1887
Volume 3, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2215-1931
  • E-ISSN: 2215-194X
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

In spite of the well-documented advantage of an early age of acquisition, findings from one-way (foreign language) immersion programs suggest that this instructional context is insufficient for acquisition of nativelike articulations by child foreign language learners. It has been suggested that the lack of exposure to native speaking peers may contribute to reported non-native pronunciation. This study expands upon the previous research with child second language learners of Spanish, exploring how children, who learn academic content in Spanish, alongside native Spanish-speaking peers produce the Spanish vowels. Few differences are observed between the learner and peer native speaker groups, suggesting that the direct contact with native speakers of Spanish afforded by two-way bilingual immersion promotes phonological acquisition.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jslp.3.1.04men
2017-04-07
2019-10-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adank, P. , Smits, R. , & van Hout, R
    (2004) A comparison of vowel normalization procedures for language variation research. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 116(5), 3099–3107. doi: 10.1121/1.1795335
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.1795335 [Google Scholar]
  2. Asher, J. , & García, R
    (1969) The optimal age to learn a foreign language. The Modern Language Journal, 53(5), 334–341. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1969.tb04603.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1969.tb04603.x [Google Scholar]
  3. Au, T. K.-F. , Knightly, L. M. , Jun, S.-A. , & Oh, J. S
    (2002) Overhearing a language during childhood. Psychological Science, 13(3), 238–243. doi: 10.1111/1467‑9280.00444
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00444 [Google Scholar]
  4. Au, T. K-F. , Oh, J. S. , Knightly, L. M. , Jun, S.-A. , & Romo, L. F
    (2007) Salvaging a childhood language. Journal of Memory and Language, 58(4), 998–1011. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2007.11.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.11.001 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bates, D. , Maechler, M. , Bolker, B. , & Walker, S
    (2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software67(1), 1–48. doi: 10.18637/jss.v067.i01
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bearse, C. , & de Jong, E. J
    (2008) Cultural and linguistic investment: Adolescents in a secondary two-way immersion program. Equity and Excellence in Education, 41(3), 325–340. doi: 10.1080/10665680802174817
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10665680802174817 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bent, T. , Bradlow, A. R. , & Smith, B. L
    (2007) Segmental errors in different word positions and their effects on intelligibility of non-native speech. In O.-S. Bohn & M. J. Munro (Eds.), Language experience in second language speech learning: In honor of James Emil Flege (pp.331–347). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/lllt.17.28ben
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.17.28ben [Google Scholar]
  8. Boersma, P
    (2001) Praat, a system for doing phonetics by computer. Glot International, 5(9/10), 341–345.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Boersma, P. , & Escudero, P
    (2008) Learning to perceive a smaller L2 vowel inventory: An Optimality Theory account. In P. Avery , B. E. Dresher , & K. Rice (Eds.), Contrast in phonology. Theory, perception, acquisition (pp.271–301). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bohn, O.-S. , & Flege, J. E
    (1992) The production of new and similar vowels by German learners of English. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 131–158. doi: 10.1017/S0272263100010792
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100010792 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bosch, L. , Costa, A. , & Sebastián-Galles, N
    (2000) First- and second-language vowel perception in early bilinguals. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 12, 189–221. doi: 10.1080/09541446.2000.10590222
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09541446.2000.10590222 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bradlow, A. R
    (1995) A comparative acoustic study of English and Spanish vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97(3), 1916–1924. doi: 10.1121/1.412064
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.412064 [Google Scholar]
  13. Christian, D. , Montone, C. , Lindholm, K. J. , & Carranza, I
    (1997) Profiles in two-way immersion education. McHenry, IL: Delta Systems and Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cobb, K. , & Simonet, M
