1887
Volume 3, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2542-3835
  • E-ISSN: 2542-3843
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study explores task effects on fluency development in second language (L2) Mandarin during study abroad (SA) in China, given linguistic and pedagogic challenges facing western learners of Mandarin (Zhao, 2011). Data from 10 adult English learners of Mandarin were compared pre/post 10 months’ SA in China. Performance was measured in 4 tasks with different task loads (rehearsed vs. spontaneous speech, in monologic and dialogic mode). Significant differences between the rehearsed monologue and other tasks found pre-SA were generally not found after SA. Some differences remained between monologues and dialogues, suggesting that task load effects may override SA impact. Claims about the impact of SA on L2 oral development should take more account of different task demands, to help further illuminate our understanding of how SA may benefit L2 fluency.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jsls.00010.wri
2021-02-05
2021-05-10
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Awwad, A. , Tavakoli, P. , & Wright, C.
    (2017) “I think that’s what he’s doing”: Effects of intentional reasoning on second language (L2) speech performance. System, 67, 158–169. 10.1016/j.system.2017.05.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.05.002 [Google Scholar]
  2. Boersma, P. , & Weenink, D.
    (2014) Praat: Doing phonetics by computer (Version 5.3.51). Retrieved fromwww.praat.org/
  3. Collentine, J. , & Freed, B.
    (2004) Learning context and its effects on second language acquisition: Introduction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(2), 153–171. 10.1017/S0272263104262015
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262015 [Google Scholar]
  4. de Jong, N. H.
    (2016) Predicting pauses in L1 and L2 speech: The effects of utterance boundaries and word frequency. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 54(2), 113–132. 10.1515/iral‑2016‑9993
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2016-9993 [Google Scholar]
  5. de Jong, N. H. , Steinel, M. , Florijn, A. , Schoonen, R. , & Hulstijn, J.
    (2012) Facets of speaking proficiency. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34(1), 5–34. 10.1017/S0272263111000489
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263111000489 [Google Scholar]
  6. de Jong, N. , & Perfetti, C. A.
    (2011) Fluency training in the ESL classroom: An experimental study of fluency development and proceduralization. Language Learning, 61(2), 533–568. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2010.00620.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00620.x [Google Scholar]
  7. Derwing, T. M. , Munro, M. J. , & Thomson, R. I.
    (2008) A longitudinal study of ESL learners’ fluency and comprehensibility development. Applied Linguistics, 29(3), 359–380. 10.1093/applin/amm041
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amm041 [Google Scholar]
  8. Du, H.
    (2013) The development of Chinese fluency during Study Abroad in China. The Modern Language Journal, 97(1), 131–143. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2013.01434.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.01434.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Duff, P. , Anderson, T. , Ilnyckyj, R. , Van Gaya, E. , Wang, R. , & Yates, E.
    (2013) Learning Chinese: Linguistic, sociocultural, and narrative perspectives. De Gruyter. 10.1515/9781934078778
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781934078778 [Google Scholar]
  10. Ellis, R.
    (2003) Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Everson, M. , & Xiao, Y.
    (Eds.) (2009) Teaching Chinese as a foreign language. Cheng & Tsui.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Foster, P. , Tonkyn, A. , & Wigglesworth, G.
    (2000) Measuring spoken language: A unit for all reasons. Applied Linguistics, 21, 354–375. 10.1093/applin/21.3.354
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/21.3.354 [Google Scholar]
  13. Freed, B.
    (Ed.) (1995) Second language acquisition in a study abroad context. John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.9
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.9 [Google Scholar]
  14. Freed, B. F. , Segalowitz, N. , & Dewey, D.
    (2004) Context of learning and second language fluency in French: Comparing regular classroom, study abroad, and intensive domestic immersion programs. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(2), 275–301. 10.1017/S0272263104262064
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262064 [Google Scholar]
  15. Gatbonton, E. , & Segalowitz, N.
    (2005) Rethinking communicative language teaching: A focus on access to fluency. The Canadian Modern Language Review / La revue Canadienne des Langues Vivantes, 61(3), 325–353. 10.3138/cmlr.61.3.325
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.61.3.325 [Google Scholar]
