]
  46. Han, Z
    (2004) Fossilization in adult second language acquisition. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Hayes-Harb, R. , & Hacking, J
    (2011, October) Variability in Listeners’ Bases for Accentedness Judgments of L2 Speech. Poster presented to the Second Language Research Forum , Ames, IA.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Hinkel, E
    (2006) Current perspectives on teaching the four skills. TESOL Quarterly, 40, 109–131. doi: 10.2307/40264513
    https://doi.org/10.2307/40264513 [Google Scholar]
  49. Isaacs, T
    (2009) Integrating form and meaning in L2 pronunciation instruction. TESL Canada Journal, 27, 1–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Jenner, B
    (1989) Teaching pronunciation: The common core. Speak Out!4, 2–4.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Kang, O
    (2010) Relative salience of suprasegmental features on judgments of L2 comprehensibility and accentedness. System, 38, 301–315. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2010.01.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2010.01.005 [Google Scholar]
  52. Kang, O. , Rubin, D. , & Pickering, L
    (2010) Suprasegmental measures of accentedness and judgments of language learner proficiency in oral English. Modern Language Journal, 94, 554–566. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2010.01091.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2010.01091.x [Google Scholar]
  53. Kennedy, S. , & Trofimovich, P
    (2008) Intelligibility, comprehensibility, and accentedness of L2 speech: The role of listener experience and semantic context. Canadian Modern Language Review, 64, 459–489. doi: 10.3138/cmlr.64.3.459
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.64.3.459 [Google Scholar]
  54. (2010) Language awareness and second language pronunciation: A classroom study. Language Awareness, 19, 171–185. doi: 10.1080/09658416.2010.486439
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2010.486439 [Google Scholar]
  55. Kissling, E.M
    (2013) Teaching pronunciation: Is explicit phonetic instruction beneficial for FL learners?Modern Language Journal, 97, 720–744. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2013.12029.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.12029.x [Google Scholar]
  56. Lazaranton, A
    (2001) Teaching oral skills. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed., pp.103–115). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. LeBreton, J.M. , & Senter, J.L
    (2008) Answers to 20 questions about interrater reliability and interrater agreement. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 815–852. doi: 10.1177/1094428106296642
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428106296642 [Google Scholar]
  58. Levis, J.M. , & Grant, L
    (2003) Integrating pronunciation into ESL/EFL classrooms. TESOL Journal, 12, 13–19. doi: 10.1002/j.1949‑3533.2003.tb00125.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1949-3533.2003.tb00125.x [Google Scholar]
  59. Levis, J.M
    (1999) Intonation in theory and practice, revisited. TESOL Quarterly, 33, 37–63. doi: 10.2307/3588190
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588190 [Google Scholar]
  60. (2005) Changing contexts and shifting paradigms in pronunciation teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 39, 369–377. doi: 10.2307/3588485
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588485 [Google Scholar]
  61. (2006) Pronunciation and assessment of spoken language. In R. Hughes (Ed.), Spoken English, TESOL and applied linguistics (pp.245–270). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Levy, E.S. , & Strange, W
    (2008) Perception of French vowels by American English adults with and without French language experience. Journal of Phonetics, 36, 141–157. doi: 10.1016/j.wocn.2007.03.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2007.03.001 [Google Scholar]
  63. Liljencrants, J. , & Lindblom, B
    (1972) Numerical simulation of vowel quality systems: The role of perceptual contrast. Language, 48, 839–862. doi: 10.2307/411991
    https://doi.org/10.2307/411991 [Google Scholar]
  64. Ling, L.E.E. , Grabe, E. , & Nolan, F
    (2000) Quantitative characterizations of speech rhythm: Syllable-timing in Singapore English. Language & Speech, 43, 377–401. doi: 10.1177/00238309000430040301
    https://doi.org/10.1177/00238309000430040301 [Google Scholar]
  65. Lord, G
    (2005) (How) Can we teach foreign language pronunciation? On the effects of a Spanish phonetics course. Hispania, 88, 557–567. doi: 10.2307/20063159
    https://doi.org/10.2307/20063159 [Google Scholar]
  66. Mackey, A. , & Gass, S.M
    (2005) Second language research: Methodology and design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Magen, H.S
