1887
Volume 3, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2215-1931
  • E-ISSN: 2215-194X
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

In Spanish, voiced stops weaken to approximants and display variables degrees of lenition according to the context in which the stop occurs, making them a complex pronunciation feature. Accumulated findings from cross-sectional research on second language (L2) speakers suggests that many L2 learners struggle to produce the approximants even at the most advanced levels of study. The present study offers a new perspective on the approximants by studying individual learners’ production of Spanish [β] over time and across phonetic contexts. Twenty-six English-speaking learners of L2 Spanish recorded two speaking tasks five times over a yearlong period corresponding to their second and third semesters of college-level language instruction. Mixed-effects models were fit to learners’ C:V intensity ratio data to examine development, and stress and task type were included as substantive predictors. Although the group trajectory was flat, many learners displayed substantial change over time, including positive and negative trajectories.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jslp.3.2.03nag
2017-12-04
2019-09-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Alvord, S. M. , & Christiansen, D. E.
    (2012) Factors influencing the acquisition of Spanish voiced stop spirantization during an extended stay abroad. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 5(2), 239–276. doi: 10.1515/shll‑2012‑1129
    https://doi.org/10.1515/shll-2012-1129 [Google Scholar]
  2. Barlow, J. A.
    (2003) The stop-spirant alternation in Spanish: Converging evidence for a fortition account. Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 22(1), 51–86.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bates, D. , Maechler, M. Bolker, B. , & Walker, S.
    (2014) _lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4_. R package version 1.1.-7. Retrieved from 〈CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boersma, P. , & Weenink, D.
    (2012) Praat: Doing phonetics by computer (Version 5.3.38). Retrieved from 〈www.praat.org/
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bouavichith, D. , & Davidson, L.
    (2013) Segmental and prosodic effects on intervocalic voiced stop reduction in connected speech. Phonetica, 70(3), 182–206. doi: 10.1159/000355635
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000355635 [Google Scholar]
  6. Chang, C.
    (2010) The implementation of laryngeal contrast in Korean as a second language. Harvard Studies in Korean Linguistics, 13, 91–104.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cole, J. , Hualde, J. I. , & Iskarous, K.
    (1999) Effects of prosodic and segmental context on /g/ deletion in Spanish. In O. Fujimura , B. D. Joseph , & B. Palek (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth Linguistics and Phonetics Conference (pp.575–589). Prague: The Karolinum Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Colantoni, L. , & Marinescu, I.
    (2010) The scope of stop weakening in Argentine Spanish. In M. Ortega-Llebaria (Ed.), Selected Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonology (pp.100–114). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Retrieved from 〈www.lingref.com/cpp/lasp/4/paper2371.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cunnings, I. , & Finlayson, I.
    (2015) Mixed effects modeling and longitudinal data analysis. In L. Plonsky (Ed.), Advancing quantitative methods in second language research (pp.159–181). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Curran, P. J. , Obeidat, K. , & Losardo, D.
    (2010) Twelve frequently asked questions about growth curve modeling. Journal of Cognition and Development, 11(2), 121–136. doi: 10.1080/15248371003699969
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15248371003699969 [Google Scholar]
  11. Derwing, T. M.
    (2010) Utopian goals for pronunciation teaching. In J. Levis & K. LeVelle (Eds.), Proceedings of the First Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference (pp.24–37). Ames, IA: Iowa State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Derwing, T. M. , & Munro, M. J.
    (2013) The development of L2 oral language skills in two L1 groups: A 7-year study. Language Learning, 63(2), 163–185. doi: 10.1111/lang.12000
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12000 [Google Scholar]
  13. Derwing, T. M. , Munro, M. J. , & Thomson, R. I.
    (2008) A longitudinal study of ESL learners’ fluency and comprehensibility development. Applied Linguistics, 29(3), 359–380. doi: 10.1093/applin/amm041
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amm041 [Google Scholar]
  14. Díaz-Campos, M.
    (2004) Context of learning in the acquisition of Spanish second language phonology. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(2), 249–273. doi: 10.1017/S0272263104262052
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262052 [Google Scholar]
  15. (2006) The effect of style in second language phonology: An analysis of segmental acquisition in study abroad and regular-classroom students. In C. A. Klee & T. L. Face (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 7th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages (pp.26–39). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Eddington, D.
    (2011) What are the contextual phonetic variants of in colloquial Spanish?Probus, 23(1), 1–19. doi: 10.1515/prbs.2011.001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/prbs.2011.001 [Google Scholar]
  17. Face, T. L. , & Menke, M. R.
    (2009) Acquisition of the Spanish voiced spirants by second language learners. In J. Collentine , M. García , B. Lafford , & F. Marcos Marín (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the Eleventh Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp.39–52). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Retrieved from 〈www.lingref.com/cpp/hls/11/paper2201.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Flege, J. E.