  16. Gilabert, R. , Barón, J. , & Levkina, M.
    (2011) Manipulating task complexity across task types and modes. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Second language task complexity: Researching the cognition hypothesis of language learning and performance (pp.105–138). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.2.10ch5
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.2.10ch5 [Google Scholar]
  17. Han, Z.-H.
    (Ed.) (2014) Studies in second language acquisition of Chinese. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783092093
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783092093 [Google Scholar]
  18. Han, Z.-H. , & Finneran, R.
    (2014) Re-engaging the interface debate: Strong, weak, none, or all?International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 24(3), 370–389. 10.1111/ijal.12034
    https://doi.org/10.1111/ijal.12034 [Google Scholar]
  19. Hu, B.
    (2010) The challenges of Chinese: A preliminary study of UK learners’ perceptions of difficulty. The Language Learning Journal, 38(1), 99–118. 10.1080/09571731003620721
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571731003620721 [Google Scholar]
  20. Iwashita, N. , McNamara, T. , & Elder, C.
    (2001) Can we predict task difficulty in an oral proficiency test? Exploring the potential of an information processing approach to task design. Language Learning, 21, 401–436. 10.1111/0023‑8333.00160
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00160 [Google Scholar]
  21. Kahng, J.
    (2014) Exploring utterance and cognitive fluency of L1 and L2 English speakers: Temporal measures and stimulated recall. Language Learning, 64(4), 809–854. 10.1111/lang.12084
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12084 [Google Scholar]
  22. Kasper, G. , & Kellerman, E.
    (Eds.) (1997) Communication strategies: Psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kim, J. , Dewey, D. , Baker-Smemoe, W. , Ring, S. , Westover, A. , & Eggett, D.
    (2015) L2 development during study abroad in China. System, 55, 123–133. 10.1016/j.system.2015.10.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.10.005 [Google Scholar]
  24. Kinginger, C.
    (2011) Enhancing language learning in study abroad. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 58–73. 10.1017/S0267190511000031
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190511000031 [Google Scholar]
  25. Kormos, J.
    (2006) Speech production and second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. (2011) Speech production and the Cognition Hypothesis. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Second language task complexity: Researching the Cognition Hypothesis of language learning and performance (pp.39–60). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.2.06ch2
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.2.06ch2 [Google Scholar]
  27. Kormos, J. & Denés, M.
    (2004) Exploring measures and perceptions of fluency in the speech of second language learners. System, 32, 145–164. 10.1016/j.system.2004.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2004.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  28. Lennon, P.
    (1990) Investigating fluency in EFL: A quantitative approach. Language Learning, 40(3), 387–417. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1990.tb00669.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1990.tb00669.x [Google Scholar]
  29. Levelt, W.
    (1989) Speaking: From intention to articulation. The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Li, W. , & Yang, Y.
    (2009) Perception of prosodic hierarchical boundaries in Mandarin Chinese sentences. Neuroscience, 158(4), 1416–1425. 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.10.065
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.10.065 [Google Scholar]
  31. Liu, J.
    (2009) Assessing students’ language proficiency: A new model of study abroad program in China. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(5), 528–544.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lu, Y.
    (Ed.) (2017) Teaching and learning Chinese in higher education. Routledge. 10.4324/9781315520810
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315520810 [Google Scholar]
  33. MacWhinney, B.
    (2000) The CHILDES project: Tools for analyzing talk (3rd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Magne, V. , Suzuki, S. , Suzukida, Y. , Ilkan, M. , Tran, M. , & Saito, K.
    (2019) Exploring the dynamic nature of second language listeners’ perceived fluency: A mixed-methods approach. TESOL Quarterly. doi:  10.1002/tesq.528
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.528 [Google Scholar]
  35. Michel, M.
    (2011) Effects of task complexity and interaction on L2 performance. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Second language task complexity: Researching the Cognition Hypothesis of language learning and performance (pp.141–174). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.2.12ch6
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.2.12ch6 [Google Scholar]
  36. Mitchell, R. , Tracy-Ventura, T. , & McManus, K.
    (2017) Anglophone students abroad: Identity, social relationships, and language learning. Routledge. 10.4324/9781315194851
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315194851 [Google Scholar]
  37. Mora, J. C. , & Valls-Ferrer, M.
    (2012) Oral fluency, accuracy and complexity in formal instruction and study abroad learning contexts. TESOL Quarterly, 46(4), 610–641.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Nation, I. S. P.
