Volume 8, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2215-1931
  • E-ISSN: 2215-194X
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Although pronunciation can be fostered through explicit instruction, instructors need practical strategies to support their learners’ pronunciation (Darcy, 2018Derwing, 2018Derwing & Munro, 2015Levis, 2018). Additionally, “researching longitudinal development of L2 learners [pronunciation] is essential to understanding influences in their success” (Derwing & Munro, 2013, p.163). This three-semester-long experimental quantitative study on 72 French learners examined whether self-reflection (open-ended questionnaires) as a learning strategy could complement integrated explicit pronunciation instruction and support the development of intelligible production of the two contrastive vowels /y/ and /u/. Results on pre/post read-aloud tests surrounding pronunciation lessons were compared between a treatment (instruction + self-reflection), a comparison (instruction only) and a control group (neither instruction, nor self-reflection), and within each group to determine if there was significant growth over time. Findings revealed that self-reflection combined with explicit instruction led to better learning outcomes and production gains when compared to oral natural input.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Best, C. T., & Strange, W.
    (1992) Effects of phonological and phonetic factors on cross-language perception of approximants. Journal of Phonetics, 20(3), 305–330.   10.1016/S0095‑4470(19)30637‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30637-0 [Google Scholar]
  2. Creative Commons
    Creative Commons. (n.d.). French vowel chart [image]. Creativecommons.org. RetrievedMarch 30, 2021, fromhttps://search.creativecommons.org/photos/b1551876-62a3-4fea-8bff-8bdd491c0ae3
  3. Darcy, I.
    (2018) Powerful and effective pronunciation instruction: how can we achieve it?The CATESOL Journal, 30(1), 13–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Derwing, T. M.
    (2018) The role of phonological awareness in language learning. InP. Garrett & J. M. Cots (Eds.), The routledge handbook of language awareness (pp.1–20). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J.
    (2013) The development of L2 oral language skills in two L1 groups: A 7-Year study. Language Learning, 63(2), 163–185.   10.1111/lang.12000
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12000 [Google Scholar]
  6. (2015) Pronunciation fundamentals: Evidence-based perspectives for L2 teaching and research. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/lllt.42
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.42 [Google Scholar]
  7. Derwing, T. M., Thomson, R. I., Foote, J. A., & Munro, M. J.
    (2012) A longitudinal study of listening perception in adult learners of English: Implications for teachers. Canadian Modern Language Review, 68(3), 247–266.   10.3138/cmlr.1215
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.1215 [Google Scholar]
  8. de Saint Léger, D.
    (2009) Self-assessment of speaking skills and participation in a foreign language class. Foreign Language Annals, 42(1), 158–178.   10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2009.01013.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2009.01013.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Dickerson, W. B.
    (2015) Using orthography to teach pronunciation. InM. Reed & J. M. Levis (Eds.), The Handbook of English Pronunciation (pp.488–504). Wiley Blackwell. 10.1002/9781118346952.ch27
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118346952.ch27 [Google Scholar]
  10. Dunn, O. J.
    (1964) Multiple comparisons using rank sums. Technometrics, 6(3), 241–252.   10.1080/00401706.1964.10490181
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00401706.1964.10490181 [Google Scholar]
  11. Egi, T.
    (2008) Investigating stimulated recall as a cognitive measure: Reactivity and verbal reports in SLA research methodology. Language Awareness, 17(4), 212–228.   10.1080/09658410802146859
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658410802146859 [Google Scholar]
  12. Ellis, R.
    (2008) The study of second language acquisition. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Escudero, P., Hayes-Harb, R., & Mitterer, H.
    (2008) Novel second-language words and asymmetric lexical access. Journal of Phonetics, 36(2), 345–360.   10.1016/j.wocn.2007.11.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2007.11.002 [Google Scholar]
  14. Flege, J. E.
    (1987) The production of “new” and “similar” phones in a foreign language: Evidence for the effect of equivalence classification. Journal of Phonetics, 15(1), 47–65.   10.1016/S0095‑4470(19)30537‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30537-6 [Google Scholar]
  15. (1995) Second language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems. InW. Strange (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp.233–277). York Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fritz, C. O., Morris, P. E., & Richler, J. J.
    (2012) Effect size estimates: Current use, calculations, and interpretation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(1), 2–18.   10.1037/a0024338
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024338 [Google Scholar]
  17. Glover, P.
    (2011) Using CEFR level descriptors to raise university students’ awareness of their speaking skills. Language Awareness, 20(2), 121–133.   10.1080/09658416.2011.555556
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2011.555556 [Google Scholar]
  18. Gordon, J. & Darcy, I.
    (2016) The development of comprehensible speech in L2 learners. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, (2)1, 56–92.   10.1075/jslp.2.1.03gor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jslp.2.1.03gor [Google Scholar]
  19. Harklau, L.
    (2008) Developing qualitative longitudinal case studies of advanced language learners. InL. Ortega & H. Byrnes (Eds.), The Longitudinal Study of Advanced L2 Capacities (pp.23–35). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hoyt-Oukada, K.