    (1991) Age of learning affects the authenticity of voice-onset time (VOT) in stop consonants produced in a second language. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 89(1), 395–411. doi: 10.1121/1.400473
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.400473 [Google Scholar]
  19. Freed, B. F. , Dewey, D. P. , Segalowitz, N. , & Halter, R.
    (2004) The language contact profile. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(02), 349–356. doi: 10.1017/S027226310426209X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226310426209X [Google Scholar]
  20. Holliday, J
    (2015) A longitudinal study on the second language acquisition of a three-way stop contrast. Journal of Phonetics, 50, 1–14. doi: 10.1016/j.wocn.2015.01.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2015.01.004 [Google Scholar]
  21. Hualde, J. I. , Simonet, M. , & Nadeu, M.
    (2011) Consonant lenition and phonological recategorization. Laboratory Phonology, 2(2), 301–329. doi: 10.1515/labphon.2011.011
    https://doi.org/10.1515/labphon.2011.011 [Google Scholar]
  22. Lavoie, L. M.
    (2001) Consonant strength: Phonological patterns and phonetic manifestations. New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Linck, J. A. , & Cunnings, I.
    (2015) The utility and application of mixed-effects models in second language research. Language Learning, 65(S1), 185–207. doi: 10.1111/lang.12117
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12117 [Google Scholar]
  24. Lord, G.
    (2010) The combined effects of immersion and instruction on second language pronunciation. Foreign Language Annals, 43(3), 488–503. doi: 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2010.01094.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2010.01094.x [Google Scholar]
  25. Munro, M. J. , & Derwing, T. M.
    (2006) The functional load principle in ESL pronunciation instruction: An exploratory study. System, 34(4), 520–531. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2006.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  26. (2008) Segmental acquisition in adult ESL learners: A longitudinal study of vowel production. Language Learning, 58(3), 479–502. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2008.00448.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00448.x [Google Scholar]
  27. (2009) Putting accent in its place: Rethining obstacles to communication. Language Teaching, 42(4), 476–490. doi: 10.1017/S026144480800551X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480800551X [Google Scholar]
  28. Munro, M. J. , Derwing, T. M. , & Thomson, R. I.
    (2015) Setting segmental priorities for English learners: Evidence from a longitudinal study. IRAL, 53(1), 39–60. doi: 10.1515/iral‑2015‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2015-0002 [Google Scholar]
  29. Munro, M. J. , Derwing, T. M. , Thomson, R. I. , & Elliot, D.
    (2013) Naturalistic L2 segment development: Implications for pedagogy. Paper presented at thePronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference, Ames, IA.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Murakami, A.
    (2016) Modeling systematicity and individuality in nonlinear second language development: The case of English grammatical morphemes. Language Learning. doi: 10.1111/lang.12166
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12166 [Google Scholar]
  31. Nagle, C. , Morales-Front, A. , Moorman, C. , & Sanz, C.
    (2016) Pronunciation development in the study abroad context: Methodological and programmatic considerations. In D. M. Velliaris (Ed.), Handbook of research on study abroad programs and outbound mobility (pp.673–695). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. doi: 10.4018/978‑1‑5225‑0169‑5.ch027
    https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-0169-5.ch027 [Google Scholar]
  32. Ortega-Llebaria, M.
    (2004) Interplay between phonetic and inventory constraints in the degree of spirantization of voiced stops: Comparing intervocalic /b/ and intervocalic /g/ in Spanish and English. In T. L. Face (Ed.), Laboratory approaches to Spanish phonology (pp.237–253). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. R Core Team
    (2015) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. 〈www.R-project.org/
  34. Rogers, B. M. A. , & Alvord, S. M.
    (2014) The gradience of spirantization: Factors affecting L2 production of intervocalic Spanish [β δ γ]. Spanish in Context, 11(3), 402–424. doi: 10.1075/sic.11.3.05rog
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sic.11.3.05rog [Google Scholar]
  35. Shea, C. E. , & Curtin, S.
    (2011) Experience, representations and the production of second language allophones. Second Language Research, 27(2), 229–250. doi: 10.1177/0267658310375753
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658310375753 [Google Scholar]
  36. Shively, R. L.
    (2008) L2 acquisition of [β], [ð], and [ɣ] in Spanish: Impact of experience, linguistic environment and learner variables. Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 27(2), 79–114.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Singer, J. D. , & Willet, J. B.
    (2003) Applied longitudinal data analysis: Modeling change and event occurrence. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152968.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152968.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  38. Zampini, M. L.
    (1994) The role of native language transfer and task formality in the acquisition of Spanish spirantization. Hispania, 77(3), 470–481. doi: 10.2307/344974
    https://doi.org/10.2307/344974 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jslp.3.2.03nag
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jslp.3.2.03nag
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): approximants , growth curve modeling , individual trajectories , longitudinal research and Spanish
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error