    (1989) Improving speaking fluency. System17(3), 377–384. 10.1016/0346‑251X(89)90010‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(89)90010-9 [Google Scholar]
  39. Ortega, L.
    (2005) What do learners plan? Learner-driven attention to form during pre-task planning. In R. Ellis (Ed.), Planning and task performance in a second language (pp.77–110). John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.11.07ort
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.11.07ort [Google Scholar]
  40. Pallotti, G.
    (2009) CAF: Defining, refining and differentiating constructs. Applied Linguistics, 30, 590–601. 10.1093/applin/amp045
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amp045 [Google Scholar]
  41. (2017) Assessing tasks: The case of interactional difficulty. Applied Linguistics, 40(1), 176–197. 10.1093/applin/amx020
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amx020 [Google Scholar]
  42. Peng, Y. , & Wright, C.
    (2020) Minding the expectation gap – student expectations pre-study abroad in China. In S. Salin , D. Hall , & C. Hampton (Eds.), Perspectives on the year abroad: A selection of papers from the 2018 Year Abroad Conference (pp.67–76). doi:  10.14705/rpnet.2020.39.9782490057573
    https://doi.org/10.14705/rpnet.2020.39.9782490057573 [Google Scholar]
  43. Préfontaine, Y. , & Kormos, J.
    (2016) A qualitative analysis of perceptions of fluency in second language French. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 54(2), 151–169. 10.1515/iral‑2016‑9995
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2016-9995 [Google Scholar]
  44. Révész, A. , Ekiert, M. , & Torgersen, E.
    (2016) The effects of complexity, accuracy, and fluency on communicative adequacy in oral task performance. Applied Linguistics, 37, 828–848.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Richards, B. , & Malvern, D.
    (2002) Investigating accommodation in language proficiency interviews using a new measure of lexical diversity. Language Testing, 19(1), 85–104. 10.1191/0265532202lt221oa
    https://doi.org/10.1191/0265532202lt221oa [Google Scholar]
  46. Robinson, P.
    (2003) The Cognition Hypothesis, task design, and adult task-based language learning. Second Language Studies, 21(2), 45–105.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. (Ed.) (2011) Second language task complexity: Researching the Cognition Hypothesis of language learning and performance. John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.2
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.2 [Google Scholar]
  48. Saito, K. , Trofimovich, P. , & Isaacs, T.
    (2017) Using listener judgements to investigate linguistic influences on L2 comprehensibility and accentedness: A validation and generalization study. Applied Linguistics, 38, 439–462.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Sanz, C.
    (2014) Contributions of Study Abroad research to our understanding of SLA processes and outcomes: The Sala project. In C. Perez Vidal (Ed.), Language acquisition in study abroad and formal instruction contexts (pp.1–13). John Benjamins. 10.1075/aals.13.01ch1
    https://doi.org/10.1075/aals.13.01ch1 [Google Scholar]
  50. Segalowitz, N.
    (2010) Cognitive bases of second language fluency. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203851357
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203851357 [Google Scholar]
  51. Segalowitz, N. , & Freed, B.
    (2004) Context, contact, and cognition in oral fluency acquisition: Learning Spanish in at home and study abroad contexts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 173–199. 10.1017/S0272263104262027
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104262027 [Google Scholar]
  52. Skehan, P.
    (2003) Task-based instruction. Language Teaching, 36, 1–14. 10.1017/S026144480200188X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144480200188X [Google Scholar]
  53. Skehan, P. , & Foster, P.
    (2001) Cognition and tasks. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp.183–205). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524780.009
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524780.009 [Google Scholar]
  54. Skehan, P. , Foster, P. , & Shum, S.
    (2016) Ladders and snakes in second language fluency. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching54(2), 79–96. 10.1515/iral‑2016‑9992
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2016-9992 [Google Scholar]
