1887
Volume 9, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2215-1931
  • E-ISSN: 2215-194X

Abstract

Abstract

The present study uses an acoustic analysis to examine the effects of implicit and explicit pronunciation instruction on the acquisition of German final devoicing in the L2 classroom. Twenty-nine English-speaking L2 learners of German at a North American university were assigned to an implicit or explicit condition. Learner speech samples were recorded, following a pre/post/delayed-post-test design. Four acoustic correlates of final and medial obstruent voicing were analyzed to establish the degree to which underlyingly voiced word-final stops were phonetically devoiced. Results indicate that learners in the explicit condition significantly outperformed learners in the implicit condition, with all four acoustic measures signaling significantly greater word-final devoicing by the post-test in the explicit condition. Orthography, declarative knowledge, and level of awareness are hypothesized as factors that influenced the acquisition process. The study calls for additional acoustic work on the effects of different instructional practices on German L2 pronunciation.

Available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jslp.22038.str
2023-07-20
2024-06-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jslp.22038.str.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/jslp.22038.str&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Boersma, P., & Weenink, D.
    (2019) Praat: Doing phonetics by computer (Version 6.1.02) [Computer software]. www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Charles-Luce, J.
    (1985) Word-final devoicing in German: effects of phonetic and sentential contexts. Journal of Phonetics, 13(3), 309–324. 10.1016/S0095‑4470(19)30762‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30762-4 [Google Scholar]
  3. Charles-Luce, J., & Dinnsen, D. A.
    (1987) A reanalysis of Catalan devoicing. Journal of Phonetics, 15(2), 187–190. 10.1016/S0095‑4470(19)30558‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30558-3 [Google Scholar]
  4. Colantoni, L., Steele, J., & Escudero, P.
    (2015) Second language speech: Theory and practice. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139087636
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139087636 [Google Scholar]
  5. DeKeyser, R.
    (1995) Learning second language grammar rules: An experiment with a miniature linguistic system. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17(3), 379–410. 10.1017/S027226310001425X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226310001425X [Google Scholar]
  6. (2020) Skill acquisition theory. InB. VanPatten, Keating, G. D., & Wulff, S. (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (pp.83–104) (3rd ed.). Routledge. 10.4324/9780429503986‑5
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429503986-5 [Google Scholar]
  7. Derwing, T. M. & Munro, M.
    (2015) Pronunciation fundamentals: Evidence-based perspectives for L2 teaching and research. John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.42
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.42 [Google Scholar]
  8. Dlaska, A., & Krekeler, C.
    (2013) The short-term effects of individual corrective feedback on L2 pronunciation. System, 41(1), 25–37. 10.1016/j.system.2013.01.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2013.01.005 [Google Scholar]
  9. Dmitrieva, O., Jongman, A., & Sereno, J.
    (2010) Phonological neutralization by native and non-native speakers: The case of Russian final devoicing. Journal of Phonetics, 38(3), 483–492. 10.1016/j.wocn.2010.06.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2010.06.001 [Google Scholar]
  10. Fischer-Jørgensen, E.
    (1964) Sound duration and place of articulation. Zeitschrift für Phonetik und Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, 17(1–6), 175–207.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gluszek, A., & Dovidio, J.
    (2010) The way they speak: A social psychological perspective on the stigma of nonnative accents in communication. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(2), 214–237. 10.1177/1088868309359288
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868309359288 [Google Scholar]
  12. Hayes-Harb, R., & Barrios, S.
    (2021) The influence of orthography in second language phonological acquisition. Language Teaching, 54(3), 297–326. 10.1017/S0261444820000658
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444820000658 [Google Scholar]
  13. Hayes-Harb, R., Brown, K., & Smith, B.
    (2018) Orthographic input and the acquisition of German final devoicing by native speakers of English. Language and Speech, 61(4), 547–564. 10.1177/0023830917710048
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0023830917710048 [Google Scholar]
  14. Hogan, J., & Rozsypal, A.
    (1980) Evaluation of vowel duration as a cue for the voicing distinction in the following word-final consonant. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 67(5), 1764–1771. 10.1121/1.384304
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.384304 [Google Scholar]
  15. House, A. S., & Fairbanks, G.
    (1953) The influence of consonantal environment upon the secondary acoustical characteristics of vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of’ America, 25(1), 105–113. 10.1121/1.1906982
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.1906982 [Google Scholar]
  16. Huensch, A., & Thompson, A.
    (2017) Contextualizing attitudes toward pronunciation: Foreign language learners in the United States. Foreign Language Annals, 50(2),410–432. 10.1111/flan.12259
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12259 [Google Scholar]
  17. Hualde, J. & Eager, C.
    (2016) Final devoicing and deletion of /d/ in Castilian Spanish. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 9(2), 329–353. 10.1515/shll‑2016‑0014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/shll-2016-0014 [Google Scholar]
  18. Lee, J., Jang, J., & Plonsky, L.
    (2015) The effectiveness of second language pronunciation instruction: A meta-analysis. Applied Linguistics, 36(3), 345–366. 10.1093/applin/amu040
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amu040 [Google Scholar]
  19. Levis, J.
    (2016) Accent in second language research and teaching. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 2(2), 153–159. 10.1075/jslp.2.2.01lev
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jslp.2.2.01lev [Google Scholar]