    (1998) The perception of foreign-accented speech. Journal of Phonetics, 26, 381–400. doi: 10.1006/jpho.1998.0081
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1998.0081 [Google Scholar]
  68. McAllister, R. , Flege, J.E. , & Piske, T
    (2002) The influence of L1 on the acquisition of Swedish quantity by native speakers of Spanish, English and Estonian. Journal of Phonetics, 30, 229–258. doi: 10.1006/jpho.2002.0174
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.2002.0174 [Google Scholar]
  69. Missaglia, F
    (1999) Contrastive prosody in SLA: An empirical study with Italian learners of German. In Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp.551–554).San Francisco, CA.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Morley, J
    (1991) The pronunciation component in teaching English to speakers of other languages. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 481–520. doi: 10.2307/3586981
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586981 [Google Scholar]
  71. Munro, M.J. , & Derwing, T.M
    (2008) Segmental acquisition in adult ESL learners: A longitudinal study of vowel production. Language Learning, 58, 479–502. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2008.00448.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00448.x [Google Scholar]
  72. Munro, M.J
    (1995) Nonsegmental factors in foreign accent: Ratings of filtered speech. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17, 17–34. doi: 10.1017/S0272263100013735
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100013735 [Google Scholar]
  73. Munro, M.J. , & Derwing, T.M
    (1995) Foreign accent, comprehensibility, and intelligibility in the speech of second language learners. Language Learning, 45, 73–97. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1995.tb00963.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1995.tb00963.x [Google Scholar]
  74. (2001) Modelling perceptions of the comprehensibility and accentedness of L2 speech: The role of speaking rate. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 451–468.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Munro, M.J
    (1993) Productions of English vowels by native speakers of Arabic: Acoustic measurements and accentedness ratings. Language and Speech, 36, 39–66.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Nishi, K. , & Kewley-Port, D
    (2007) Training Japanese listeners to perceive American English vowels: Influence of training sets. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 50, 1496–1509. doi: 10.1044/1092‑4388(2007/103)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2007/103) [Google Scholar]
  77. Pallier, C. , Bosch, L. , & Sebastian-Gallés, N
    (1997) A limit on behavioral plasticity in speech perception. Cognition, 64, B9–B17. doi: 10.1016/S0010‑0277(97)00030‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(97)00030-9 [Google Scholar]
  78. Pennington, M.C. , & Ellis, N.C
    (2000) Cantonese speakers’ memory for English sentences with prosodic cues. Modern Language Journal, 84, 372–389. doi: 10.1111/0026‑7902.00075
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00075 [Google Scholar]
  79. Perlmutter, M
    (1989) Intelligibility rating of L2 speech pre- and postintervention. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 68, 515–521. doi: 10.2466/pms.1989.68.2.515
    https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1989.68.2.515 [Google Scholar]
  80. Piske, T. , MacKay, I.R.A. , & Flege, J.E
    (2001) Factors affecting the degree of foreign accent in an L2: A review. Journal of Phonetics, 29, 191–215. doi: 10.1006/jpho.2001.0134
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.2001.0134 [Google Scholar]
  81. Purcell, E.T. , & Suter, R.W
    (1980) Predictors of pronunciation accuracy: A reexamination. Language Learning, 30, 271–287. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1980.tb00319.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1980.tb00319.x [Google Scholar]
  82. Ratner, N.B
    (2000) Elicited imitation and other methods for the analysis of trade-offs between speech and language skills in children. In L. Menn & N.B Ratner (Eds.), Methods for studying language production (pp.291–312). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Schmidt, R
    (2001) Attention. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp.3–32). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139524780.003
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524780.003 [Google Scholar]
  84. Schoonmaker-Gates, E
    (2012) Perception of foreign accent in Spanish by native and nonnative listeners. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Sebastian-Gallés, N
    (2005) Cross-language speech perception. In D.B. Pisoni & R.E. Remez (Eds.), The handbook of speech perception (pp.546–566). Oxford: Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9780470757024.ch22
