Volume 2, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2215-1931
  • E-ISSN: 2215-194X
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes
Preview this article:


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Abrahamsson, N. , & Hyltenstam, K
    (2008) The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30(4), 481–509. doi: 10.1017/S027226310808073x
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226310808073x [Google Scholar]
  2. Baker, W
    (2010) Effects of age and experience on the production of English word-final stops by Korean speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13(3), 263–278. doi: 10.1017/S136672890999006X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S136672890999006X [Google Scholar]
  3. Baugh, J
    (2000) Racial identification by speech. American Speech, 75(4), 362–364. doi: 10.1215/00031283‑75‑4‑362
    https://doi.org/10.1215/00031283-75-4-362 [Google Scholar]
  4. Birdsong, D. , & Molis, M
    (2001) On the Evidence for Maturational Constraints in Second Language Acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 44, 235–249. doi: 10.1006/jmla.2000.2750
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2000.2750 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bongaerts, T. , Van Summeren, C. , Planken, B. , & Schils, E
    (1997) Age and ultimate attainment in the pronunciation of a foreign language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(4), 447–465. doi: 10.1017/S0272263197004026
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263197004026 [Google Scholar]
  6. Brown, A
    (1991) Functional load and the teaching of pronunciation. In A. Brown (Ed.), Teaching English pronunciation: A book of readings (pp.211–224). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Carr, E.B
    (1967) Teaching the th sounds of English. TESOL Quarterly, 1(1), 7–14. doi: 10.2307/3585907
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3585907 [Google Scholar]
  8. Chan, A.Y.W
    (2006) Cantonese ESL learners’ pronunciation of English final consonants. Culture and Curriculum, 19(3), 296–313. doi: 10.1080/07908310608668769
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07908310608668769 [Google Scholar]
  9. (2010) Advanced Cantonese ESL learners’ production of English speech sounds: Problems and strategies. System, 38(2), 316–328. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2009.11.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2009.11.008 [Google Scholar]
  10. Chang, J
    (1987) Chinese speakers. In M. Swan & B. Smith (Eds.), Learner English: A teacher’s guide to interference and other problems (pp.224–237). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chung, K
    (2005) The sounds and allophones of Taiwan English III. ccms.ntu.edu.tw/~karchung/intro%20page%2029.htm
  12. Derwing, T.M. , & Munro, M.J
    (2005) Second language accent and pronunciation teaching: A research-based approach. TESOL Quarterly, 379–397. doi: 10.2307/3588486
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588486 [Google Scholar]
  13. Derwing, T.M. , & Rossiter, M.J
    (2002) ESL learners’ perceptions of their pronunciation needs and strategies. System, 30, 155–166. doi: 10.1016/S0346‑251X(02)00012‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(02)00012-X [Google Scholar]
  14. Deterding, D
    (2006) The pronunciation of English by speakers from China. English World-Wide, 27, 175–198. doi: 10.1075/eww.27.2.04det
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eww.27.2.04det [Google Scholar]
  15. Deterding, D. , & Kirkpatrick, A
    (2006) Emerging south-east Asian Englishes and intelligibility. World Englishes, 25(3‐4), 391–409. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2006.00478.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2006.00478.x [Google Scholar]
  16. Dodd, B. , Holm, A. , Hua, Z. , & Crosbie, S
    (2003) Phonological development: A normative study of British English-speaking children. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 17(8), 617–643. doi: 10.1080/0269920031000111348
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0269920031000111348 [Google Scholar]
  17. Evans, S
    (2002) The medium of instruction in Hong Kong: Policy and practice in the new English and Chinese streams. Research Papers in Education, 17(1), 97–120. doi: 10.1080/02671520110084030
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02671520110084030 [Google Scholar]
  18. Feng, A
    (2009) English in China: Convergence and divergence in policy and practice. AILA Review, 22(1), 85–102. doi: 10.1075/aila.22.07fen
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.22.07fen [Google Scholar]
  19. (2012) Spread of English across Greater China. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33(4), 363–377. doi: 10.1080/01434632.2012.661435
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2012.661435 [Google Scholar]
  20. Flege, J
    (2009) Give input a chance!In T. Piske & M. Young-Scholten (Eds.), Input matters in SLA (pp. 175–190). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Flege, J.E. , & Liu, S
    (2001) The effect of experience on adults’ acquisition of a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23(4), 527–552.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Flege, J.E. , Yeni-Komshian, G. , & Liu, S
    (1999) Age constraints on second-language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 41, 78–104. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1999.2638
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1999.2638 [Google Scholar]
  23. Gatbonton, E. , Trofimovich, P. , & Segalowitz, N
    (2011) Ethnic group affiliation and patterns of development of a phonological variable. The Modern Language Journal, 95(2), 188–204. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2011.01177.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01177.x [Google Scholar]
  24. Gluszek, A. , & Dovidio, J.F
    (2010) Speaking with a nonnative accent: Perceptions of bias, communication difficulties, and belonging in the United States. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 29(2), 224–234. doi: 10.1177/0261927X09359590
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X09359590 [Google Scholar]
  25. Han, Z.-H
    (2004) Fossilization in adult second language acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Hanulíková, A. , & Weber, A
    (2012) Sink positive: Linguistic experience with th substitutions influences nonnative word recognition. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 74(3), 613–629. doi: 10.3758/s13414‑011‑0259‑7
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-011-0259-7 [Google Scholar]
  27. Huang, B.H. , & Jun, S-A
    (2011) Specifying the age-related effect on the acquisition of second language prosody. Language and Speech, 54(3), 387–414. doi: 10.1177/0023830911402599.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0023830911402599 [Google Scholar]
