Volume 4, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2542-3835
  • E-ISSN: 2542-3843
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This study compared the effect of the timing of form-focused instruction (FFI) on the acquisition of the past counterfactual conditional (PCC) and framing expressions (FEs) for English questions. Sixty-three EFL adult learners received a total of six hours of isolated or integrated FFI on the target features. Acquisition was measured by means of cloze tests and interviews. The results obtained from a mixed-design ANOVA indicated that the learners in the two experimental groups made significant gains on the two language measures. A dependent t-test revealed that the two target structures responded differentially to the timing of form-focused instruction. We discuss some of the theoretical and pedagogical implications of these findings.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Al Rdaat, S. , & Gardner, S.
    (2017) An analysis of use of conditional sentences by Arab students of English. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 8(2), 1–13. 10.7575/aiac.alls.v.8n.2p.1
    https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.8n.2p.1 [Google Scholar]
  2. Celce-Murcia, M. , & Larsen-Freeman, D.
    (1999) The grammar book: An ESL/EFL teacher’s course (2nd ed.). Boston: Heinle and Heinle.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Cotton, D. , Falvey, D. , Kent, S.
    (2008) Language leader intermediate. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cowan, R.
    (2008) The teacher’s grammar of English: A course book and reference guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Day, E. , & Shapson, S.
    (2001) Integrating formal and functional approaches to language teaching in French immersion: An experimental study. In R. Ellis (Ed.), Form-focused instruction and second language learning (pp.47–80). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. DeKeyser, R.
    (1998) Beyond focus on form: Cognitive perspectives on learning and practicing second language grammar. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.42–63). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Doughty, C.
    (1999) Cognitive underpinnings of focus on form. University of Hawai’i Working Papers in ESL, 18(1), 1–69.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Doughty, C. , & Williams, J.
    (l998a) Pedagogical choices in focus on form. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.197–262). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Doughty, C. , & Willians, J.
    (1998b) Issues and terminology. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.1–11). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Elgün-Gündüz, Z. , Akcan, S. , & Bayyurt, Y.
    (2012) Isolated form-focused instruction and integrated form-focused instruction in primary school English classrooms in Turkey, Language, Culture and Curriculum, 25(2), 157–171. 10.1080/07908318.2012.683008
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2012.683008 [Google Scholar]
  11. Ellis, R.
    (1984) Can syntax be taught? A study of the effects of formal instruction on the acquisition of WH questions by children. Applied Linguistics, 5(2), 138–155. 10.1093/applin/5.2.138
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/5.2.138 [Google Scholar]
  12. (2001) Form-focused instruction and second language learning. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. (2015) Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fareh, S.
    (2007) The acquisition of conditional sentences by Arab learners of English. International Journal of Arabic-English Studies, 9, 69–90.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. File, K. A. , & Adams, R.
    (2010) Should vocabulary instruction be isolated or integrated?TESOL Quarterly, 44(2), 222–249. 10.5054/tq.2010.219943
    https://doi.org/10.5054/tq.2010.219943 [Google Scholar]
  16. Gas, S. , & Torres, M.
    (2005) Attention when? An investigation of the ordering effect input and interaction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(1), 1–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hondo, J.
    (2009) Constructing knowledge in SLA: The impact of timing in form- focused intervention (Order No. 3361431). Available from ProQuest Central; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (305062523). Accessed18 May 2016search.proquest.com/docview/305062523?accountid=165950
  18. Hulstijn, J. H.
    (1995) Not all grammar rules are equal: Giving grammar instruction its proper place in foreign language teaching. In R. Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning (pp.359–386). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i at Manoa.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kim, J.
    (2014) Timing of form-focused instruction and development of implicit vs. explicit knowledge. English Teaching, 69(2), 12–3147.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lee, W. H.
    (2003) A study of the effects of form-focused instruction on the development of English wh-questions used by Korean EFL learners. Indiana University of Pennsylvania. A PhD dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lightbown, P. M.
    (1998) The importance of timing in focus on form. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.177–196). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lightbown, P. M. , & Spada, N.
    (2006) How languages are learned (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Loewen, S.
    (2015) Introduction to instructed second language acquisition. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Long, M.