  20. (2019) Pronunciation research in recent dissertations. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 5(2), 181–194. 10.1075/jslp.19008.edi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jslp.19008.edi [Google Scholar]
  21. Lousada, M., Jesus, L. M., Hall, A.
    (2010) Temporal acoustic correlates of the voicing contrast in European Portuguese stops. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40(3) 261–275. 10.1017/S0025100310000186
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100310000186 [Google Scholar]
  22. Lyster, R., & Ranta, L.
    (1997) Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(1), 37–66. 10.1017/S0272263197001034
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263197001034 [Google Scholar]
  23. Mack, M.
    (1982) Voicing-dependent vowel duration in English and French: Monolingual and bilingual production. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 71(1), 173–187. 10.1121/1.387344
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.387344 [Google Scholar]
  24. Martin, I.
    (2018) Bridging the gap between L2 pronunciation research and teaching: Using iCPRS to improve novice German learners’ pronunciation in distance and face-to-face classrooms. (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University).
  25. Martin, I., & Jackson, C.
    (2016) Pronunciation training facilitates the learning and retention of L2 grammatical structures. Foreign Language Annals, 49(4), 658–676. 10.1111/flan.12224
    https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12224 [Google Scholar]
  26. McCandless, P., & Winitz, H.
    (1986) Test of pronunciation following one year of comprehension instruction in college German. The Modern Language Journal, 70(4), 355–362. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1986.tb05288.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1986.tb05288.x [Google Scholar]
  27. Munro, M.
    (2003) A primer on accent discrimination in the Canadian context. TESL Canada Journal, 20(2), 38–51. 10.18806/tesl.v20i2.947
    https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v20i2.947 [Google Scholar]
  28. Munro, M., & Derwing, T. M.
    (2006) The functional load principle in ESL pronunciation instruction: An exploratory study. System, 34(4), 520–531. 10.1016/j.system.2006.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  29. Olson, D., & Offerman, H.
    (2021) Maximizing the effect of visual feedback for pronunciation instruction: A comparative analysis of three approaches. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 7(1), 89–115. 10.1075/jslp.20005.ols
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jslp.20005.ols [Google Scholar]
  30. Peltekov, P.
    (2020) The effectiveness of implicit and explicit instruction on German L2 learners’ pronunciation. Die Unterrichtspraxis, 53(1), 1–22. 10.1111/tger.12115
    https://doi.org/10.1111/tger.12115 [Google Scholar]
  31. Piroth, H. & Janker, P.
    (2004) Speaker-dependent differences in voicing and devoicing of German obstruents. Journal of Phonetics, 32(1), 81–109. 10.1016/S0095‑4470(03)00008‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(03)00008-1 [Google Scholar]
  32. Plonsky, L. & Oswald, F. L.
    (2014) How big is ‘big’? Interpreting effects sizes in L2 research. Language Learning, 64(4), 878–891. 10.1111/lang.12079
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12079 [Google Scholar]
  33. Port, R., & O’Dell, M.
    (1985) Neutralization of syllable-final voicing in German. Journal of Phonetics, 13(4), 455–471. 10.1016/S0095‑4470(19)30797‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30797-1 [Google Scholar]
  34. Port, R., & Crawford, P.
    (1989) Incomplete neutralization and pragmatics in German. Journal of Phonetics, 17(4), 257–282. 10.1016/S0095‑4470(19)30444‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30444-9 [Google Scholar]
  35. Roccamo, A.
    (2015) Teaching pronunciation in just ten minutes a day: A method for pronunciation instruction in first-semester German language classrooms. Die Unterrichtspraxis, 48(1), 59–83. 10.1111/tger.10181
    https://doi.org/10.1111/tger.10181 [Google Scholar]
  36. Schmidt, R.
    (1990) The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 129–158. 10.1093/applin/11.2.129
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/11.2.129 [Google Scholar]
  37. Simon, E.
    (2010) Phonological transfer of voicing and devoicing rules: evidence from L1 Dutch and L2 English conversational speech. Language Sciences, 32(1), 63–86. 10.1016/j.langsci.2008.10.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2008.10.001 [Google Scholar]
  38. Slowiaczek, L. M., & Dinnsen, D.
    (1985) On the neutralizing status of Polish word-final devoicing. Journal of Phonetics, 131, 325–341. 10.1016/S0095‑4470(19)30763‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30763-6 [Google Scholar]
  39. Smith, B. L., Hayes-Harb, R., Bruss, M., & Harker, A.
    (2009) Production and perception of voicing and devoicing in similar German and English word pairs by native speakers of German. Journal of Phonetics, 37(3), 257–275. 10.1016/j.wocn.2009.03.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2009.03.001 [Google Scholar]
  40. Stratton, J. M.
    (accepted). Implicit and explicit pronunciation instruction: A study of learner preferences in higher education. Unterrichtspraxis.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. (2022) Explicit historical, phonetic, and phonological instruction in second language acquisition. (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University).
  42. Sturm, J., Miyamoto, M., & Suzuki, N.
    (2019) Pronunciation in the L2 French classroom: Student and teacher attitudes. The French Review, 92(3), 60–78. 10.1353/tfr.2019.0182
    https://doi.org/10.1353/tfr.2019.0182 [Google Scholar]
  43. Thomson, R. I., & Derwing, T. M.
    (2015) The effectiveness of L2 pronunciation instruction: A narrative review. Applied Linguistics, 36(3), 326–344. 10.1093/applin/amu076
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amu076 [Google Scholar]
  44. Turk, A., & Shattuck-Hufnagel, S.
    (2007) Multiple targets of phrase-final lengthening in American English words. Journal of Phonetics, 35(4), 445–472. 10.1016/j.wocn.2006.12.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2006.12.001 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jslp.22038.str
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jslp.22038.str
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error