    (2015) Adult second language learning of Spanish vowels. Hispania, 98(1), 47–60. doi: 10.1353/hpn.2015.0026
    https://doi.org/10.1353/hpn.2015.0026 [Google Scholar]
  15. Cook, V. J
    (1992) Evidence for multi-competence. Language Learning, 42(4), 557–591. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1992.tb01044.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1992.tb01044.x [Google Scholar]
  16. Dalton-Puffer, C. , Kaltenboeck, G. , & Smit, U
    (1997) Learner attitudes and L2 pronunciation in Austria. World Englishes, 16(1), 115–128. doi: 10.1111/1467‑971X.00052
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00052 [Google Scholar]
  17. DeKeyser, R. M
    (2000) The robustness of critical period effects in second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22(4), 499–533.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Delattre, P
    (1965) Comparing the phonetic features of English, French, German and Spanish: An interim report. Heidelberg: Julius Groos.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Delforge, A. M
    (2008) Unstressed vowel reduction in Andean Spanish. In L. Colantoni & J. Stelee (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonology (pp.107–124). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Derwing, T. J. , & Munro, M. J
    (2015) Pronunciation fundamentals. Evidence-based perspectives for L2 teaching and research. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/lllt.42
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.42 [Google Scholar]
  21. Díaz, M. , & Simonet, M
    (2015) Second language acquisition of Spanish /e/ and /ei/ by native English speakers. Hispania, 98(4), 750–761. doi: 10.1353/hpn.2015.0138
    https://doi.org/10.1353/hpn.2015.0138 [Google Scholar]
  22. Díaz-Campos, M
    (2004) Context of learning of Spanish second language phonology. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(2), 249–273. doi: 10.1017/S0272263104262052
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262052 [Google Scholar]
  23. Elliot, A. R
    (1997) On the teaching and acquisition of pronunciation within a communicative approach. Hispania, 80(1), 95–108. doi: 10.2307/345983
    https://doi.org/10.2307/345983 [Google Scholar]
  24. Flege, J. E
    (1995) Second language speech learning. Theory, findings, and problems. In W. Strange (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp.233–277). Timonium, MD: York Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (1997) English vowel productions by Dutch talkers: More evidence for the "similar" vs "new" distinction. In A. James & J. Leather (Eds.), Second language speech: Structure and process (pp.11–52). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110882933.11
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110882933.11 [Google Scholar]
  26. Flege, J. E. , Birdsong, D. , Bialystok, E. , Mack, M. , Sunge, H. , & Tsukada, K
    (2006) Degree of foreign accent in English sentences produced by Korean children and adults. Journal of Phonetics, 34(2), 153–175. doi: 10.1016/j.wocn.2005.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2005.05.001 [Google Scholar]
  27. Flege, J. E. , Frieda, E. M. , & Nozawa, T
    (1997) Amount of native language use affects the pronunciation of an L2. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 169–186. doi: 10.1006/jpho.1996.0040
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1996.0040 [Google Scholar]
  28. Flege, J. E. , & Liu, S
    (2001) The effect of experience on adults’ acquisition of a second language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23(4): 527–552.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Flege, J. E. , MacKay, I. R. A. , & Meador, D
    (1999) Native Italian speakers’ perception and production of English vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 5, 2973–2987. doi: 10.1121/1.428116
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.428116 [Google Scholar]
  30. Flege, J. E. , Munro, M. J. , & MacKay, I. R. A
    (1995) Effects of age on second language learning on the production of English consonants. Journal of Phonetics, 25, 169–186. doi: 10.1006/jpho.1996.0040
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1996.0040 [Google Scholar]
  31. Flege, J. E. , Schirru, C. , & MacKay, I
    (2003) Interaction between the native and second language phonetic subsystems. Speech Communication, 40, 467–491. doi: 10.1016/S0167‑6393(02)00128‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6393(02)00128-0 [Google Scholar]
  32. Fortune, T. W. , & Arabbo, M. A
    (2006) Attending to immersion language proficiency at the program level. Paper presented at theDual Language Immersion Pre-Conference Institute of the National Association of Bilingual Education (NABE).