    (1991) Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology. In K. de Bot , R. Ginsberg , & C. Kramsch (Eds.), Foreign language research in cross-cultural perspective (pp.39–52). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.2.07lon
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.2.07lon [Google Scholar]
  25. Long, M. , & Robinson, P.
    (1998) Focus on form: Theory, research and practice. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.15–41). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lyster, R. , & Ranta, L.
    (1997) Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(1),37–66. 10.1017/S0272263197001034
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263197001034 [Google Scholar]
  27. Norris, R. W.
    (2003) How do we overcome the difficulties of teaching conditionals?Bulletin of Fukuoka International University, 9, 39–50.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Norris, J. , & Ortega, L.
    (2000) Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning, 50(3), 417–528. 10.1111/0023‑8333.00136
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00136 [Google Scholar]
  29. Révész, A. , Rogers, J. , & Rebuschat, P.
    (2015) Implicit and explicit knowledge of inflectional morphology. Applied Psychololinguistics 1982, 1–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Saeed, A.
    (2004) Some pragmatic consideration in the positioning of if-clause in conditional sentences. Studia Anglica Posnaniesnia, 40, 245–256.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Samuda, V.
    (2001) Guiding relationships between form and meaning during task performance: The role of the teacher. In M. Bygate , P. Skehan , & M. Swain (Eds.), Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching, and testing (pp.119–140). Harlow, UK: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sheen, Y.
    (2011) Corrective feedback, individual differences and second language learning. New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑94‑007‑0548‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0548-7 [Google Scholar]
  33. Shintani, N.
    (2016) The effects of the timing of isolated FFI on the explicit knowledge and written accuracy of learners with different prior knowledge of the linguistic target. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39(1),1–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Spada, N.
    (1997) Form-focused instruction and second language acquisition: A review of classroom and laboratory research. Language Teaching, 30(2), 73–87. 10.1017/S0261444800012799
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444800012799 [Google Scholar]
  35. Spada, N. , & Lightbown, P. M.
    (1993) Instruction and the development of questions in L2 classrooms. Studies in Second Langauge Acquisition, 15(2), 205–224. 10.1017/S0272263100011967
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100011967 [Google Scholar]
  36. (1999) Instruction, first language influence, and developmental readiness in second language acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 83(1), 1–22. 10.1111/0026‑7902.00002
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0026-7902.00002 [Google Scholar]
  37. (2008) Form-focused instruction: Isolated or integrated?TESOL Quarterly, 42(2), 181–207. 10.1002/j.1545‑7249.2008.tb00115.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2008.tb00115.x [Google Scholar]
  38. Spada, N. , Jessop, L. , Tomita, Y. , Suzuki, W. , & Valeo, A.
    (2014) Isolated and integrated form-focused instruction: Effects on different types of L2 knowledge. Language Teaching Research, 18(4), 453–473. 10.1177/1362168813519883
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168813519883 [Google Scholar]
  39. Stromswold, K.
    (1995) The acquisition of subject and object wh-questions. Language Acquisition, 4(1–2), 5–48. 10.1080/10489223.1995.9671658
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10489223.1995.9671658 [Google Scholar]
  40. Tarone, E. , & Liu, G.
    (1995) Situational context, variation, and second language acquisition theory. In G. Cook & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in honour of H. G. Widdowson (pp.107–124). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Valeo, A. , & Spada, N.
    (2016) Is there a better time to focus on form? Teacher and learner views. TESOL Quarterly, 50(2), 314–339. 10.1002/tesq.222
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.222 [Google Scholar]
  42. VanPatten, B.
    (1990) Attending to form and content in the input: An experiment in consciousness. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12(3), 287–301. 10.1017/S0272263100009177
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100009177 [Google Scholar]
  43. (1994) Evaluating the role of consciousness in second language acquisition: Terms, linguistic features and research methodology. In J. Hulstijn & R. VanPatten , B. , & Oikkenon, S. (1996) Explanation versus structured input in processing instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18(4), 495–510. 10.1017/S0272263100015394
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100015394 [Google Scholar]
  44. Williams, J. , & Evans, J.
    (1998) What kind of focus and on which forms?In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.139–155). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): form-focused instruction; timing
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error