  28. Hung, T.T
    (2000) Towards a phonology of Hong Kong English. World Englishes, 19(3), 337–356. doi: 10.1111/1467‑971X.00183
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00183 [Google Scholar]
  29. Hodson, B. , & Paden, E
    (1981) Phonological processes which characterize unintelligible and intelligible speech in early childhood. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 46, 369–373. doi: 10.1044/jshd.4604.369
    https://doi.org/10.1044/jshd.4604.369 [Google Scholar]
  30. Ioup, G. , Boustagui, E. , El Tigi, M. , & Moselle, M
    (1994) Reexamining the critical period hypothesis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16(1), 73–98. doi: 10.1017/S0272263100012596
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100012596 [Google Scholar]
  31. Jenkins, J
    (2000) The phonology of English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Johnson, J.S. , & Newport, E.L
    (1989) Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 60–99. doi: 10.1016/0010‑0285(89)90003‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(89)90003-0 [Google Scholar]
  33. Kaneko, E. , Heo, Y. , Iverson, G.K. , & Wilson, I
    (2015) Quasi-neutralization in the acquisition of English coronal fricatives by native speakers of Japanese. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 1(1), 65–85. doi: 10.1075/jslp.1.1.03kan
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jslp.1.1.03kan [Google Scholar]
  34. Kessler, B. , & Treiman, R
    (1997) Syllable structure and the distribution of phonemes in English syllables. Journal of Memory and Language, 37(3), 295–311. doi: /10.1006/jmla.1997.2522
    https://doi.org//10.1006/jmla.1997.2522 [Google Scholar]
  35. Lado, R
    (1957) Linguistics across cultures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lindemann, S
    (2002) Listening with an attitude: A model of native-speaker comprehension of non-native speakers in the United States. Language in Society, 31, 419–441. doi: 10.1017/S0047404502020286
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404502020286 [Google Scholar]
  37. Lombardi, L
    (2003) Second language data and constraints on Manner: Explaining substitutions for the English interdentals. Second Language Research, 19(3), 225–250.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. MacKay, I. , Flege, J. , Piske, T. , & Schirru, C
    (2001) Category restructuring during second-language (L2) speech acquisition. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110, 516–528. doi: 10.1121/1.1394222
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.1394222 [Google Scholar]
  39. Maddieson, I. , & Precoda, K
    (1992) Syllable structure and phonetic models. Phonology, 9, 45–60. doi: 10.1017/S0952675700001494
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952675700001494 [Google Scholar]
  40. Moyer, A
    (1999) Ultimate attainment in L2 phonology: The critical factors of age, motivation and instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 81–108. doi: 10.1017/S0272263199001035
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263199001035 [Google Scholar]
  41. (2004) Age, accent and experience in second language acquisition. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Munro, M.J. , & Derwing, T.M
    (2006) The functional load principle in ESL pronunciation instruction: An exploratory study. System, 34(4), 520–531. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2006.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  43. Munro, M.J. , Derwing, T.M. , & Thomson, R.I
    (2015) Setting segmental priorities for English learners: Evidence from a longitudinal study. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 53(1), 39–60. doi: 10.1515/iral‑2015‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2015-0002 [Google Scholar]
  44. Przedlacka, J
    (2002) Estuary English? A Sociophonetic Study of Teenage Speech in the Home Counties. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Ramsey, S.R
    (1987) The languages of China. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Rau, D.V. , Chang, H-H.A. , & Tarone, E.E
    (2009) Think or sink: Chinese learners’ acquisition of the English voiceless interdental fricative. Language Learning, 581–621. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2009.00518.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00518.x [Google Scholar]
  47. Shitara, Y
    (1993) Survey of American pronunciation preferences – a preliminary report. Speech Hearing and Language, 7, 201–232.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Smit, A.B. , Hand, L. , Freilinger, J.J. , Bernthal, J.E. , & Bird, A
    (1990) The Iowa articulation norms project and its Nebraska replication. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 55(4), 779–798. doi: 10.1044/jshd.5504.779
    https://doi.org/10.1044/jshd.5504.779 [Google Scholar]
  49. Smith, B
    (2001) Learner English: A teacher’s guide to interference and other problems. M. Swan (Ed.). Ernst Klett Sprachen. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511667121
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667121 [Google Scholar]
  50. Tahta, S. , Wood, M. , & Loewenthal, K
    (1981) Foreign accents: Factors relating to transfer of accent from the first language to a second language. Language and Speech, 24, 265–272.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Thomson, R.I
    (2013) ESL teachers’ beliefs and practices in pronunciation teaching: Confidently right or confidently wrong?In J. Levis & K. LeVelle (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference. (pp.224–233). Ames, IA: Iowa State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Wahid, R. , & Sulong, S
    (2013) The gap between research and practice in the teaching of English pronunciation: Insights from teachers’ beliefs and practices. World Applied Sciences Journal, 21, 133–142.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Weinberger, S
    (2013) Speech Accent Archive. George Mason University. Retrieved fromaccent.gmu.edu.
  54. Wells, J
    (2008) Longman pronunciation dictionary. New York, NY: Pearson Education India.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Williams, F. , Cairns, H. , Cairns, C. , & Blosser, D
    (1971) Analysis of production errors in the phonetic performance of school age standard English speaking children. Center for Communication Research. Austin, Texas.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Winke, P. , & Gass, S
    (2012) The influence of second language experience and accent familiarity on oral proficiency rating: A qualitative investigation. TESOL Quarterly, 47, 762–789. doi: 10.1002/tesq.73
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.73 [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error