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757024.ch22 [Google Scholar]
  86. Setter, J
    (2006) Speech rhythm in World Englishes: The case of Hong Kong. TESOL Quarterly, 40(4), 763‐782
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Sicola, L. , & Darcy, I
    (2015) Integrating pronunciation into the language classroom. In M. Reed & J.M. Levis (Eds.), The handbook of English pronunciation (pp.471–487). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Strange, W. , Akahane-Yamada, R. , Kubo, R. , Trent, S.A. , Nishi, K. , & Jenkins, J.J
    (1998) Perceptual assimilation of American English vowels by Japanese listeners. Journal of Phonetics, 26, 311–344. doi: 10.1006/jpho.1998.0078
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1998.0078 [Google Scholar]
  89. Strange, W. , & Shafer, V
    (2008) Speech perception in second language learners. The re-education of selective perception. In J.G. Hansen Edwards & M.L. Zampini (Eds.), Phonology and second language acquisition (pp.153–191). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sibil.36.09str
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.36.09str [Google Scholar]
  90. Tajima, K. , Port, R. , & Dalby, J
    (1997) Effects of temporal correction on intelligibility of foreign-accented English. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 1–24. doi: 10.1006/jpho.1996.0031
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1996.0031 [Google Scholar]
  91. Thomson, R.I. , & Derwing, T.M
    (2015) The effectiveness of L2 pronunciation instruction: A narrative review. Applied Linguistics, 36, 326–344. doi: 10.1093/applin/amu076
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amu076 [Google Scholar]
  92. Trofimovich, P. , & Baker, W
    (2006) Learning second language suprasegmentals: Effects of L2 experience on prosody and fluency characteristics of L2 speech. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 1–30. doi: 10.1017/S0272263106060013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263106060013 [Google Scholar]
  93. VanPatten, B
    (1988) How juries get hung: Problems with the evidence for a focus on form in teaching. Language Learning, 38, 243–260. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1988.tb00411.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1988.tb00411.x [Google Scholar]
  94. Wang, W. , Jongman, A. , & Sereno, J.A
    (2003) Acoustic and perceptual evaluations of Mandarin tone productions before and after perceptual training. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 113, 1033–1043. doi: 10.1121/1.1531176
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.1531176 [Google Scholar]
  95. Wang, W. , Spence, M.M. , Jongman, A. , & Sereno, J.A
    (1999) Training American listeners to perceive Mandaring tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 106, 3649–3658. doi: 10.1121/1.428217
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.428217 [Google Scholar]
  96. Wennerstrom, A
    (2000) The role of intonation in second language fluency. In H. Riggenbach (Ed.), Perspectives on fluency (pp.102–127). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Werker, J.F. , & Tees, R.C
    (1984) Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 49–63. doi: 10.1016/S0163‑6383(84)80022‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383(84)80022-3 [Google Scholar]
  98. Winke, P. , & Gass, S
    (2013) The influence of second language experience and accent familiarity on oral proficiency rating: A qualitative investigation. TESOL Quarterly, 47, 762–789. doi: 10.1002/tesq.73
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.73 [Google Scholar]
  99. Yates, L
    (2011) Language, interaction and social inclusion in early settlement. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14, 457–471. doi: 10.1080/13670050.2011.573068
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2011.573068 [Google Scholar]
  100. Yavaş, M
    (2006) Applied English phonology. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Zielinski, B
    (2012) The social impact of pronunciation difficulties: Confidence and willingness to speak. In J. Levis & K. LeVelle (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd pronunciation in second language learning and teaching conference (pp.18‐26). Ames, IA: Iowa State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. (2008) The listener: No longer the silent partner in reduced intelligibility. System, 36, 69–84. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2007.11.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2007.11.004 [Google Scholar]
  103. Zielinski, B. , & Yates, L
    (2014) Myth: Pronunciation instruction is not appropriate for beginner-level learners. In L. Grant (Ed.), Pronunciation myths (pp.56–79). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error