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Fortune, T. W. , & Tedick, D. J
    (2008) One-way, two-way and indigenous immersion: A call for cross-fertilization. In T. W. Fortune & D. J. Tedick (Eds.), Pathways to multilingualism: Evolving perspectives on immersion education (pp.3–21). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. García de las Bayonas, M
    (2004) The acquisition of vowels in Spanish and English as a second language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. García Lecumberri, M. L. , & Gallardo, F
    (2003) English FL sounds in school learners of different ages. In M. del P. García Mayo & M. L. García Lecumberri (Eds.), Age and the acquisition of English as a foreign language (pp.115–135). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Genesee, F
    (1987) Learning through two languages: Studies of immersion and bilingual education. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Granena, G. , & Long, M. H
    (2013) Age of onset, length of residence, language aptitude, and ultimate L2 attainment in three linguistic domains. Second Language Research, 29(3), 311–343. doi: 10.1177/0267658312461497
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658312461497 [Google Scholar]
  38. Grijalva, C. , Piccinini, P. E. , & Arvaniti, A
    (2013) The vowel spaces of southern Californian English and Mexican Spanish as produced by monolinguals and bilinguals. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, 19, 060088. Retrieved from: https://www.kent.ac.uk/secl/ell/staff/amalia-arvaniti/docs/GrijalvaPiccininiArvaniti.4800752.pdf (May 19, 2016). doi: 10.1121/1.4800752
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4800752 [Google Scholar]
  39. Guion, S. G
    (2003) The vowel systems of Quichua-Spanish bilinguals. Age of acquisition effects on the mutual influence of the first and second languages. Phonetica, 60, 98–128. doi: 10.1159/000071449
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000071449 [Google Scholar]
  40. Harada, T
    (2007) The production of voice onset time (VOT) by English-speaking children in a Japanese immersion program. IRAL, 45, 353–378. doi: 10.1515/IRAL.2007.015
    https://doi.org/10.1515/IRAL.2007.015 [Google Scholar]
  41. (2006) The acquisition of single and geminate stops by English-speaking children in a Japanese immersion program. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 601–632. doi: 10.1017/S0272263106060281
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263106060281 [Google Scholar]
  42. Harmegnies, B. , & Poch-Olivé, D
    (1992) A study of style-induced vowel variability: Laboratory versus spontaneous speech in Spanish. Speech Communication, 11(4–5), 429–437. doi: 10.1016/0167‑6393(92)90048‑C
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6393(92)90048-C [Google Scholar]
  43. Hedgcock, J. S. , & Lefkowitz, N
    (2000) Overt and covert prestige in the French language classroom: When is it good to sound bad?Applied Language Learning, 11(1), 75–97.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Højen, A. , & Flege, J. E
    (2006) Early learners’ discrimination of second-language vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 119(5), 3072–3084. doi: 10.1121/1.2184289
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.2184289 [Google Scholar]
  45. Howard, E. R. , & Sugarman, J
    (2001) Two-way immersion program: Features and statistics (ERIC Digest, EDO-FL-01-01). Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. Retrieved from: www.cal.org/resources/digest/0101twi.html (April 1, 2009).
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Knightly, L. M. , Jun, S. , Oh, J. S. , & Au, T. K
    (2003) Production benefits of childhood overhearing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 114(1), 465–474. doi: 10.1121/1.1577560
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.1577560 [Google Scholar]
  47. Lacerda, A. , & Canellada, M. J
    (1945) Comportamientos tonales vocálicos en español y en portugués. Anejos de la Revista de Filología Española, 32, 203–204.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Larson-Hall, J
    (2008) Weighing the benefits of studying a foreign language at a younger starting age in a minimal input situation. Second Language Research, 24, 35–63. doi: 10.1177/0267658307082981
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658307082981 [Google Scholar]
  49. Lee, J. F. , & VanPatten, B
    (2003) Making communicative language teaching happen (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Lefkowitz, N. , & Hedgcock, J
    (2002) Sound barriers: Influences of social prestige, peer pressure, and teacher (dis)approval on FL oral performance. Language Teaching Research, 6(3), 223–244. doi: 10.1191/1362168802lr107oa
    https://doi.org/10.1191/1362168802lr107oa [Google Scholar]
  51. Lipski, J. M
    (1990) Aspects of Ecuadorian vowel reduction. Hispanic Linguistics, 4(1), 1–19.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Lobanov, B. M
    (1971) Classification of Russian vowels spoken by different speakers. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 49, 606–608. doi: 10.1121/1.1912396
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.1912396 [Google Scholar]
  53. Lybeck, K. E
    (2002) The role of acculturation and social networks in the acquisition of second language pronunciation. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. MacLeod, A. A. N. , Stoel-Gammon, C. , & Wassink, A. B
    (2009) Production of high vowels in Canadian English and Canadian French: A comparison of early bilingual and monolingual speakers. Journal of Phonetics, 37, 374–387. doi: 10.1016/j.wocn.2009.07.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2009.07.001 [Google Scholar]
  55. Marín Gálvez, R
    (1995) La duración vocálica en español. E. L. U. A. 10, 213–226.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Mayr, R. , & Montanari, S
    (2015) Differentiation and interaction in the vowel productions of trilingual children. InThe Scottish Consortium for ICPhS 2015 (Ed.), Proceedings of the 18th Congress of Phonetic Sciences (Paper number 0072.1–5). Glasgow, UK: The University of Glasgow. Retrieved from: www.icphs2015.info/pdfs/Papers/ICPHS0072.pdf (May 19, 2016).