    (2003) Considering students’ need and interests in curriculum construction. The French Review, 76(4), 721–737. https://www.jstor.org/stable/i357301
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Huensch, A.
    (2019) Pronunciation in foreign language classrooms: Instructors’ training, classroom practices, and beliefs. Language Teaching Research, 23(6), 745–764.   10.1177/1362168818767182
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168818767182 [Google Scholar]
  22. Huensch, A., & Thompson, A. S.
    (2017) Contextualizing Attitudes Toward Pronunciation: Foreign Language Learners in the United States. Foreign Language Annals, 50(2), 410–432.   10.1111/flan.12259
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12259 [Google Scholar]
  23. Inceoglu, S.
    (2019) Exploring the effect of instruction on L2 French learner pronunciation, accentedness, comprehensibility, and fluency: An online classroom study. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 5(2), 223–246.   10.1075/jslp.18004.inc
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jslp.18004.inc [Google Scholar]
  24. (2021) Exploring the relationship between explicit instruction, pronunciation awareness, and the development of L2 French connected speech process. Language Awareness, 1–19,   10.1080/09658416.2021.1881527
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2021.1881527 [Google Scholar]
  25. Kennedy, S., & Trofimovich, P.
    (2010) Language awareness and second language pronunciation: A classroom study. Language Awareness, 19(3), 171–185.   10.1080/09658416.2010.486439
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2010.486439 [Google Scholar]
  26. Kennedy, S., Blanchet, J., & Trofimovich, P.
    (2014) Learner pronunciation, awareness, and instruction in French as a second language. Foreign Language Annals, 47(1), 79–96.   10.1111/flan.12066
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12066 [Google Scholar]
  27. Kocjančič Antolík, T., Pillot-Loiseau, C., & Kamiyama, T.
    (2019) The effectiveness of real-time ultrasound visual feedback on tongue movements in L2 pronunciation training: Japanese learners’ progress on the French vowel contrast/y/-/u. Journal of second language pronunciation, 5(1), 72–97. 10.1075/jslp.16022.ant
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jslp.16022.ant [Google Scholar]
  28. Koo, T. K., & Li, M. Y.
    (2016) A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 15(2), 155–163.   10.1016/j.jcm.2016.02.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcm.2016.02.012 [Google Scholar]
  29. Kristo de Souza, H.
    (2017) Brazilian EFL learners’ awareness about L2 phones: Is MALL pronunced as ‘MAL’?Trabalhos Em Linguística Aplicada, 56(1), 235–258.   10.1590/010318135071200021
    https://doi.org/10.1590/010318135071200021 [Google Scholar]
  30. Lappin-Fortin, K., & Rye, B. J.
    (2014) The use of pre-/posttest and self-assessment tools in a French pronunciation course. Foreign Language Annals, 47(2), 300–320.   10.1111/flan.12083
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12083 [Google Scholar]
  31. Larson-Hall, J.
    (2016) A guide to doing statistics in second language research using SPSS and R (Second Edition). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lennon, P.
    (1989) Introspection and intentionality in advanced second language acquisition. Language Learning, 39(3), 375–396.   10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1989.tb00597.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1989.tb00597.x [Google Scholar]
  33. Levis, J. M.
    (2018) Intelligibility, oral communication, and the teaching of pronunciation (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press.   10.1017/9781108241564
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108241564 [Google Scholar]
  34. Levy, E. S., & Law, F. F.
    (2010) Production of French vowels by American-English learners of French: Language experience, consonantal context, and the perception-production relationship. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 128(3), 1290–1305.   10.1121/1.3466879
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3466879 [Google Scholar]
  35. Levy, E. S., & Strange, W.
    (2008) Perception of French vowels by American English adults with and without French language experience. Journal of Phonetics, 36(1), 141–157.   10.1016/j.wocn.2007.03.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2007.03.001 [Google Scholar]
  36. Lodge, K.
    (2009) Fundamental concepts in phonology. Sameness and difference. Edinburgh University Press. 10.3366/edinburgh/9780748625659.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.3366/edinburgh/9780748625659.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  37. Martin, I.
    (2020a) Pronunciation development and instruction in distance language learning. Language, Learning & Technology, 24(1), 86–106. 10125/44711
    [Google Scholar]
  38. (2020b) Pronunciation can be acquired outside the classroom: Design and assessment of homework-based training. The Modern Language Journal, 104(2), 457–479.   10.1111/modl.12638
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12638 [Google Scholar]
  39. Meritan, C.
    (2020) The impact of self-reflection and integrated pronunciation instruction on the intelligibility of Generation Z learners of French: A mixed methods study. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  40. Meritan, C., & Mroz, A.
