Volume 1, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2542-3835
  • E-ISSN: 2542-3843
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A growing body of second language (L2) research has identified the congruency effect in the processing of L2 collocations (L2 collocations that have word-for-word translation equivalents in learners’ first language [L1] are processed more quickly and accurately than those that have no such forms in L1). However, the locus of this effect has yet to be fully understood. This study explored the possibility of semantic involvement in this phenomenon by categorizing congruent and incongruent items used in the past studies according to the semantic transparency of collocations. Results showed a clear dominance of transparent items in the congruent category and that of opaque items in the incongruent category, suggesting the possibility of semantic involvement in the congruency effect. However, considerations of other factors observed in the pertinent studies led to the conclusion that there is something more in the congruency effect beyond semantic transparency.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): collocation; congruent; incongruent; item analysis; L1 influence; semantic transparency
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