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Menke, M. R
    (2015) How native do they sound? An acoustic analysis of the Spanish vowels of elementary Spanish immersion students. Hispania, 98(4), 802–822. doi: 10.1353/hpn.2015.0123
    https://doi.org/10.1353/hpn.2015.0123 [Google Scholar]
  58. Menke, M. R. , & Face, T. L
    (2010) Second language Spanish vowel production: An acoustic analysis. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 3(1), 181–214. doi: 10.1515/shll‑2010‑1069
    https://doi.org/10.1515/shll-2010-1069 [Google Scholar]
  59. Munro, M. J
    (1993) Production of English vowels by native speakers’ of Arabic: Acoustic measurements and accentedness ratings. Language and Speech, 36(1), 39–66.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Munro, M. J. , Flege, J. E. , & MacKay, I. R. A
    (1996) The effects of age of second language learning on the pronunciation of English vowels. Applied Psycholinguistics, 17, 313–334. doi: 10.1017/S0142716400007967
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400007967 [Google Scholar]
  61. Navarro Tomás, T
    (1957) Manual de pronunciación española. Madrid, Spain: C.S.I.C.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Netelenbos, N. , Li, F. , & Rosen, N
    (2015) Stop consonant production of French immersion students in Western Canada: A study of voice onset time. International Journal of Bilingualism, 20, 346–357. doi: 10.1177/1367006914564566
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006914564566 [Google Scholar]
  63. Ortega, L
    (2013) SLA for the 21st century: Disciplinary progress, transdisciplinary relevance, and the bi/multilingual turn. Language Learning, 63(Supplement 1), 1–24. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2012.00735.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00735.x [Google Scholar]
  64. (2014) Ways forward for a bi/multilingual turn in SLA. In S. May (Ed.), The multilingual turn: Implications for SLA, TESOL and bilingual education (pp.32–53). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. (2015) Second language learning explained? SLA across ten contemporary theories. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (2nd ed., pp.245–272). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Piske, T. , MacKay, I. R. A. , & Flege, J. E
    (2001) Factors affecting degree of foreign accent in an L2: A review. Journal of Phonetics, 29, 191–215. doi: 10.1006/jpho.2001.0134
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.2001.0134 [Google Scholar]
  67. Potowski, K
    (2005) Tense and aspect in the oral and written narratives of two-way immersion students. In D. Eddington (Ed.), Selected proceedings of the 6th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages (pp.123–136). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. (2007a) Characteristics of the Spanish grammar and sociolinguistic proficiency of dual immersion graduates. Spanish in Context, 4(2), 187–216. doi: 10.1075/sic.4.2.04pot
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sic.4.2.04pot [Google Scholar]
  69. (2007b) Language and identity in a dual immersion school. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Quilis, A. , & Esgueva, M
    (1983) Fonemas vocálicos españoles. In M. Esgueva & M. Cantarero (Eds.), Estudios de fonética (pp.159–252). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto Miguel de Cervantes.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Sebastián-Galles, N. , & Soto-Faraco, S
    (1999) Online processing of native and non-native phonemic contrasts in early bilinguals. Cognition, 72, 111–123. doi: 10.1016/S0010‑0277(99)00024‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(99)00024-4 [Google Scholar]
  72. Simões, A. R. M
    (1996) Phonetics in second language acquisition: An acoustic study of fluency in adult learners of Spanish. Hispania, 79, 87–95. doi: 10.2307/345617
    https://doi.org/10.2307/345617 [Google Scholar]
  73. Snow, M. A. , & Campbell, R. N
    (1985) The acquisition of Spanish phonology by English-speaking children in an immersion program. In T. K. Bhatia & W. C. Ritchie (Eds.), Progression in second language acquisition. New Delhi: Bahri Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Stevens, J. J
    (2011) Vowel duration in second language Spanish vowels: Study abroad versus at-home learners. Arizona Working Papers in SLA & Teaching, 18, 77–104.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Thomas, E. R. , & Kendall, T
    (2007) NORM: The vowel normalization and plotting suite. Retrieved from: ncslaap.lib.ncsu.edu/tools/norm/
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Thompson, I
    (1991) Foreign accents revisited: The English pronunciation of Russian immigrants. Language Learning, 41(2), 177–204. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1991.tb00683.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1991.tb00683.x [Google Scholar]
  77. Yang, J. , Fox, R. A. , & Jacewicz, E
    (2015) Vowel development in an emergent Mandarin-English bilingual child: A longitudinal study. Journal of Child Language, 42(5), 1125–1145. doi: 10.1017/S0305000914000531
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000914000531 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jslp.3.1.04men
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jslp.3.1.04men
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error