Volume 3, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2542-3835
  • E-ISSN: 2542-3843
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“*I am not with you” is an incorrect use of frequently seen in the writing of Taiwanese learners. Yet, not many studies have discussed the use of and in the literature. Many studies are concerned more about the politeness of (dis)agreement, especially in detailing the relationship between speaker and hearer. We took a lexical semantic approach to compare the use of and in essays written by native English speakers and Taiwanese learners in the ICNALE (). The essays were based on two topics concerning societal issues collected in the corpus – (a) whether smoking should be completely banned in restaurants and (b) whether college students should take a part-time job or not – the writers were asked to respond to each issue by agreeing or disagreeing. Our results showed that when given clear instructions to agree or disagree, both native and learners tended to state (dis)agreement in the very first sentence in their essays, but Taiwanese learners relied more on the uses of and more often than the native speakers did. The errors committed by learners on the use of (not for ) were between 25–35% in our data. The results will bring significant comparisons of the lexical semantics of related verbs (verbs of social interaction) in future studies.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): agree; corpus; disagree; discourse; learner; native
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