  55. Tao, H.
    (Ed.) (2016) Integrating Chinese linguistic research and language teaching and learning. John Benjamins. 10.1075/scld.7
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scld.7 [Google Scholar]
  56. Tavakoli, P.
    (2011) Pausing patterns: Differences between L2 learners and native speakers. ELT Journal, 65(1), 71–79. 10.1093/elt/ccq020
    https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccq020 [Google Scholar]
  57. (2016) Fluency in monologic and dialogic task performance: Challenges in defining and measuring L2 fluency. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 54(2), 115–150. 10.1515/iral‑2016‑9994
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2016-9994 [Google Scholar]
  58. Tavakoli, P. , & Hunter, A.-M.
    (2018) Is fluency being ‘neglected’ in the classroom? Teacher understanding of fluency and related classroom practices. Language Teaching Research, 22(3), 330–349. 10.1177/1362168817708462
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168817708462 [Google Scholar]
  59. Tavakoli, P. , Campbell, C. , & McCormack, J.
    (2016) Development of speech fluency over a short period of time: Effects of pedagogic intervention. TESOL Quarterly, 50(2), 447–471. 10.1002/tesq.244
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.244 [Google Scholar]
  60. Towell, R. , Hawkins, R. , & Bazergui, N.
    (1996) The development of fluency in advanced learners of French. Applied Linguistics, 17, 84–119. 10.1093/applin/17.1.84
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/17.1.84 [Google Scholar]
  61. Tullock, B. , & Ortega, L.
    (2017) Fluency and multilingualism in study abroad: Lessons from a scoping review. System, 71, 7–21. 10.1016/j.system.2017.09.019
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.09.019 [Google Scholar]
  62. Witton-Davies, G.
    (2014) The study of fluency and its development in monologue and dialogue (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Lancaster University.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Wood, D.
    (2010) Formulaic language and second language speech fluency: Background, evidence and classroom applications. Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Wray, A.
    (2002) Formulaic language and the lexicon. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511519772
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511519772 [Google Scholar]
  65. Wray, A. , & Perkins, M.
    (2000) The functions of formulaic language: An integrated model. Language and Communication, 20, 1–28. 10.1016/S0271‑5309(99)00015‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5309(99)00015-4 [Google Scholar]
  66. Wright, C.
    (2013) An investigation of working memory effects on oral grammatical accuracy and fluency in producing questions in English. TESOL Quarterly47(2), 352–374. 10.1002/tesq.68
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.68 [Google Scholar]
  67. (2018) Effects of time and task on L2 Mandarin Chinese language development during study abroad. In C. Sanz & A. Morales-Front (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of study abroad research and practice (pp.166–180). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315639970‑11
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315639970-11 [Google Scholar]
  68. (2019) Developing communicative competence in adult beginner learners of Chinese. In C. Shei , M. Zikpi , & D-L. Chao (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of Chinese language teaching (pp.134–148). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315104652‑9
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315104652-9 [Google Scholar]
  69. Wright, C. , & Tavakoli, P.
    (2016) New directions and developments in defining, analyzing and measuring L2 speech fluency. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 54(2), 73–77. 10.1515/iral‑2016‑9990
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2016-9990 [Google Scholar]
  70. Wright, C. , & Zhang, C.
    (2014) Examining the effects of study abroad on L2 Chinese development among UK university learners. Newcastle & Northumbria Working Papers in Linguistics, 20, 67–83.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Xing, J. X.
    (2006) Teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign Language: A pedagogic grammar. Hong Kong University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Yuan, F. , & Ellis, R.
    (2003) The effects of pre-task planning and on-line planning on fluency, complexity and accuracy in L2 monologic oral production. Applied Linguistics, 24(1), 1–27. 10.1093/applin/24.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/24.1.1 [Google Scholar]
  73. Zhao, Y.
    (2011) Review article: A tree in the wood: A review of research on L2 Chinese acquisition. Second Language Research, 27, 559–572. 10.1177/0267658311417836
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658311417836 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jsls.00010.wri
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jsls.00010.wri
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): L2 Mandarin fluency; prepared speech; spontaneous speech; study abroad; task effects
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error