    (2019) Impact of self-reflection and awareness-raising on novice French learners’ pronunciation. Foreign Language Annals, 52(4), 798–821.   10.1111/flan.12429
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12429 [Google Scholar]
  41. Miller, J. S.
    (2012) Teaching French pronunciation with phonetics in a college-level beginner French course. NECTFL Review, 69, 47–68.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M.
    (2008) Segmental acquisition in adult ESL learners: A longitudinal study of vowel production. Language Learning, 58(3), 479–502.   10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2008.00448.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00448.x [Google Scholar]
  43. Munro, M. J., Derwing, T. M., & Thomson, R. I.
    (2015) Setting segmental priorities for English learners: Evidence from a longitudinal study. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 53(1), 39–60.   10.1515/iral‑2015‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2015-0002 [Google Scholar]
  44. New, B., Pallier, C., Brysbaert, M., & Ferrand, L.
    (2004) Lexique 2: A new French lexical database. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(3), 516–524.   10.3758/BF03195598
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195598 [Google Scholar]
  45. Pawlak, M.
    (2010) Designing and piloting a tool for the measurement of the use of pronunciation learning strategies. Research in Language, 8(0), 1–14.   10.2478/v10015‑010‑0005‑6
    https://doi.org/10.2478/v10015-010-0005-6 [Google Scholar]
  46. Plonsky, L.
    (Ed.) (2015) Advancing quantitative methods in second language research. Routledge. 10.4324/9781315870908
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315870908 [Google Scholar]
  47. Ramírez Verdugo, D.
    (2006) A Study of intonation awareness and learning in non-native speakers of English. Language Awareness, 15(3), 141–159.   10.2167/la404.0
    https://doi.org/10.2167/la404.0 [Google Scholar]
  48. Ranta, L. & Lyster, L.
    (2018) Form-focused instruction. InP. Garrett & J. M. Cots (Eds.), The routledge handbook of language awareness (pp.40–56). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Raoofi, S., Heng Chan, S., Mukundan, J., & Md Rashid, S.
    (2013) Metacognition and second/foreign language learning. English Language Teaching, 7(1), 36–49.   10.5539/elt.v7n1p36
    https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v7n1p36 [Google Scholar]
  50. Ruellot, V.
    (2006) French pronunciation learning and computer-mediated visual feedback. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. DAI-A 67/07, p.2556, Jan 2007, 3223704
  51. (2011) Computer-assisted pronunciation learning of French /u/ and /y/ at the intermediate level. Proceedings of the 2nd Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference, 199–213.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Saito, K., & Plonsky, L.
    (2019) Effects of second language pronunciation teaching revisited: A proposed measurement framework and meta-analysis. Language Learning, 69(3), 652–708.   10.1111/lang.12345
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12345 [Google Scholar]
  53. Sicola, L., & Darcy, I.
    (2015) Integrating Pronunciation into the Language Classroom. InM. Reed & J. M. Levis (Eds.), The Handbook of English Pronunciation (1st ed., pp.471–487). Wiley.   10.1002/9781118346952.ch26
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118346952.ch26 [Google Scholar]
  54. Sturm, J. L.
    (2019) Current approaches to pronunciation instruction: A longitudinal case study in French. Foreign Language Annals, 52(1), 32–44.   10.1111/flan.12376
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12376 [Google Scholar]
  55. Thomson, R.
    (2017) Measurement of accentedness, intelligibility, and comprehensibility. InO. Kang & A. Ginther (Eds.), Assessment in Second Language Pronunciation (1st ed., pp.11–29). Routledge.   10.4324/9781315170756‑2
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315170756-2 [Google Scholar]
  56. Thomson, R. I., & Derwing, T. M.
    (2015) The effectiveness of L2 pronunciation instruction: A narrative review. Applied Linguistics, 36(3), 326–344.   10.1093/applin/amu076
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amu076 [Google Scholar]
  57. Tomczak, M., & Tomczak, E.
    (2014) The need to report effect size estimates revisited. An overview of some recommended measures of effect size. Trends in Sport Sciences, 1(21), 19–25. ISSN2299-9590
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Trofimovich, P., Kennedy, S., & Blanchet, J.
    (2017) Development of second language French oral skills in an instructed setting: A focus on speech ratings. The Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 20(2), 32–50.   10.7202/1042675ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/1042675ar [Google Scholar]
  59. Zielinski, B., & Yates, L.
    (2014) Pronunciation instruction is not appropriate for beginning-level learners. InL. Grant (Ed.), Pronunciation myths: Applying second language research to classroom teaching (pp.56–79). University of Michigan Press.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): intelligibility; L2 French; longitudinal research; pronunciation; self-reflection
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error